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    Wikipedia

    Multilingual free online encyclopedia

    This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list Sony vegas keygen,serial,crack,generator,unlock,key Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

    Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen mainly through small donations.[6]

    Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

    Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has VMware Workstation Pro Crack 16.1.2 Build 17966106 Latest Version 2021 substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

    History

    Main article: History of Wikipedia

    Nupedia

    Main article: Nupedia

    Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
    Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

    Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia Microsoft Office 2016 Crack Archives - Windows Activator as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

    Launch and early growth

    The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

    The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

    English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

    Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

    Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

    Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

    In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

    Milestones

    Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

    In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

    On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

    On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

    In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

    Current state

    On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

    By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

    Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

    Openness

    Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

    Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen its content.[70]

    Restrictions

    Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Wondershare DVD to RM Converte 3.2.49 crack serial keygen Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

    In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

    Wikipedia's editing interface

    Review of changes

    Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

    In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

    Vandalism

    Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

    Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

    Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

    In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator COREL DRAW X4 KEY GEN crack serial keygen eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

    In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

    Edit warring

    Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

    Policies and laws

    Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

    Content policies and guidelines

    According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. Among Wikipedia editors, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

    Governance

    Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

    Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

    Administrators

    Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

    By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

    Dispute resolution

    Over time, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

    Arbitration Committee

    Main article: Arbitration Committee

    The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

    Main article: Wikipedia community

    Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

    Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

    Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

    Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

    The English Wikipedia has 6,411,559 articles, 42,586,056 registered editors, and 125,590 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen days.

    Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

    Studies

    A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

    A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

    Diversity

    Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

    Language editions

    Main article: List of Wikipedias

    Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
    Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
    Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

    There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

    In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total Kaspersky internet security 2020 keygen Archives colspan="2">0.1 0.3 1 3

    English 6,411,559

    Cebuano 6,062,854

    Swedish 2,869,822

    German 2,634,146

    French 2,375,513

    Dutch 2,071,898

    Russian 1,772,218

    Spanish 1,732,471

    Italian 1,726,933

    Polish 1,497,193

    Egyptian Arabic 1,386,781

    Japanese 1,301,373

    Vietnamese 1,270,160

    Waray 1,265,577

    Chinese 1,242,054

    Arabic 1,143,880

    Ukrainian 1,123,766

    Portuguese 1,077,556

    Persian 846,910

    Catalan 690,033

    The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

    Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

    Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

    Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

    Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

    Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

    A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported Solid Explorer File Manager 2.8.15 for Android - Download the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

    English Wikipedia editor numbers

    007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

    On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia RollBack Rx Pro 11.3 With Crack Free Download [ Latest 2021] other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

    In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

    Reception

    See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

    Ambox current red.svg

    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2018)

    Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

    Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

    Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

    In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

    In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

    Accuracy of content

    Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

    Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

    As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

    Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

    Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

    Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit GOLD IS MINE Free Download to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're Remo Recover 5 serial key Archives encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

    A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

    Discouragement in education

    Ambox current red.svg

    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(December 2020)

    Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

    In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

    In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

    Medical information

    See also: Health information on Wikipedia

    On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

    Quality of writing

    Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

    In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

    In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

    Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted 2nd Speech Center 1.50.040216 crack serial keygen 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

    Coverage of topics and systemic bias

    See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

    Ambox current red.svg

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    Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

    A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

    • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
    • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
    • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
    • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
    • History and events: 11% (143%)
    • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
    • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
    • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
    • Health: 2% (42%)
    • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
    • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

    These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

    A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

    Coverage of topics and 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen bias

    Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

    An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

    Systemic biases

    When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies Pixologic ZBrush 2020 Crack Archives famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

    Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

    Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

    Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

    Explicit content

    See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

    "Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

    Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen.

    The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

    The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features Microsoft Visio Free Professional 2021 Crack With Product Key Latest Full picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

    In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

    Privacy

    One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

    In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

    Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

    Sexism

    Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

    Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

    The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

    Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

    A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

    Operation

    Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

    Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

    Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

    In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

    Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

    Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

    Software operations and support

    See also: MediaWiki

    The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

    Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

    In April 2005, a VCE Exam Simulator Pro Crack 2021 Free extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

    In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

    Automated editing

    Main article: Wikipedia bots

    Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, creating articles with his bot 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

    According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

    Hardware operations and support

    See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

    Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen Varnish caching servers and back-end layer caching is done by Apache Traffic Server.[265]

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    SIM card

    Integrated circuit card for a mobile device

    "Micro-SIM" redirects here. For the company, see MicroSim Corporation.

    A typical SIM card (mini-SIM with micro-SIM cutout)
    A TracFone WirelessSIM card has no distinctive carrier markings and is only marked as a "SIM card"

    A SIM card, also known as subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), is an integrated circuit running a card operating system (COS) that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers). It is also possible to store contact information on many SIM cards. SIM cards are always used on GSM phones; for CDMA phones, they are needed only for LTE-capable handsets. SIM cards can also be used in satellite phones, smart watches, computers, or cameras.[1]

    The SIM circuit is part of the function of a universal integrated circuit card (UICC) physical smart card, which is usually made of PVC with embedded contacts and semiconductors. SIM cards are transferable between different mobile devices. The first UICC smart cards were the size of credit and bank cards; sizes were reduced several times over the years, usually keeping electrical contacts the same, so that a larger card could be cut down to a smaller size.

    A SIM card contains a unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number, security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to, and two passwords: a personal identification number (PIN) for ordinary use, and a personal unblocking key (PUK) for PIN unlocking. In Europe, the serial SIM number (SSN) is also sometimes accompanied by an international article number (IAN) or a European article number (EAN) required when registering online for the subscription of a prepaid card.

    History and procurement[edit]

    The SIM card is a type of smart card,[1] the basis for which is the siliconintegrated circuit (IC) chip.[2] The idea of incorporating a silicon IC chip onto a plastic card originates from the late 1960s.[2] Smart cards have since used MOS integrated circuit chips, along with MOS memory technologies such as flash memory and EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory).[3]

    The SIM was initially specified by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in the specification with the number TS 11.11. This specification describes the physical and logical behaviour of the SIM. With the development of UMTS, the specification work was partially transferred to 3GPP. 3GPP is now responsible for the further development of applications like SIM (TS 51.011[4]) and USIM (TS 31.102[5]) and ETSI for the further development of the physical card UICC.

    The first SIM card was developed in 1991 by Munich smart-card maker Giesecke & Devrient, who sold the first 300 SIM cards to the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja.[6][7]

    Today, SIM cards are ubiquitous, allowing over 7 billion devices to connect to cellular networks around the world. According to the International Card Manufacturers Association (ICMA), there were 5.4 billion SIM cards manufactured globally in 2016 creating over $6.5 billion in revenue for traditional SIM card vendors.[8] The rise of cellular IoT and 5G networks is predicted to drive the growth of the addressable market for SIM card manufacturers to over 20 billion cellular devices by 2020.[9] The introduction of embedded-SIM (eSIM) and remote SIM provisioning (RSP) from the GSMA[10] may disrupt the traditional SIM card ecosystem with the entrance of new players specializing in "digital" SIM card provisioning and other value-added services for mobile network operators.[3]

    Design[edit]

    SIM chip structure and packaging

    There are three operating voltages for SIM cards: 5 V, 3 V and 1.8 V (ISO/IEC 7816-3 classes A, B and C, respectively). The operating voltage of the majority of SIM cards launched before 1998 was 5 V. SIM cards produced subsequently are compatible with 3 V and 5 V. Modern cards support 5 V, 3 V and 1.8 V.[3]

    4 by 4 millimetres (0.16 in × 0.16 in) silicon chip in a SIM card which has been peeled open. Note the thin gold bonding wires, and the regular, rectangular digital memory areas.

    Modern SIM cards allow applications to load when the SIM is in use 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen the subscriber. These applications communicate with the handset or a server using SIM Application Toolkit, which was initially specified by 3GPP in TS 11.14. (There is an identical ETSI specification with different numbering.) ETSI and 3GPP maintain the SIM specifications. The main specifications are: ETSI TS 102 223 (the toolkit for smartcards), ETSI TS 102 241 (API), ETSI TS 102 588 (application invocation), and ETSI TS 131 111 (toolkit for more SIM-likes). SIM toolkit applications were initially written in native code using proprietary APIs. To provide interoperability of the applications, ETSI chose Java Card.[11] A multi-company collaboration called GlobalPlatform defines some extensions on the cards, with additional APIs and features like more cryptographic security and RFID contactless use added.[12]

    Data[edit]

    SIM cards store network-specific information used to authenticate and identify subscribers on the network. The most important of these are the ICCID, IMSI, authentication key (Ki), local area identity (LAI) and operator-specific emergency number. The SIM also stores other carrier-specific data such as the SMSC (Short Message service center) number, service provider name (SPN), service dialling numbers (SDN), advice-of-charge parameters and value-added service (VAS) applications. (Refer to GSM 11.11.[13])

    SIM cards can come in various data capacities, from 8 KB to at least 256 KB.[7] All can store a maximum of 250 contacts on the SIM, but while the 32 KB has room for 33 mobile network codes (MNCs) or network identifiers, the 64 KB version has room for 80 MNCs.[14] This is used by network operators to store data on preferred networks, mostly used when the SIM is not in its home network but is roaming. The network operator that issued the SIM card can use this to have a phone connect to a preferred network that is more economic for the provider instead of having to pay the network operator that the phone discovered first. This does not mean that a phone containing this SIM 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen can connect to a maximum of only 33 or 80 networks, but it means that the SIM card issuer can specify only up to that number of preferred networks. If a SIM is outside these preferred networks it uses the first or best available network.[9]

    ICCID[edit]

    Each SIM is internationally identified by its integrated circuit card identifier (ICCID). ICCID is the identifier of the actual SIM card itself – i.e. an identifier for the SIM chip. Nowadays ICCID numbers are also used to identify eSIM profiles, and not only physical SIM cards. ICCIDs are stored in the SIM cards and are also engraved or printed on the SIM card body during a process called personalisation. The ICCID is defined by the ITU-T recommendation E.118 as the primary account number.[15] Its layout is based on ISO/IEC 7812. According to E.118, the number can be up to 19 digits long, including a single check digit calculated using the Luhn algorithm. However, the GSM 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen 1[16] defined the ICCID length as an opaque data field, 10 octets (20 digits) in length, whose structure is specific to a mobile network operator.

    The number is composed of the following subparts:

    Issuer identification number (IIN)

    Maximum of seven digits:

    • Major industry identifier (MII), 2 fixed digits, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, 89 for telecommunication purposes.
    • Country code, 2 or 3 digits, as defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164.
      • NANP countries, apart from Canada, use 01, i.e. prepending a zero to their common calling code +1
      • Canada uses 302
      • Russia uses 701, i.e. appending 01 to its calling code +7
      • Kazakhstan uses 997, even though it shares the calling code +7 with Russia
    • Issuer identifier, 1–4 digits.

    Individual account identification

    Check digit

    • Single digit calculated from the other digits using the Luhn algorithm.

    With the GSM Phase 1 specification using 10 octets into which ICCID is stored as packed BCD, the data field has room for 20 digits with hexadecimal digit "F" being used as filler when necessary.

    In practice, this means that on GSM SIM cards there are 20-digit (19+1) and 19-digit (18+1) ICCIDs in use, depending upon the issuer. However, a single issuer always uses the same size for its ICCIDs.

    To confuse matters more, SIM factories seem to have varying ways of delivering electronic copies of SIM personalization datasets. Some datasets are without the ICCID checksum digit, others are with the digit.

    As required by E.118, the ITU-T updates a list of all current internationally assigned IIN codes in its Operational Bulletins which are published twice a month (the last as of January 2019 was No. 1163 from 1 January 2019).[18] ITU-T also publishes complete lists: as of January 2019, the list issued on 1 December 2018 was current, having all issuer identifier numbers before 1 December 2018.[19]

    International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)[edit]

    SIM cards are identified on their individual operator networks by a unique international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI). Mobile network operators connect mobile phone calls and communicate with their market SIM cards using their IMSIs. The format is:

    • The first three digits represent the mobile country code (MCC).
    • The next two or three digits represent the mobile network code (MNC). Three-digit MNC Windows KMS Activator Ultimate 2021 v5.5 For Windows & Office Download are allowed by E.212 but are mainly used in the United States and Canada. One MCC can have both 2 digit and 3 digit MNCs, an example is 350 007.
    • The next digits represent the mobile subscriber identification number (MSIN). Normally there are 10 digits, but can be fewer in the case of a 3-digit MNC or if national regulations indicate that the total length of the IMSI should be less than 15 digits.
    • Digits are different from country to country.

    Authentication key (Ki)[edit]

    The Ki is a 128-bit value used in authenticating the SIMs on a GSM mobile network (for USIM network, you still need Ki but other parameters are also needed). Each SIM holds a unique Ki assigned to it by the operator during the personalization process. The Ki is also stored in a database (termed authentication center or AuC) on the carrier's network.

    The SIM card is designed to prevent someone from getting the Ki by using the smart-card interface. Instead, the SIM card provides a function, Run GSM Algorithm, that the phone uses to pass data to the SIM card to be signed with the Ki. This, by design, makes using the SIM card mandatory unless the Ki can be extracted from the SIM card, or the carrier is willing to reveal the Ki. In practice, the GSM cryptographic algorithm for computing a signed response (SRES_1/SRES_2: see steps 3 and 4, below) from the Ki has certain vulnerabilities[14] that can allow the extraction of the Ki from a SIM card and the 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen of a duplicate SIM card.

    Authentication process:

    1. When the mobile equipment starts up, it obtains the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) from the SIM card, and passes this to the mobile operator, requesting access and authentication, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. The mobile equipment may have to pass a PIN to the SIM card before the SIM card reveals this information.
    2. The operator network searches its database for the incoming IMSI and its associated Ki.
    3. The operator network then generates a random number (RAND, which is a nonce) and signs it with the Ki associated with the IMSI (and stored on the SIM card), computing another number, that is split into the Signed Response 1 (SRES_1, 32 bits) and the encryption key Kc (64 bits).
    4. The operator network then sends the RAND to the mobile equipment, which passes it to the SIM card. The SIM card signs it with its Ki, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, producing Signed Response 2 (SRES_2) and Kc, which it gives to the mobile equipment. The mobile equipment passes SRES_2 on to the operator network.
    5. The operator network then compares its computed SRES_1 with the computed SRES_2 that the mobile equipment returned. If the two numbers match, the SIM is authenticated and the mobile equipment is granted access to 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen operator's network. Kc is used to encrypt all Jogos de Simulador de Epidemias de Graça para Baixar communications between the mobile equipment and the operator.

    Location area identity[edit]

    The SIM stores network state information, which is received from the location area identity (LAI). Operator networks are divided into location areas, each having a unique LAI number. When the device changes locations, it stores the new LAI to the SIM and sends it back to the operator network with its new location. If the device is power cycled, it takes data off the SIM, and searches for the prior LAI.

    SMS messages and contacts[edit]

    Most SIM cards store a number of SMS messages and phone book contacts. It stores the contacts in simple "name and number" pairs. Entries that contain multiple phone numbers and additional phone numbers are usually not stored on the SIM card. When a user tries to copy such entries to a SIM, the handset's crack octane render c4d Archives breaks them into multiple entries, discarding information that is not a phone number. The number of contacts and messages stored depends on the SIM; early models stored as few as five messages and 20 contacts, while modern SIM cards can usually store over 250 contacts.[20]

    Formats[edit]

    SIM cards have been made smaller over the years; functionality is independent of format. Full-size SIM was followed by mini-SIM, micro-SIM, and nano-SIM. SIM cards are also made to embed in devices.

    From left, full-size SIM (1FF), mini-SIM (2FF), micro-SIM (3FF), and nano-SIM (4FF)

    All versions of the non-embedded SIM cards share the same ISO/IEC 7816 pin arrangement.

    Full-size SIM[edit]

    The full-size SIM (or 1FF, 1st form factor) was the first form factor to appear. It was the size of a credit card (85.60 mm × 53.98 mm × 0.76 mm). Later smaller SIMs are often supplied embedded in a full-size card from which they can be removed.

    Mini-SIM[edit]

    The memory chip from a micro-SIM card without the plastic backing plate, next to a US dime, which is approx. 18 mm in diameter
    X-ray image of a mini-SIM, showing the chip and connections

    The mini-SIM (or 2FF) card has the same contact arrangement as the full-size SIM card and is normally supplied within a full-size card carrier, attached by a number of linking pieces. This arrangement (defined in ISO/IEC 7810 as ID-1/000) lets such a card be used in a device that requires a full-size card – or in a device that requires a mini-SIM card, after breaking the linking pieces. As the full-size SIM is no longer used, some suppliers refer to the mini-SIM as a "standard SIM" or "regular SIM".

    Micro-SIM[edit]

    The micro-SIM (or 3FF) card has the same thickness and contact arrangements, but reduced length and width as shown in the table above.[21]

    The micro-SIM was introduced by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) along with SCP, 3GPP (UTRAN/GERAN), 3GPP2 (CDMA2000), ARIB, GSM Association (GSMA SCaG and GSMNA), GlobalPlatform, Liberty Alliance, and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for the purpose of fitting into devices too small for a mini-SIM card.[17][22]

    The form factor was mentioned in the December 1998 3GPP SMG9 UMTS Working Party, which is the standards-setting body for GSM SIM cards,[20] and the form factor was agreed upon in late 2003.[23]

    The micro-SIM was designed for backward compatibility. The major issue for backward compatibility was the contact area of the chip. Retaining the same contact area makes the micro-SIM compatible with the prior, larger SIM readers through 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen use of plastic cutout surrounds. The SIM was also 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen to run at the same speed (5 MHz) as the prior version. The same size and positions of pins resulted in numerous "How-to" tutorials and YouTube videos with detailed instructions how to cut a mini-SIM card to micro-SIM size.[24]

    The chairman of EP SCP, Dr Klaus Vedder, said[23]

    ETSI has responded to a market need from ETSI customers, but additionally there is a strong desire not to invalidate, overnight, the existing interface, nor reduce the performance of the cards.

    Micro-SIM cards were introduced by various mobile service providers for the launch of the original iPad, and later for smartphones, from April 2010. The iPhone 4 was the first smartphone to use a micro-SIM card in June 2010, followed by many others.

    Nano-SIM[edit]

    The nano-SIM (or 4FF) card was introduced on 11 October 2012, when mobile service providers in various countries started to supply it for phones that supported the format. The nano-SIM measures 12.3 mm × 8.8 mm × 0.67 mm (0.484 in × 0.346 in × 0.026 in) and reduces the previous format to the contact Solid Explorer File Manager 2.8.15 for Android - Download while maintaining the existing contact arrangements. A small rim of isolating material is left around the contact area to avoid short circuits with the socket. The nano-SIM is 0.67 mm (0.026 in) thick, compared to the 0.76 mm (0.030 in) of its predecessors. 4FF can be put into adapters for use with devices designed for 2FF or 3FF SIMs, and is made thinner for that purpose,[25] and telephone companies give due warning about this.[26]

    The iPhone 5, released in September 2012, was the first device to use a nano-SIM card, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, followed by other handsets.

    Security[edit]

    In July 2013, Fraps 3.5.99 Keygen Archives Nohl, a security researcher from SRLabs, described[27][28] vulnerabilities in some SIM cards that supported DES, which, despite its age, is still used by some operators.[28] The attack could lead to the phone being remotely cloned or let someone steal payment credentials from the SIM.[28] Further details of the research were provided at BlackHat on 31 July 2013.[28][29]

    In response, the International Telecommunication Union said that the development was "hugely significant" and that it would be contacting its members.[30]

    In February 2015, it was reported by The Intercept that the NSA and GCHQ 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen stolen the encryption keys (Ki's) used by Gemalto (the manufacturer of 2 billion SIM cards annually), enabling these intelligence agencies to monitor voice and data communications without the knowledge or approval of cellular network providers or judicial oversight.[31] Having finished its investigation, Gemalto claimed that it has “reasonable grounds” to believe that the NSA and GCHQ carried out an operation to hack its network in 2010 and 2011, but says the number of possibly stolen keys would not have been massive.[32]

    In September 2019, Cathal Mc Daid, a security researcher from AdaptiveMobile Security, described[33][34] how vulnerabilities in some SIM cards that contained the S@T Browser library were being actively exploited. This vulnerability was named Simjacker. Attackers were using the vulnerability to track the location of thousands of mobile phone users in several countries.[35] Further details of the research were provided at VirusBulletin on 3 October 2019.[36][37]

    Developments[edit]

    When GSM was already in use, the specifications were further developed and enhanced with functionality such as SMS and GPRS. These development steps are referred as releases by ETSI. Within these development cycles, the SIM specification was enhanced as well: new voltage classes, formats and files were introduced.

    USIM[edit]

    In GSM-only times, the SIM consisted of the hardware and the software. With the advent of UMTS, this naming was split: the SIM was now an application and hence only software. The hardware part was called UICC. This split was necessary because UMTS introduced a new application, the universal subscriber identity module (USIM). The USIM brought, among other things, security improvements like mutual authentication and longer encryption keys and an improved address book.

    UICC[edit]

    Main article: Universal integrated circuit card

    "SIM cards" in developed countries today are usually UICCs containing at least a SIM application and a USIM application. This configuration is necessary because older GSM only handsets are solely compatible with the SIM application and some UMTS security enhancements rely on the USIM application.

    Other variants[edit]

    On cdmaOne networks, the equivalent of the SIM card is the R-UIM and the equivalent of the SIM application is the CSIM.

    A virtual SIM is a mobile phone number provided by a mobile network operator that does not require a SIM card to connect phone calls to a user's mobile phone.

    Embedded-SIM (eSIM)[edit]

    Main article: eSIM

    Embedded SIM from M2M supplier Eseye with an adapter board for evaluation in a mini-SIM socket

    An embedded SIM (eSIM) is a form of programmable SIM that is embedded directly into a device. The surface mount format provides the same electrical interface as the full size, 2FF and 3FF SIM cards, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, but is soldered to a circuit board as part of the manufacturing process. In M2M applications where there is no requirement[10] to change the SIM card, this avoids the requirement for a connector, improving reliability and security. An eSIM can be provisioned remotely; end-users can add or remove operators without the need to physically swap a SIM from the device.[38]

    Usage in mobile phone standards[edit]

    SIM cards of various German mobile operators

    The use of SIM cards is mandatory in GSM devices.

    The satellite phone networks Iridium, Thuraya and Inmarsat's BGAN also use SIM cards. Sometimes, these SIM cards work in regular GSM phones and also allow GSM customers to roam in satellite networks by using their own SIM cards in a satellite phone.

    Japan's 2G PDC system (which was shut down in 2012; SoftBank Mobile has already shut down PDC from 31 March 2010) also specifies a SIM, but this has never been implemented commercially. The specification of the interface between the Mobile Equipment and the SIM is given in the RCR 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen annexe 4. The Subscriber Identity Module Expert Group was a committee of specialists assembled by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to draw up the specifications (GSM 11.11) for interfacing between smart cards and mobile telephones. In 1994, the name SIMEG was changed to SMG9.

    Japan's current and next-generation cellular systems are based on W-CDMA (UMTS) and CDMA2000 and all use SIM cards. However, Japanese CDMA2000-based phones are locked to the R-UIM they are associated with and thus, the cards are not interchangeable with other Japanese CDMA2000 handsets (though they may be inserted into GSM/WCDMA handsets for roaming purposes outside Japan).

    CDMA-based devices originally did not use a removable card, and the service for these phones is bound to a unique identifier contained in the handset itself. This is most prevalent in operators in the Americas. The first publication of the TIA-820 standard (also known as 3GPP2 C.S0023) in 2000 defined the Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM). Card-based CDMA devices are most prevalent in Asia.

    The equivalent of a SIM in UMTS is called the universal integrated circuit card (UICC), which runs a USIM application. The UICC is still colloquially called a SIM card.[39]

    SIM and carriers[edit]

    The SIM card introduced a new and significant business opportunity for MVNOs – mobile virtual network operators – who lease capacity from one of the network operators rather than owning or operating a cellular telecoms network and only provide a SIM card to their customers. MVNOs first appeared in Denmark, Hong Kong, Finland and the UK. Today they exist in over 50 countries, including most of Europe, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and parts of Asia, and account for approximately 10% of all mobile phone subscribers around the world.[citation needed]

    On some networks, the mobile phone is locked to its carrier SIM card, meaning that the phone only works with SIM cards from the specific carrier. This is more 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen in markets where mobile phones are heavily subsidised by the carriers, and the business model depends on the customer staying with the service provider for a minimum term (typically 12, 18 or 24 months). SIM cards that are issued by providers with an associated contract are called SIM-only deals. Common examples are the GSM networks in the United States, Canada, Australia, the UK and Poland. Many businesses offer the ability to remove the SIM lock from a phone, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, effectively making it possible to then use the phone on any network by inserting a different SIM card. Mostly, GSM and 3G mobile handsets can easily be unlocked and used on any suitable network with any SIM card.

    In countries where the phones are not subsidised, e.g., India, Israel and Belgium, all phones are unlocked. Where the phone is not locked to its SIM card, the users can easily switch networks by simply replacing the SIM card of one network with that of another while using only one phone. This is typical, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, for example, among users who may want to optimise their carrier's traffic by different tariffs to different friends on different networks, or when travelling internationally.

    In 2016, carriers started using the concept of automatic SIM reactivation[40] whereby they let users reuse expired SIM cards instead of purchasing new ones when they wish to re-subscribe to that operator. This is particularly useful in countries where prepaid calls dominate and where competition drives high churn rates, as users had to return to a carrier shop to purchase a new SIM each time they wanted to churn back to an operator.

    SIM-only[edit]

    Commonly sold as a product by mobile telecommunications companies, "SIM-only" refers to a type of legally binding contract between a mobile network provider and a customer. The contract itself takes the form of a credit agreement and is subject to a credit check.

    Within a SIM-only contract, the mobile network provider supplies their customer with just one piece of hardware, a SIM card, which includes an agreed amount of network usage in exchange for a monthly payment. Network usage within a SIM-only contract can be measured in minutes, text, data or any combination of these. The duration of a SIM-only contract varies depending on the deal selected by the customer, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, but in the UK they are available over 1, 3, 6, and 12-month periods.

    SIM-only contracts differ from mobile phone contracts in that they do not include any hardware other than a SIM card. In terms of network usage, SIM-only is typically more cost-effective than other contracts because the provider does not charge more to offset the cost of a mobile device over the contract period. The short contract length is one of the key features of SIM-only – made possible by the absence of a mobile device.

    SIM-only is increasing in popularity very quickly.[41] In 2010 pay monthly based mobile phone subscriptions grew from 41 per cent to 49 per cent of all UK mobile phone subscriptions.[42] According to German research company GfK, 250,000 SIM-only mobile contracts were taken up in the UK during July 2012 alone, the highest figure since GfK began keeping records.

    Increasing smartphone penetration combined with financial concerns is leading customers to save money by moving onto a SIM-only when 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen initial contract term is over.

    Multiple-SIM devices[edit]

    Main article: Dual SIM

    Dual SIM slots as shown on a Chinese phone

    Dual SIM devices have two SIM card 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen for the use of two SIM cards, from one or multiple carriers, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. Multiple SIM devices are commonplace in developing markets such as in Africa, East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia, where variable billing rates, network coverage and speed make it desirable for consumers to use multiple SIMs from competing networks. Dual-SIM phones are also useful to separate one's personal phone number from a business phone number, without having to carry multiple devices. Some popular devices, such as the BlackBerry KeyOne have dual SIM variants, however, dual SIM devices were not common in the US or Europe due to lack of demand. This has changed with mainline products from Apple and Google featuring either two SIM slots or a combination of a physical SIM slot and an eSIM.

    Thin SIM[edit]

    A thin SIM (or overlay SIM or SIM overlay) is a very thin device shaped like a SIM card, approximately 120 microns thick. It has contacts on its front and back. It is used by sticking it on top of Vysor Pro 3.1.62 Crack + License Key Full Version 2021 regular SIM card. It provides its own functionality while passing through the functionality of the SIM card underneath. It can be used to bypass the mobile operating network and run custom applications, particularly on non-programmable cell phones.[43]

    Its top surface is a connector that connects to the phone in place of the normal SIM. Its bottom surface is a connector that connects to the SIM in place of the phone. With electronics, it can modify signals in either direction, thus presenting a modified SIM to the phone, and/or presenting a modified phone to the SIM. It is a similar concept to the Game Genie, which connects between a game console and a game cartridge, creating a modified game.

    In 2014, Equitel, an MVNO operated by Kenya's Equity Bank, announced its intention to begin issuing thin SIMs to customers, raising security concerns by competition, particularly concerning the safety of mobile money accounts. However, after months of security testing and legal hearings before the country's Parliamentary Committee on Energy, Information and Communications, the Communications Authority of Kenya (CAK) gave the bank the green light to roll out its thin SIM cards.[44]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ abTait, Don (25 August 2016). "Smart card IC shipments to reach 12.8 billion units in 2021". IHS Technology. IHS Markit. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
    2. ^ abcChen, Zhiqun (2000). Java Card Technology for Smart Cards: Architecture and Programmer's Guide. Addison-Wesley Professional. pp. 3–4. ISBN .
    3. ^ abcVeendrick, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Harry J, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. M. (2017). Nanometer CMOS ICs: From Basics to ASICs. Springer. pp. 315, 481–2. ISBN .
    4. ^"3GPP specification: 51.011". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
    5. ^"3GPP specification: 31.102". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
    6. ^Asif, Saad Z. (2011). Next Generation Mobile Communications Ecosystem. John Wiley & Sons. p. 306. ISBN .
    7. ^ ab"G&D – History of Giesecke & Devrient". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
    8. ^"Official Publication of the International Card Manufacturers Association February 2017 Volume 27 No1"(PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2017.
    9. ^ ab"Ericsson Mobility Report November 2015"(PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2017.
    10. ^ ab"GSMA Embedded SIM and RSP". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
    11. ^"ETSI TS 102 241: UICC API for Java Card™ Release 13"(PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2019.
    12. ^"Specifications Archive: Secure Element (Card)". GlobalPlatform.
    13. ^"3GPP specification: 11.11". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
    14. ^ ab"Hackers crack open mobile network", 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. bbc.co.uk. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
    15. ^ITU-T, ITU-T Recommendation E.118, The international telecommunication charge card, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, Revision history, Revision "05/2006"
    16. ^ETSI, ETSI Recommendation GSM 11.11, Specifications of the SIM-ME Interface, Version 3.16.0
    17. ^ abGaby Lenhart (1 April 2006). "The Smart Card Platform". ETSI Technical Committee Smart Card Platform (TB SCP). Retrieved 30 January 2010.
    18. ^"Operational Bulletin No. 1163 (1.I.2019)". www.itu.int. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
    19. ^"List of issuer identifier numbers for the international telecommunication charge card (in accordance with Recommendation ITU-T E.118 (05/2006))". International Telecommunication Union. 5 January 2015.
    20. ^ ab"DRAFT Report of the SMG9 UMTS Working Party, meeting #7 hosted by Nokia in Copenhagen, 15–16 December 1998"(PDF). 3GPP. 25 January 1999. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
    21. ^"What is a microsim card?". SimOnlyPro.nl. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
    22. ^Segan, Sascha (27 January 2010). "Inside the iPad Lurks the 'Micro SIM'". PC Magazine. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
    23. ^ abAntipolis, Sophia (8 December 2003). "New form factor for smart cards introduced". SmartCard Trends. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
    24. ^How to make MicroSIM on YouTube
    25. ^Dr. Klaus Vedder (18 January 2012). "The UICC – Recent Work of ETSI TC Smart Card Platform"(PDF). ETSI, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. p. 12. Archived from the original(PDF) on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
    26. ^Virgin Mobile. "An important guide to inserting your SIM into your mobile"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 January 2018, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
    27. ^Encryption Bug in SIM Card Can be Used to Hack Millions of Phones, published 2013-07-21, accessed 2013-07-22
    28. ^ abcdRooting SIM cards, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen, SR Labs, accessed 2013-07-22
    29. ^"Black Hat USA 2013". Retrieved 29 April 2016.
    30. ^UPDATE 1-UN warns on mobile cybersecurity bugs in bid to prevent attacks, Reuters, 2013-07-21, accessed 2013-07-21
    31. ^"The Great SIM Heist – How Spies Stole the Keys to the Encryption Castle". The Intercept. The Intercept (First Look Media). 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
    32. ^"Gemalto: NSA/GCHQ Hack 'Probably Happened' But Didn't Include Mass SIM Key Theft". techcrunch.com. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
    33. ^Cimpanu, Catalin. "Simjacker attack exploited in the wild to track users for at least two years". ZDNet. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
    34. ^"Simjacker – Next Generation Spying 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen Mobile

      A number of potential 007s to replace Spectre's disaffected and burned out Daniel Craig

      • Share via email007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen src="https://storage.googleapis.com/pmd-stage-northamerica-northeast1-dcs-static-files/8.4.2/websites/images/share-icons/icon-circle-email.svg" width="32">
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      for-your-eyes-only dossiers on the front runners poised to replace Craig

      Author of the article:

      Bob Thompson

      Reviews and recommendations are unbiased and products are independently selected. Postmedia may earn an affiliate commission from purchases made through links on this page.

      Article content

      The Bond might be broken with Daniel Craig just as he is featured in his fourth 007 movie Spectre.

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      Article content

      Mind you, he is signed to play the martini enthusiast for one more spy movie mission but nothing is forever in the franchise. Ask the past secret agent dudes Sean Connery, Roger Moore and Pierce Brosnan, who had their way with Orpalis PDF Reducer Pro 3.2.19 Features Key: Bond for decent runs but were tossed aside when the times changed.

      Certainly, Craig may have another licence to thrill in him but maybe not. With that in mind, I have pulled for-your-eyes-only dossiers on the front runners poised to replace Craig.

      1. Damian Lewis

      The world may not be ready for a ginger 007. But Lewis is. The Homeland headliner has not been secretive about his desire to give Bond a dinner jacket whirl. And there’s no doubt a clandestine campaign (by the Bond folks?) has been testing the demographic waters to measure whether his selection would make waves among the hopelessly devoted fans accustomed to their movies shaken not stirred by an against-type casting.

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      Article content

      Debonair factor: A work in progress
      Action potential: One smack above average 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen ready: an olive short but a potent mix

      2. Tom Hardy

      Can Mad Max take us into a new Bond era? Hardy thinks so, and he should not be underestimated. Since making his movie debut in Black Hawk Down, he’s gone big concept with Inception, and big comic book with Bane in The Dark Knight Rises. Yet he still found time to be independent-minded in a series of films, including the Cold War spy flick Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy. He’s one of the few who could match Craig’s intensity and fighting spirit.

      Debonair factor: a gritty grace
      Action potential: smash-mouth honesty
      Martini ready: a frenzied fusion minus facade

      3. Idris Elba

      His Luther detective in the Brit series underscores the fact that the force is with him. His London street crook in RocknRolla showed off his sardonic wit. His range in the Mandela biopic was impressive, too. And for hipster cool he’s a former club DJ. Even Daniel Craig insists Elba would be the perfect replacement, which is easy for him to say – Craig beat out Elba for the role in 2005.

      Advertisement

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      Article content

      Debonair factor: a smooth groove
      Action potential: door-ripping real
      Martini ready: a basic blend with a keen tang

      4. Michael Fassbender

      There’s no doubt Elba would take Bond in a new direction but so would the German-Irish actor Fassbender. He’s already proven Oscar worthiness with his slave master portrayal in 12 Years a Slave (and likely will again for his recent Steve Jobs role). Playfulness is available to him as exemplified by his ‘veddy’ British Archie Hicox in Quentin Tarantino’s Inglourious Basterds. He’s also got the power as defined by his Magneto in the X-Men films.

      Debonair factor: deep down dash
      Action potential: a menacing methodology
      Martini ready: has been for a while with a consummate richness

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      Article content

      5. Henry Cavill

      With Cavill’s Superman so vividly etched in movie fans minds, it is difficult to imagine that James Bond Inc. would take a chance on an actor with another franchise moving forward re: Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice which opens to a great deal of anticipation next year. Stranger things have happened, though. Cavill tried out his spy glibness with his Napoleon Solo performance in The Man from U. N. C, 007 Customer Search Expert 3.0 crack serial keygen. L. E. remake. The film didn’t work but Cavill had his suave secret agent moments.

      Debonair factor: a sly touch of class
      Action potential: leveraged with intent to subdue
      Martini ready: on hold but with potential to stir

      Spectre opens wide Nov. 6

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