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Web browser developed by Google
This article is about the web browser. For the operating system, see Chrome OS. For other uses, see Chrome (disambiguation).
Google Chrome running on Windows 10
|Platform||IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARMv8-A|
|Available in||47 languages|
|Type||Web browser, mobile browser|
|License||Proprietaryfreeware, based on open source components.[note 1]|
Google Chrome is a cross-platformweb browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, where it is the default browser. The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as the platform for web applications.
Most of Chrome's source code comes from Google's free and open-source software project Chromium, but Chrome is licensed as proprietary freeware.WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked it to create the Blink engine; all Chrome variants except iOS now use Blink.
As of October 2021[update], StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 68% worldwide browser market share (after peaking at 72.38% in November 2018) on personal computers (PC), is most used on tablets (having surpassed Safari), and is also dominant on smartphones, and at 65% across all platforms combined. Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase.
See also: History of Google
Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company", and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars". After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt said that "It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind."
In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared. Online journals and U.S. newspapers stated at the time that Google was hiring former Microsoft web developers among others. It also came shortly after the release of Mozilla Firefox 1.0, which was surging in popularity and taking market share from Internet Explorer, which had noted security problems.
Development of the browser began in 2006 spearheaded by Sundar Pichai.
The release announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008, and a comic by Scott McCloud was to be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features within the new browser. Copies intended for Europe were shipped early and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google Blogoscoped made a scanned copy of the 38-page comic available on his website after receiving it on September 1, 2008. Google subsequently made the comic available on Google Books, and mentioned it on their official blog along with an explanation for the early release. The product was named "Chrome" as an initial development project code name, because it is associated with fast cars and speed. Google kept the development project name as the final release name, as a "cheeky" or ironic moniker, as one of the main aims was to minimize the user interface chrome.
The browser was first publicly released, officially as a beta version, on September 2, 2008 for Windows XP and newer, and with support for 43 languages, and later as a "stable" public release on December 11, 2008. On that same day, a CNET news item drew attention to a passage in the Terms of Service statement for the initial beta release, which seemed to grant to Google a license to all content transferred via the Chrome browser. This passage was inherited from the general Google terms of service. Google responded to this criticism immediately by stating that the language used was borrowed from other products, and removed this passage from the Terms of Service.
Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share. After the initial surge, usage share dropped until it hit a low of 0.69% in October 2008. It then started rising again and by December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% threshold. In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google planned to release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year. The first official Chrome OS X and Linux developer previews were announced on June 4, 2009, with a blog post saying they were missing many features and were intended for early feedback rather than general use. In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux. Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.
Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered on BrowserChoice.eu to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010.
Chrome initially used the WebKit rendering engine to display web pages. In 2013, they forked the WebCore component to create their own layout engine Blink. Based on WebKit, Blink only uses WebKit's "WebCore" components, while substituting other components, such as its own multi-process architecture, in place of WebKit's native implementation. Chrome is internally tested with unit testing, automated testing of scripted user actions, fuzz testing, as well as WebKit's layout tests (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed), and against commonly accessed websites inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes. Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web applications, including offline support. Google phased out Gears as the same functionality became available in the HTML5 standards.
On January 11, 2011, the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec support for its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently available open codecs available in the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on. Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which added hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding. In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open-sourcing its H.264 codecs and would cover all fees required.
On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices. On many new devices with Android 4.1 and later preinstalled, Chrome is the default browser. In May 2017, Google announced a version of Chrome for augmented reality and virtual reality devices.
Main article: Google Chrome version history
Google Chrome features a minimalistic user interface, with its user-interface principles later being implemented into other browsers. For example, the merging of the address bar and search bar into the omnibox or omnibar Chrome also has a reputation for strong browser performance.
Bookmarks and settings synchronization
Chrome allows users to synchronize their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser installed by sending and receiving data through a chosen Google Account, which in turn updates all signed-in instances of Chrome. This can be authenticated either through Google credentials, or a sync passphrase.
Web standards support
The first release of Google Chrome passed both the Acid1 and Acid2 tests. Beginning with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the Acid3 test.
In 2011, on the official CSS 2.1 test suite by standardization organization W3C, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% out of 99.59% covered) CSS 2.1 tests.
On the HTML5 web standards test, Chrome 41 scores 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most popular desktop browsers. Chrome 41 on Android scores 510 out of 555 points. Chrome 44 scores 526, only 29 points less than the maximum score.
See also: Browser security
Chrome periodically retrieves updates of two blacklists (one for phishing and one for malware), and warns users when they attempt to visit a site flagged as potentially harmful. This service is also made available for use by others via a free public API called "Google Safe Browsing API".
Chrome uses a process-allocation model to sandboxtabs. Using the principle of least privilege, each tab process cannot interact with critical memory functions (e.g. OS memory, user files) or other tab processes – similar to Microsoft's "Protected Mode" used by Internet Explorer 9 or greater. The Sandbox Team is said to have "taken this existing process boundary and made it into a jail". This enforces a computer security model whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (user and sandbox) and the sandbox can only respond to communication requests initiated by the user. On Linux sandboxing uses the seccomp mode.
In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported that using Chrome when connected to the internet using a VPN can be a serious security issue due to the browser's support for WebRTC.
On September 9, 2016, it was reported that starting with Chrome 56, users will be warned when they visit insecure HTTP websites to encourage more sites to make the transition to HTTPS.
On December 4, 2018, Google announced its Chrome 71 release with new security features, including a built-in ad featuring system. In addition, Google also announced its plan to crack down on websites that make people involuntarily subscribe to mobile subscription plans.
On September 2, 2020, with the release of Chrome 85, Google extended support for Secure DNS in Chrome for Android. DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), was designed to improve safety and privacy while browsing the web. Under the update, Chrome automatically switches to DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), if the current DNS provider supports the feature.
Since 2008, Chrome has been faulted for not including a master password to prevent casual access to a user's passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real security against determined hackers and have refused to implement one. Bugs filed on this issue have been marked "WontFix". As of February 2014[update], Google Chrome asks the user to enter the Windows account password before showing saved passwords.
On Linux, Google Chrome/Chromium can store passwords in three ways:
Google Chrome/Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, based on the desktop environment in use.
Passwords stored in GNOME Keyring or KWallet are encrypted on disk, and access to them is controlled by dedicated daemon software. Passwords stored in plain text are not encrypted. Because of this, when either GNOME Keyring or KWallet is in use, any unencrypted passwords that have been stored previously are automatically moved into the encrypted store.
Support for using GNOME Keyring and KWallet was added in version 6, but using these (when available) was not made the default mode until version 12.
Although Google Chrome/Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, the store to use can also be specified with a command-line argument:
- --password-store=gnome (to use GNOME Keyring)
- --password-store=kwallet (to use KWallet)
- --password-store=basic (to use the plain text store)
As of version 45, the Google Chrome password manager is no longer integrated with Keychain, since the interoperability goal is no longer possible.
No security vulnerabilities in Chrome were exploited in the three years of Pwn2Own from 2009 to 2011.
At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French team who used zero day exploits in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully patched 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a booby-trapped website that overcame Chrome's sandboxing.
Chrome was compromised twice at the 2012 CanSecWest Pwnium. Google's official response to the exploits was delivered by Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting "We also believe that both submissions are works of art and deserve wider sharing and recognition." Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of the submission.
A significant number of security vulnerabilities in Chrome occur in the Adobe Flash Player. For example, the 2016 Pwn2Own successful attack on Chrome relied on four security vulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one was in Chrome, and one was in the Windows kernel. In 2016, Google announced that it was planning to phase out Flash Player in Chrome, starting in version 53. The first phase of the plan is to disable Flash for ads and "background analytics", with the ultimate goal of disabling it completely by the end of the year, except on specific sites that Google has deemed to be broken without it. Flash would then be re-enabled with the exclusion of ads and background analytics on a site-by-site basis.
Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013 to 2016, detail the capabilities of the CIA, such as the ability to compromise web browsers (including Google Chrome).
Malware blocking and ad blocking
Google introduced download scanning protection in Chrome 17. In February 2018, Google introduced an ad blocking feature based on recommendations from the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Sites that employ invasive ads are given a 30-day warning, after which their ads will be blocked.Consumer Reports recommended users install dedicated ad-blocking tools instead, which offer increased security against malware and tracking.
- Chrome supported, up to version 45, plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface (NPAPI), so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as unrestricted separate processes outside the browser and cannot be sandboxed as tabs are. ActiveX is not supported. Since 2010, Adobe Flash has been integral to Chrome and does not need be installed separately. Flash is kept up to date as part of Chrome's own updates.Java applet support was available in Chrome with Java 6 update 12 and above. Support for Java under OS X was provided by a Java Update released on May 18, 2010.
- On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secure called Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI). The default bundled PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was available on Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux from Chrome version 20, on Windows from version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%), and eventually came to OS X at version 23.
- On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it would be deprecating and then removing NPAPI support. NPAPI support was removed from Linux in Chrome release 35. NPAPI plugins like Java can no longer work in Chrome (but there are workarounds for Flash by using PPAPI Flash Player on Linux including for Chromium).
- On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, disabling the NPAPI by default. This makes plugins that do not have a PPAPI plugin counterpart incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, Silverlight and Unity. However, NPAPI support could be enabled through the chrome://flags[permanent dead link] menu, until the release of version 45 on September 1, 2015, that removed NPAPI support entirely.
"Incognito mode" redirects here. For other uses, see Incognito.
The private browsing feature called Incognito mode prevents the browser from locally storing any history information, cookies, site data, or form inputs. Downloaded files and bookmarks will be stored. In addition, user activity is not hidden from visited websites or the Internet service provider. It may be used in web development to preview pages as they appear to first-time visitors.
Incognito mode is similar to the private browsing feature in other web browsers. It does not prevent saving in all windows: "You can switch between an incognito window and any regular windows you have open. You'll only be in incognito mode when you're using the incognito window".
The iOS version of Chrome also supports the optional ability to lock incognito tabs with Face ID, Touch ID or the device's passcode.
In June 2015, the Debian developer community discovered that Chromium 43 and Chrome 43 were programmed to download the Hotword Shared Module, which could enable the OK Google voice recognition extension, although by default it was "off". This raised privacy concerns in the media. The module was removed in Chrome 45, which was released on September 1, 2015, and was only present in Chrome 43 and 44.
User tracking concerns
Chrome sends details about its users and their activities to Google through both optional and non-optional user tracking mechanisms.
Some of the tracking mechanisms can be optionally enabled and disabled through the installation interface and through the browser's options dialog. Unofficial builds, such as SRWare Iron, seek to remove these features from the browser altogether. The RLZ feature is not included in the Chromium browser either.
In March 2010, Google devised a new method to collect installation statistics: the unique ID token included with Chrome is now used for only the first connection that Google Update makes to its server.
The optional suggestion service included in Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the information typed into the Omnibox to the search provider before the user even hits return. This allows the search engine to provide URL suggestions, but also provides them with web use information tied to an IP address.
The optional feature to use a web service to help resolve spelling errors has privacy implications.
A 2019 review by Washington Post technology columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that in a typical week of browsing, Chrome allowed thousands of more cookies to be stored than Mozilla Firefox. Fowler pointed out that because of its advertising businesses, despite the privacy controls it offers users, Google is a major producer of third-party cookies and has a financial interest in collecting user data; he recommended switching to Firefox, Apple Safari, or Chromium-based Brave.
Chrome's future switch to FLoC has drawn criticism from DuckDuckGo, Brave and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
|Installation||Randomly generated token included in an installer; used to measure the success rate of Google Chrome once at installation|
|RLZ identifier||Encoded string, according to Google, contains non-identifying information on where Chrome was downloaded from and its installation week; it is used to measure promotional campaigns; Google provides source code to decode this string|
Can be disabled in Chrome OS. For Chrome browsers running in all other operating systems:
|clientID||Unique identifier along with user preferences, logs of use metrics and crashes||Unknown||Yes||Yes|
|Omnibox predictions||Text typed into the address bar is sent to the user's search engine when not in incognito mode. When in incognito mode, the suggestions are created on-device instead.||While typing||Yes||No|
|Google Update||Information about how often Chrome is used, details about the OS and Chrome version||Periodically||Partial|
No longer in this table: Chrome previously was able to suggest similar pages when a page couldn't be found. For this, in some cases Google servers were contacted. The feature has been removed.
Do Not Track
In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would implement the Do Not Track (DNT) standard to inform websites the user's desire not to be tracked. The protocol was implemented in version 23. In line with the W3's draft standard for DNT, it is turned off by default in Chrome.
Like most major web browsers, Chrome uses DNS prefetching to speed up website lookups, as do other browsers like Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (called DNS Pre-resolution), and in Opera as a UserScript (not built-in).
Chrome formerly used their now-deprecated SPDY protocol instead of only HTTP when communicating with servers that support it, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter. SPDY support was removed in Chrome version 51. This was due to SPDY being replaced by HTTP/2, a standard that was based upon it.
In November 2019, Google said it was working on several "speed badging" systems that let visitors know why a page is taking time to show up. The variations include simple text warnings and more subtle signs that indicate a site is slow. No date has been given for when the badging system will be included with the Chrome browser.
A multi-process architecture is implemented in Chrome where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each site instance and plugin. This procedure is termed process isolation, and raises security and stability by preventing tasks from interfering with each other. An attacker successfully gaining access to one application gains access to no others, and failure in one instance results in a Sad Tabscreen of death, similar to the well-known Sad Mac, but only one tab crashes instead of the whole application. This strategy exacts a fixed per-process cost up front, but results in less memory bloat over time as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer needs further memory allocations. This architecture was later adopted in Safari and Firefox.
Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager which lets users see what sites and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes and overusing the CPU and provides the ability to terminate them. Chrome Version 23 ensures its users an improved battery life for the systems supporting Chrome's GPU accelerated video decoding.
Further information: MHTML § Google Chrome
The desktop edition of Chrome is able to save pages as HTML with assets in a "_files" subfolder, or as unprocessed HTML-only document. It also offers an option to save in the MHTML format.
2D motif from March 2011 until October 2015
Material Design motif used from September 2014 onward for mobile versions and October 2015 onward for desktop versions
By default, the main user interface includes back, forward, refresh/cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not shown by default, but can be added through the Settings page to take the user to the new tab page or a custom home page.
Tabs are the main component of Chrome's user interface and have been moved to the top of the window rather than below the controls. This subtle change contrasts with many existing tabbed browsers which are based on windows and contain tabs. Tabs, with their state, can be transferred seamlessly between window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.
The Omnibox is a URL box that combines the functions of both the address bar and search box. If a user enters the URL of a site previously searched from, Chrome allows pressing Tab to search the site again directly from the Omnibox. When a user starts typing in the Omnibox, Chrome provides suggestions for previously visited sites (based on the URL or in-page text), popular websites (not necessarily visited before – powered by Google Instant), and popular searches. Although Instant can be turned off, suggestions based on previously visited sites cannot be turned off. Chrome will also autocomplete the URLs of sites visited often. If a user types keywords into the Omnibox that don't match any previously visited websites and presses enter, Chrome will conduct the search using the default search engine.
One of Chrome's differentiating features is the New Tab Page, which can replace the browser home page and is displayed when a new tab is created. Originally, this showed thumbnails of the nine most visited websites, along with frequent searches, recent bookmarks, and recently closed tabs; similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Opera'sSpeed Dial. In Google Chrome 2.0, the New Tab Page was updated to allow users to hide thumbnails they did not want to appear.
Starting in version 3.0, the New Tab Page was revamped to display thumbnails of the eight most visited websites. The thumbnails could be rearranged, pinned, and removed. Alternatively, a list of text links could be displayed instead of thumbnails. It also features a "Recently closed" bar that shows recently closed tabs and a "tips" section that displays hints and tricks for using the browser.
Chrome includes a bookmarks submenu that lists the user's bookmarks, provides easy access to Chrome's Bookmark Manager, and allows the user to toggle a bookmarks bar on or off.
For web developers, Chrome features an element inspector (Inspect Element), similar to the Firebug browser extension, which allows users to look into the DOM and see what makes up the webpage.
Chrome has special URLs that load application-specific pages instead of websites or files on disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features. Originally called , the address was changed to to make it less obvious to casual users.
In March 2011, Google introduced a new simplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been used since the project's inception. Google designer Steve Rura explained the company reasoning for the change: "Since Chrome is all about making your web experience as easy and clutter-free as possible, we refreshed the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A simpler icon embodies the Chrome spirit – to make the web quicker, lighter, and easier for all."
In September 2013, Google started making Chrome apps "For your desktop". This meant offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less dependence on Chrome—apps launch in a window separate from Chrome, and look more like native applications.
On January 2, 2019, Google introduced Native Dark Theme for Chrome on Windows 10.
Desktop shortcuts and apps
Chrome allows users to make local desktop shortcuts that open web applications in the browser. The browser, when opened in this way, contains none of the regular interface except for the title bar, so as not to "interrupt anything the user is trying to do". This allows web applications to run alongside local software (similar to Mozilla Prism and Fluid).
This feature, according to Google, would be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web applications directory which opened in December 2010.
Chrome Web Store
Main article: Chrome Web Store
Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these extensions function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.
The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011, with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.
On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome's developer channel, and provided several sample extensions for testing. In December, the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery beta began with approximately 300 extensions. It was launched on January 25, 2010, along with Google Chrome 4.0, containing approximately 1500 extensions.
In 2014, Google started preventing some Windows users from installing extensions not hosted on the Chrome Web Store. The following year Google reported a "75% drop in customer support help requests for uninstalling unwanted extensions" which led them to expand this restriction to all Windows and Mac users. Under the terms of the EULA, Google can remove or disable any extensions from a user's installation of Chrome.
See also: Category:Google Chrome extensions
Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users can install themes to alter the appearance of the browser. Many free third-party themes are provided in an online gallery, accessible through a "Get themes" button in Chrome's options.
Automatic web page translation
Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the application added a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Language translation is currently available for 52 languages. When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the user's preferred language set during the installation time, it asks the user whether or not to translate.
Release channels, cycles and updates
The first production release on December 11, 2008, marked the end of the initial Beta test period and the beginning of production. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 2009, Google announced an updated release system with three channels: Stable (corresponding to the traditional production), Beta, and Developer preview (also called the "Dev" channel). Where there were before only two channels: Beta and Developer, now there were three. Concurrently, all Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel along with the promoted Developer release. Google explained that now the Developer channel builds would be less stable and polished than those from the initial Google Chrome's Beta period. Beta users could opt back to the Developer channel as desired.
Each channel has its own release cycle and stability level. The Stable channel updated roughly quarterly, with features and fixes that passed "thorough" testing in the Beta channel. Beta updated roughly monthly, with "stable and complete" features migrated from the Developer channel. The Developer channel updated once or twice per week and was where ideas and features were first publicly exposed "(and sometimes fail) and can be very unstable at times". [Quoted remarks from Google's policy announcements.]
On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases new stable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates. Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for basic release-critical testing. This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the "Canary" channel, updated daily from a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions. The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change "kills" Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build. Canary is "the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds". Canary releases run side by side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and can therefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary updates may contain release-breaking bugs. It does not natively include the option to be the default browser, although on Windows and OS X it can be set through System Preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; an OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.
The Chrome beta channel for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side by side with the stable channel for Android. Chrome Dev for Android was launched on April 29, 2015.
All Chrome channels are automatically distributed according to their respective release cycles. The mechanism differs by platform. On Windows, it uses Google Update, and auto-update can be controlled via Group Policy. Alternatively, users may download a standalone installer of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update. On OS X, it uses Google Update Service, and auto-update can be controlled via the OS X "defaults" system. On Linux, it lets the system's normal package management system supply the updates. This auto-updating behavior is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open-source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-releasedevelopment trunk for Chrome, its revisions are provided as source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser updates.
In March 2021, Google announced that starting with Chrome 94 in the third quarter of 2021, Google Chrome Stable releases will be made every four weeks, instead of six weeks as they have been since 2010. Also, Google announced a new release channel for system administrators and browser embedders with releases every eight weeks.
Release version numbers
Releases are identified by a four-part version number, e.g. 42.0.2311.90 (Windows Stable release April 14, 2015). The components are major.minor.build.patch.
- Major.minor reflects scheduling policy
- Build.patch identifies content progression
- Major represents a product release. These are scheduled 7–8 per year, unlike other software systems where the major version number updates only with substantial new content.
- Minor is usually 0. References to version 'x' or 'x.0', e.g. 42.0, refer to this major.minor designation.
- Build is ever increasing. For a release cycle, e.g. 42.0, there are several builds in the Canary and Developer period. The last build number from Developer is kept throughout Beta and Stable and is locked with the major.minor for that release.
- Patch resets with each build, incrementing with each patch. The first patch is 0, but usually the first publicly released patch is somewhat higher. In Beta and Stable, only patch increments.
Chromium and Chrome release schedules are linked through Chromium (Major) version Branch Point dates, published annually. The Branch Points precede the final Chrome Developer build (initial) release by 4 days (nearly always) and the Chrome Stable initial release by roughly 53 days.
Example: The version 42 Branch Point was February 20, 2015. Developer builds stopped advancing at build 2311 with release 42.0.2311.4 on February 24, 4 days later. The first Stable release, 42.0.2311.90, was April 14, 2015, 53 days after the Branch Point.
Main article: Color management
Chrome supports color management by using the system-provided ICC v2 and v4 support on macOS, and from version 22 supports ICC v2 profiles by default on other platforms.
Main article: Dinosaur game
In Chrome, when not connected to the Internet and an error message displaying "No internet" is shown, on the top, an "8-bit" Tyrannosaurus rex is shown, but when pressing the space bar on a keyboard, mouse-clicking on it or tapping it on touch devices, the T-Rex instantly jumps once and dashes across a cactus-ridden desert, revealing it to be an Easter egg in the form of a platform game. The game itself is an infinite runner, and there is no time limit in the game as it progresses faster and periodically tints to a black background. A school Chromebook administrator can disable the game.
The current version of Chrome runs on:
As of April 2016[update], stable 32-bit and 64-bit builds are available for Windows, with only 64-bit stable builds available for Linux and macOS. 64-bit Windows builds became available in the developer channel and as canary builds on June 3, 2014, in the beta channel on July 30, 2014, and in the stable channel on August 26, 2014. 64-bit OS X builds became available as canary builds on November 7, 2013, in the beta channel on October 9, 2014, and in the stable channel on November 18, 2014.
Starting with the release of version 89, Chrome will only be supported on Intel/Intel x86 and AMD processors with the SSE3 instruction set.
A beta version for Android 4.0 devices was launched on February 7, 2012, available for a limited number of countries from Google Play.
Notable features: synchronization with desktop Chrome to provide the same bookmarks and view the same browser tabs, page pre-rendering, hardware acceleration.
Many of the latest HTML5 features: almost all of the Web Platform's features: GPU-accelerated canvas, including CSS 3D Transforms, CSS animations, SVG, WebSocket (including binary messages), Dedicated Workers; it has overflow scroll support, strong HTML5 video support, and new capabilities such as IndexedDB, WebWorkers, Application Cache and the File APIs, date- and time-pickers, parts of the Media Capture API. Also supports mobile oriented features such as Device Orientation and Geolocation.
Mobile customizations: swipe gesture tab switching, link preview allows zooming in on (multiple) links to ensure the desired one is clicked, font size boosting to ensure readability regardless of the zoom level.
Features missing in the mobile version include sandboxed tabs, Safe Browsing, apps or extensions, Adobe Flash (now and in the future),Native Client, and the ability to export user data such a list of their opened tabs or their browsing history into portable local files.
Development changes: remote debugging, part of the browser layer has been implemented in Java, communicating with the rest of the Chromium and WebKit code through Java Native Bindings. The code of Chrome for Android is a fork of the Chromium project. It is a priority to upstream most new and modified code to Chromium and WebKit to resolve the fork.
The April 17, 2012 update included availability in 31 additional languages and in all countries where Google Play is available. A desktop version of a website can also be requested as opposed to a mobile version. In addition, Android users can now add bookmarks to their Android home screens if they choose and decide which apps should handle links opened in Chrome.
On June 27, 2012, Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.
Chrome 18.0.1026311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Chrome for Android to support mobile devices based on Intel x86.
Starting from version 25, the Chrome version for Android is aligned with the desktop version, and usually new stable releases are available at the same time between the Android and the desktop version. Google released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, with version 25. As of 2013[update] a separate beta version of Chrome is available in the Google Play Store – it can run side by side with the stable release.
Main article: Chrome OS
Google Chrome is the basis of Google's Chrome OS operating system that ships on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners. The user interface has a minimalist design resembling the Google Chrome browser. Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web; the only applications on the devices are a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager.
Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.
In a review by Chitika, Chrome was noted as having 1.5% of the iOS web browser market as of July 18, 2012[update]. In October 2013, Chrome had 3% of the iOS browser market.
On Linux distributions, support for 32-bit Intel processors ended in March 2016 although Chromium is still supported. As of Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may be updated only on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus deprecated systems include (for example) Debian 6's 2.20, and RHEL 6's 2.18.
Support for Google Chrome on Windows XP and Windows Vista ended in April 2016. The last release of Google Chrome that can be run on Windows XP and Windows Vista was version 49.0.2623.112, released on April 7, 2016, then re-released on April 11, 2016.
Support for Google Chrome on Windows 7 was supposed to end upon the announcement on July 15, 2021, and suddenly moved to January 15, 2022, however due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and enterprises are taking more time to migrate to Windows 10 or 11, the end of support date was pushed at least on January 15, 2023, receiving critical security and stability updates of the Chrome browser.
"Windows 8 mode" was introduced in 2012 and has since been discontinued. It was provided to the developer channel, which enabled Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 users to run Chrome with a full-screen, tablet-optimized interface, with access to snapping, sharing, and search functionalities. In October 2013, Windows 8 mode on the developer channel changed to use a desktop environment mimicking the interface of Chrome OS with a dedicated windowing system and taskbar for web apps. This was removed on version 49 and users that have upgraded to Windows 10 will lose this feature.
Google dropped support for Mac OS X 10.5 with the release of Chrome 22. Support for 32-bit versions of Chrome ended in November 2014 with the release of Chrome 39. Support for Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, and 10.8 ended in April 2016 with the release of Chrome 50. Support for OS X 10.9 ended in April 2018 with the release of Chrome 66.
This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2019)
Google Chrome was met with acclaim upon release. In 2008, Matthew Moore of The Daily Telegraph summarized the verdict of early reviewers: "Google Chrome is attractive, fast and has some impressive new features..."
Initially, Microsoft reportedly played down the threat from Chrome and predicted that most people would embrace Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said that "Chrome will strengthen the Web as the biggest application platform in the world". But by February 25, 2010, BusinessWeek had reported that "For the first time in years, energy and resources are being poured into browsers, the ubiquitous programs for accessing content on the Web. Credit for this trend – a boon to consumers – goes to two parties. The first is Google, whose big plans for the Chrome browser have shaken Microsoft out of its competitive torpor and forced the software giant to pay fresh attention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft all but ceased efforts to enhance IE after it triumphed in the last browser war, sending Netscape to its doom. Now it's back in gear." Mozilla said that Chrome's introduction into the web browser market comes as "no real surprise", that "Chrome is not aimed at competing with Firefox", and furthermore that it would not affect Google's revenue relationship with Mozilla.
Chrome's design bridges the gap between desktop and so-called "cloud computing." At the touch of a button, Chrome lets you make a desktop, Start menu, or QuickLaunch shortcut to any Web page or Web application, blurring the line between what's online and what's inside your PC. For example, I created a desktop shortcut for Google Maps. When you create a shortcut for a Web application, Chrome strips away all of the toolbars and tabs from the window, leaving you with something that feels much more like a desktop application than like a Web application or page.
— PC World
With its dominance in the web browser market, Google has been accused of using Chrome and Blink development to push new web standards that are proposed in-house by Google and subsequently implemented by its services first and foremost. These have led to performance disadvantages and compatibility issues with competing browsers, and in some cases, developers intentionally refusing to test their websites on any other browser than Chrome. Tom Warren of The Verge went as far as comparing Chrome to Internet Explorer 6, the default browser of Windows XP that was often targeted by competitors due to its similar ubiquity in the early 2000s.
In 2019, Google similarly faced criticism over planned changes to its extensions API for Chrome (dubbed "Manifest V3"), which would inhibit the effectiveness of certain forms of ad blocking software by preventing the use of the WebRequest API to block and modify network connections. Google intends extensions to transition to another API known as DeclarativeWebRequest, which allows the extension to set up pre-configured rules that are processed by the browser itself rather than through the extension. However, concerns over how well the API would perform, in combination with concerns over a cap on the number of entries that may be blacklisted, led to criticism that these changes were designed to inhibit ad blocking (citing Google's vested interest in the online advertising industry). Google cited performance issues associated with WebRequest, as it requires all network traffic to go through the extension before the page is loaded, as well as its use in malicious extensions, as justification for these changes. In June 2019, it announced that it would increase the aforementioned cap from 30,000 to 150,000 entries to help quell concerns.
Further information: Usage share of web browsers and Browser wars
Chrome overtook Firefox in November 2011, in worldwide usage. As of March 2021[update], according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 67% worldwide desktop usage share, making it the most widely used web browser.
Along with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome receives a weekend "bump", which boosts its market share by as much as three percentage points on weekends, at the expense of Internet Explorer.
It was reported by StatCounter, a web analytics company, that for the single day of Sunday, March 18, 2012, Chrome was the most used web browser in the world for the first time. Chrome secured 32.7% of the global web browsing on that day, while Internet Explorer followed closely behind with 32.5%.
From May 14–21, 2012, Google Chrome was for the first time responsible for more Internet traffic than Microsoft's Internet Explorer, which long had held its spot as the most used web browser in the world. According to StatCounter, 31.88% of web traffic was generated by Chrome for a sustained period of one week and 31.47% by Internet Explorer. Though Chrome had topped Internet Explorer for a single day's usage in the past, this was the first time it had led for one full week.
At the 2012 Google I/O developers' conference, Google claimed that there were 310 million active users of Chrome, almost double the number in 2011, which was stated as 160 million active users.
In June 2013, according to StatCounter, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer for the first time in the US.
In August 2013, Chrome was used by 43% of internet users worldwide. This study was done by Statista, which also noted that in North America, 36% of people use Chrome, the lowest in the world.
As of May 2020[update], Chrome is the most used browser in every country.
In December 2010, Google announced that to make it easier for businesses to use Chrome they would provide an official Chrome MSI package. For business use it is helpful to have full-fledged MSI packages that can be customized via transform files (.mst) – but the MSI provided with Chrome is only a very limited MSI wrapper fitted around the normal installer, and many businesses find that this arrangement does not meet their needs. The normal downloaded Chrome installer puts the browser in the user's local app data directory and provides invisible background updates, but the MSI package will allow installation at the system level, providing system administrators control over the update process – it was formerly possible only when Chrome was installed using Google Pack. Google also created group policy objects to fine-tune the behavior of Chrome in the business environment, for example by setting automatic updates intervals, disabling auto-updates, and configuring a home page. Until version 24 the software is known not to be ready for enterprise deployments with roaming profiles or Terminal Server/Citrix environments.
In 2010, Google first started supporting Chrome in enterprise environments by providing an MSI wrapper around the Chrome installer. Google starting providing group policy objects, with more added each release, and today there are more than 500 policies available to control Chrome's behavior in enterprise environments. In 2016, Google launched Chrome Browser Enterprise Support, a paid service enabling IT admins access to Google experts to support their browser deployment. In 2019, Google launched Chrome Browser Cloud Management, a dashboard that gives business IT managers the ability to control content accessibility, app usage and browser extensions installed on its deployed computers.
Main article: Chromium (web browser)
In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code as an open-source project called Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help port the browser to the macOS and Linux operating systems. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license. Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open-source licenses. Chromium is similar to Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates and a built-in Flash player, as well as Google branding and has a blue-colored logo instead of the multicolored Google logo. Chromium does not implement user RLZ tracking. Initially, the Google Chrome PDF viewer, PDFium, was excluded from Chromium, but was later made open-source in May 2014. PDFium can be used to fill PDF forms.
Developing for Chrome
It is possible to develop applications, extensions, and themes for Chrome. They are zipped in a .crx file and contain a manifest file that specifies basic information (such as version, name, description, privileges, etc.), and other files for the user interface (icons, popups, etc.). Google has an official developer's guide. Chrome has its own web store where users and developers can upload and download these applications and extensions.
Impersonation by malware
As with Microsoft Internet Explorer, the popularity of Google Chrome has led to the appearance of malware abusing its name. In late 2015, an adware replica of Chrome named "eFast" appeared, which would usurp the Google Chrome installation and hijack file type associations to make shortcuts for common file types and communication protocols link to itself, and inject advertisements into web pages. Its similar-looking icon was intended to deceive users.
- ^"Stable Channel Update for Desktop". November 15, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
- ^"Chrome for Android Update". November 15, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
- ^"Chrome for iOS Update". November 18, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- ^"Extended Stable Channel Update for Desktop". October 28, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
- ^"Beta Channel Update for Desktop". November 18, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- ^"Chromium (Google Chrome)". Ohloh.net. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- ^"Chromium coding style". Google Open Source. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- ^"Chrome 95 brings Material You to everyone, adds secure payment confirmation, and more". XDA Developers. October 21, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
- ^"Google Chrome (iOS)".
- ^"Supported languages". Google Play Console Help. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- ^ abcd"Google Chrome and Chrome OS Additional Terms of Service". www.google.com.
- ^Ashford, Warwick (September 2, 2008). "Google launches beta version of Chrome web browser". Archived from the original on April 11, 2021.
- ^"Google Chrome for Android". developer.chrome.com. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
- ^ abBright, Peter (April 3, 2013). "Google going its own way, forking WebKit rendering engine". Ars Technica. Conde Nast. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- ^"Open-sourcing Chrome on iOS!". 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ^"Desktop Browser Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
- ^"Tablet Browser Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
- ^"Tablet Browser Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
- ^"Browser Market Share Worldwide (Jan 2009 - September 2021)". Retrieved October 13, 2021.
- ^Angwin, Julia (July 9, 2009). "Sun Valley: Schmidt Didn't Want to Build Chrome Initially, He Says". WSJ Digits Blog. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- ^"Rumours surround Google browser". September 23, 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- ^Kurtuldu, Mustafa (September 8, 2018). "How we designed Chrome 10 years ago". googleblog.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021.
- ^Bhardwaj, Prachi (June 29, 2018). "Larry Page has a reputation for pushing people at Google". Business Insider. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
- ^McCloud, Scott (September 1, 2008). "Surprise!". Google Blogoscoped. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
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- ^ abPichai, Sundar; Upson, Linus (September 1, 2008). "A fresh take on the browser". Official Google Blog. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- ^Dougerty, Conor (July 12, 2015). "Sundar Pichai of Google Talks About Phone Intrusion". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- ^Murphy, Glen (December 18, 2012). "Why is Google Chrome browser named as Chrome?". Retrieved July 6, 2020.
What Is a CRDOWNLOAD File?
What to Know
- A CRDOWNLOAD file is a Chrome Partial Download file.
- You can't usually open or convert one without first renaming the file extension.
This article explains what CRDOWNLOAD files are and how they're different from normal files, how to know which program will likely open it, and what to do if you need to convert one.
What Is a CRDOWNLOAD File?
CRDOWNLOAD is a temporary file extension used by the Chrome web browser. Files with this extension are called Chrome Partial Download files, so seeing one means that the file isn't completely downloaded.
How Are CRDOWNLOAD Files Used?
Partial downloads are due to the fact that either the file is still being downloaded by Chrome or that the download process was interrupted and so it's only a partial, incomplete file.
If the CRDOWNLOAD file extension is being used because Chrome is actively downloading something, it will usually automatically remove the ".crdownload" portion once the download finishes.
A CRDOWNLOAD file is created in this format: ..crdownload, or sometimes <#>.crdownload. For example, if you're downloading an MP3, it may read something like soundfile.mp3.crdownload or Unconfirmed 1433.crdownload.
How to Open a CRDOWNLOAD File
CRDOWNLOAD files are not opened in a program because they're really just a byproduct of Google's Chrome web browser—something that is produced by but not actually used by the browser.
However, if a file download in Chrome has been interrupted and the download has stopped, it might be possible to still use a part of the file by renaming the download. This can be done by removing "CRDOWNLOAD" from the file name.
For example, if a file has stopped downloading, say one called soundfile.mp3.crdownload, part of the audio file could still be playable if you just rename it to soundfile.mp3.
Depending on how long the file will take to download (like if you're currently downloading a large video file), you can actually open the CRDOWNLOAD file in the program that will eventually be used to open the file, even though the whole thing isn't yet saved to your computer.
As an example, say you're downloading an AVI file. You can use the VLC media player to open the CRDOWNLOAD file regardless of whether it has just started downloading, is halfway finished, or is nearly complete. VLC, in this example, will play whatever part of the file that is currently downloaded, meaning you can begin watching a video only moments after you've started downloading it, and the video will continue to play so long as Chrome continues to download the file.
This setup is essentially feeding the video stream directly into VLC. However, since VLC doesn't recognize CRDOWNLOAD files as a common video or audio file, you have to drag and drop the CRDOWNLOAD into the open VLC program in order for this to work.
Opening a CRDOWNLOAD file this way is only beneficial for files that you can use in a "start to end" manner, like videos or music, which have a beginning, middle, and end of the file. Image files, documents, archives, etc., probably won't work.
How to Convert a CRDOWNLOAD File
CRDOWNLOAD files are not yet in their final form, so they can't be converted to another format. It doesn't matter if you're downloading document, music file, video, etc. — if the whole file isn't there, and therefore the CRDOWNLOAD extension is appended to the end, there's no use in trying to convert the incomplete file.
This means there's no way to convert a CRDOWNLOAD file to PDF, MP3, AVI, MP4, etc.
However, keep in mind what you learned above about changing the file extension to that of the file you're downloading. Once you have the file saved with the proper file extension, you might be able to use a free file converter to convert it to a different format.
Can't Open a File? Here's How to Convert It
For instance, if that MP3 file that only partially downloaded, is usable in some form, then you might be able to plug it into an audio file converter to save it to a new format. However, if this is to work, you need to rename the *.MP3.CRDOWNLOAD file to *.MP3 (if it's an MP3 file you're dealing with).
5 Free Audio Converters: Convert Music and Audio Formats for Free
More Information on CRDOWNLOAD Files
When a normal download takes place in Chrome, the browser attaches this .CRDOWNLOAD file extension to the filename and then usually automatically removes it when the download finishes. This means you shouldn't ever have to manually remove the extension unless, of course, you're trying to save part of the file like what's described above.
You won't see Chrome append .CRDOWNLOAD to the end of a file during the download unless you're viewing the file in the folder where it's being saved. In other words, Chrome itself does not show .CRDOWNLOAD at the bottom of the screen during a download; it shows the true file name and extension (e.g., ubuntu.iso, not ubunto.iso.crdownload).
The size of a CRDOWNLOAD file grows as more of the file is downloaded. For example, if you're downloading a large, 10 GB video, you'll notice that at the very start, it's just a megabyte or two, and then as more time passes and more of the file is saved by Chrome, the size of the file will increase up to 10 GB when it's finished downloading.
Trying to delete a CRDOWNLOAD file may prompt you with a File In Use message that says something like "The action can't be completed because this file is open in Google Chrome."This means the file is locked because it's still being downloaded by Chrome. Fixing this is as simple as canceling the download in Chrome (so long as you don't want to finish the download).
Stopping a Chrome download will not let you keep part of it so that you can try to open it like described above. If you cancel an active download in Chrome, the software will assume you want the file gone and will remove all of it.
If every file you download has the .CRDOWNLOAD file extension and none of them seem to be downloaded completely, it could mean that there's an issue or bug with your specific version of Chrome. It's best to make sure the browser is completely updated by downloading the newest version from Google's website.
CRDOWNLOAD files are similar to incomplete or partial files used by other programs, like XXXXXX, BC!, DOWNLOAD, and XLX files. However, even though all five file extensions are used for the same purpose, they can not be interchanged and used as if they were the same file type.
Generally, CRDOWNLOAD files aren't viruses and they aren't dangerous, unless the original file you were trying to download was a virus. Run a virus scan on the file if you want to be extra sure it's safe.
Sometimes. If you find a CRDOWNLOAD file in your Chrome Downloads folder, you can try hitting the Resume button to finish the download. It doesn't always work, though. In that case, try downloading the entire file again.
Thanks for letting us know!
Fixing the gibberish hack
This guide is created specifically for a type of hack that adds keyword-heavy gibberish pages to your site which we’ll refer to as the gibberish hack. It’s designed for users of popular Content Management Systems (CMSs), but you’ll find this guide useful even if you don’t use a CMS.
We want to make sure this guide is really helpful to you. Please leave feedback to help us improve!
Identifying this type of hack
The gibberish hack automatically creates many pages with non-sensical sentences filled with keywords on your site. These are pages that you didn't create, but have URLs that might be compelling for users to click. Hackers do this so the hacked pages show up in Google Search. Then, if people try to visit these pages, they’ll be redirected to an unrelated page, like a porn site. Hackers make money when people visit these unrelated pages. Here are some examples of the type of files you might see on a site affected by the gibberish hack:
Sometimes they appear in a folder composed of random characters and use different languages:
Start by checking the Security Issues tool in Search Console to see if Google has discovered any of these hacked pages on your site. Sometimes you can also uncover pages like this by opening a Google Search window and typing in , with the root level URL of your site. This will show you the pages that Google has indexed for your site, including the hacked pages. Flip through a couple of pages of search results to see if you spot any unusual URLs. If you don’t see any hacked content in Google Search, use the same search terms with a different search engine. An example of what that would look like is below.Note: Notice that the search results here contain many pages not created by the site owner. If you look closely at the descriptions, you’ll see examples of the gibberish text that this hack creates.
Typically, when you click a link to a hacked page you will either be redirected to another site, or you will see a page full of gibberish content. However, you might also see a message suggesting that the page does not exist (for example, a 404 error). Don’t be fooled! Hackers will try to trick you into thinking the page is gone or fixed when it’s still hacked. They do this by cloaking content. Check for cloaking by entering your site’s URLs in the Inspect URL tool tool. The Fetch as Google tool allows you to see the underlying hidden content.
If you see these issues, your site has most likely been affected by this type of hack.
Fixing the hack
Before you start, make an offline copy of any files before you remove them, in case you need to restore them later. Better yet, back up your entire site before you start the cleanup process. You can do this by saving all the files that are on your server to a location off your server or searching for the best backup options for your particular Content Management System (CMS). If you’re using a CMS, you should back up the database as well.
Check your file (2 steps)
The gibberish hack redirects visitors from your site using the file.
Locate your file on your site. If you’re not sure where to find it and you’re using a CMS like WordPress, Joomla, or Drupal, search for ".htaccess file location" in a search engine along with the name of your CMS. Depending on your site, you might see multiple files. Make a list of all of file locations.Note: The is often a "hidden file." Make sure to enable showing hidden files when you’re searching for it.
Replace all files with a clean or default version of the file. You can usually find a default version of a file by searching for "default file" and the name of your CMS. For sites with multiple files, find a clean version of each one and perform the replacement.
If no default exists and you’ve never configured an file on your site, the file you find on your site is probably malicious. Save a copy of the file(s) offline just in case and delete the file from your site.
Finding and removing other malicious files (5 steps)
Identifying malicious files can be tricky and can take several hours. Take your time when checking your files. If you haven’t yet, this is a good time to back up the files on your site. Do a Google search for "back up site" and the name of your CMS to find instructions on how to back up your site.
If you use a CMS, reinstall all the core (default) files that come in the default distribution of your CMS, as well as anything you may have added (such as themes, modules, plugins). This helps ensure that these files are clear of hacked content. You can do a Google search for "reinstall" and your CMS name to find instructions on the reinstallation process. If you have any plugins, modules, extensions, or themes, make sure to reinstall those as well.Caution: Reinstalling your core files can cause you to lose any customizations that you’ve made. Be sure to create a backup of your database and all files before you reinstall.
Now you need to look for any other malicious or compromised files left. This is the most difficult and time-consuming part of the process, but after this you’re almost done!
This hack typically leaves two types of files: files and .php files. The files serve are template files, and the files determine what type of non-sensical content to load onto your site. Start by looking for the files. Depending on how you’re connecting to your site, you should see some type of search functionality for files Search for ".txt" to pull up all the files with a extension. Most of these will be legitimate files of text like license agreements, readme files, and so on. You’re looking for a particular set of files that contain HTML code used to create spammy templates. Below are snippets of different pieces of code that you might find in these malicious files.
Hackers use keyword replacement to create the spammy pages. You’ll most likely see some type of generic word that can be replaced throughout the hacked file.
Additionally, most of these files contain some type of code that positions spammy links and spammy text off the visible page.
Remove these files. If they’re all in the same folder you can remove the entire folder.
The malicious PHP files are a bit harder to track down. There could be one or many malicious PHP files on your site. They could all be contained in the same subdirectory or scattered around your site.
Don’t get overwhelmed by thinking that you need to open and look through every PHP file. Start by creating a list of suspicious PHP files that you want to investigate. Here are a few ways to determine which PHP files are suspicious:
- Since you’ve already reloaded your CMS files, look only at files that are not part of your default CMS files or folders. This should eliminate a large number of PHP files and leave you with a handful of files to look at.
- Sort the files on your site by last modified date. Look for files that were modified within a few months of the time that you first discovered your site was hacked.
- Sort the files on your site by size. Look for any unusually large files.
Once you have a list of suspicious PHP files, check to see if they are malicious. If you’re unfamiliar with PHP, this process might be more time consuming, so consider brushing up on some PHP documentation. If you’re completely new to coding, we recommend getting help. In the meantime, there are some basic patterns that you can look for to identify malicious files.
If you use a CMS, and are not in the habit of editing those files directly, compare the files on your server to a list of the default files packaged with the CMS and any plugins and themes. Look for files that do not belong, as well as files whose sizes seem larger than their defaults.
First, scan through the suspicious files you’ve already identified to look for large blocks of text with a combination of seemingly jumbled letters and numbers. The large block of text is usually preceded by a combination of PHP functions like , , , , . Here is an example of what the block of code might look like. Sometimes all this code will be stuffed into one long line of text, making it look smaller than it actually is.
Sometimes the code isn’t jumbled and just looks like normal script. If you’re not certain whether or not the code is bad, stop by our Webmaster Help Forums where a group of experienced webmasters can help you look over the files.
Now that you know which files are suspicious, create a backup or a local copy by saving them onto your computer just in case it wasn’t malicious, and delete the suspicious files.
Check to see if your site is clean
Once you’re done getting rid of hacked files, check to see if your hard work paid off. Remember those gibberish pages you identified earlier? Use the Fetch as Google tool on them again to see if they still exist. If they respond as "Not Found" in Fetch as Google, chances are you’re in pretty good shape and you can move on to fixing the vulnerabilities on your site.Note: You can also follow the steps in the Hacked Sites Troubleshooter to check if there’s still hacked content on your site.
How do I prevent getting hacked again?
Fixing vulnerabilities on your site is an essential final step for fixing your site. A recent study done found that 20% of hacked sites get hacked again within 1 day. Knowing exactly how your site was hacked is helpful. Read our top ways websites get hacked by spammers guide to start your investigation. However, if you’re unable to find out how your site was hacked, below is a checklist of things you can do reduce vulnerabilities on your site.
- Regularly scan your computer: Use any popular virus scanner to check for viruses or vulnerabilities.
- Regularly change your passwords: Regularly changing the passwords to all your website accounts like your hosting provider, FTP, and CMS can prevent unauthorized access to your site. It’s important to create a strong, unique password for each account.
- Use Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Consider enabling 2FA on any service that requires you to log in. 2FA makes it harder for hackers to log in even if they successfully steal your password.
- Update your CMS, plugins, extensions, and modules regularly: Hopefully you’ve already done this step. Many sites get hacked because of the outdated software running on a site. Some CMSs support auto-updating.
- Consider subscribing to a security service to monitor your site: There’s a lot of great services out there that can help you monitor your site for a small fee. Consider registering with them to keep your site safe.
If you’re still having trouble fixing your site, there are a few more resources that might help you.
These tools scan your site and may be able to find problematic content. Other than VirusTotal, Google doesn't run or support them.
Virus Total, Aw-snap.info, Sucuri Site Check, Quttera: These are just some tools that may be able to scan your site for problematic content. Keep in mind that these scanners can’t guarantee that they will identify every type of problematic content.
Here are additional resources from Google that can help you:Note: Missing a tool you think might be useful? Leave feedback and let us know.
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FIX: This file is dangerous Chrome has blocked it
- Chrome may be overzealous when it comes to security measures. That's the case with This file is dangerous Chrome has blocked it error.
- If you want to allow Chrome to download dangerous files, try tweaking its Privacy and Security features a bit.
- Another this file is dangerous Chrome has blocked it fix is even easier: consider a different browser.
- Keeping malware at bay is a great method to keep dangerous files in Chrome or to allow dangerous files Chrome.
- Easy migration: use the Opera assistant to transfer exiting data, such as bookmarks, passwords, etc.
- Optimize resource usage: your RAM memory is used more efficiently than Chrome does
- Enhanced privacy: free and unlimited VPN integrated
- No ads: built-in Ad Blocker speeds up loading of pages and protects against data-mining
- Download Opera
Chrome is used by millions of users all over the world. It’s fast and reliable, and if you’re an Android smartphone owner, syncing between the devices is incredibly easy.
On the other hand, over the years Google has added a myriad of new elements and some users are lost in the transition.
In fact, one security measure has ended up generating an error message saying This file is dangerous Chrome has blocked it. This prevents downloading harmful files to your storage.
In recent years, both mainstream and alternative browsers introduced security checks while opening untrusted links or downloading suspicious files. Chrome is leading the trend with the built-in antimalware and anti-phishing system.
It will automatically determine harmful file extensions and block them accordingly. Although it’s a great feature, chances are that you still want to download certain files that would have been otherwise blocked.
With that in mind, it’s understandable if you want to avoid this security measure. Unfortunately, you can’t disable the Download check option individually.
If you disable anti-phishing and anti-malware protection, you’ll completely dismiss further warnings, and that isn’t recommended.
It seems that this warning focuses on extension installs, so the chance is it’ll block most of the .exe and .msi files you’ll try to download.
Of course, this concerns only downloads from untrusted and deceptive sites. The best thing you can do is to manually approve every blocked file that you find to be non-malicious. Whether the file is malicious or not, it’s up to you.
Nonetheless, we found some quick ways to deal with this problem. Check them out below.
How to allow Chrome to download dangerous files?
1. Try a different browser
If you’re worried about your safety online, you might want to try Opera. It’s an amazing alternative that offers lots of features. Most of them will make your life easier and help you keep your data safe.
Opera has numerous privacy-oriented features such as tracking and phishing protection. Moreover, there’s also the built-in VPN that keeps your online footprint to a minimum while keeping your privacy protected.
Customization is another perk you will enjoy as Opera allows you to craft your own workspace and flow, customize your sidebar, its appearance and much more.
Enjoy the Internet with the best antiphishing and antimalware system integrated directly in your browser!
2. Use a specialized tool to remove malware
Your PC performs better after a complete virus scan, so it is a good idea to do them regularly. Removing unwanted programs will also free some space on your device.
The way a browser works can definitely be improved by using a good antivirus that has the ability to block all malicious threats.
Furthermore, we recommend choosing an antivirus that ranks highly in independent tests and incorporates multiple layers of defense to fully protect your device against known or emerging malware outbreaks.
⇒ Get BullGuard
3. Disable Chrome security prompts and restore blocked downloads
- Open Chrome.
- Click on the 3-dot menu in the far right corner.
- Open Settings.
- Scroll down and expand the Advanced section.
- Navigate to Privacy& security.
- Disable the Protect you and your device from dangerous sites option.
After this, Chrome pop-ups shouldn’t bother you anymore. If you are a webmaster and have had a lot of reports of blockage of your site, we recommend contacting Google.
In this article, we explored how to download certain files, although they have been blocked by Chrome’s antimalware system.
Let us know your questions or thoughts in the comments section below.
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Google Chrome 97.0.4681.0 Crack
Google Chrome 97.0.4681.0 Crack’s prominence and popularity is its simple user interface. It hasn’t changed much since the beta version.
Google has focused on reducing the number of unnecessary tools to maximize real estate.
The browser consists of 3 toolbars, and the top layer simplifies settings icons and automatically adjusts tabs, along with standard controls to minimize, maximize, and close windows.
The middle row has 3 navigation controls (Back, Forward, and Pause / Refresh), a URL field that lets you search the web directly on Google, and an asterisk tag.
Your browser extension icon and settings will be on the right side of the URL field. The third row contains folders for laptops and installed programs.
Chrome OS is so minimal that it takes about seven seconds to download. Google released the Chrome OS source code in October 2022 under the BSD license as part of a larger project called Chromium. The operating system is based on the Linux kernel and runs on Intel x86 chips. And ARM, the only original Google Chrome OS software program, is the Google browser called Chrome. Both Chrome and the browser share a common auto-update feature that allows Google to deliver updates through the Secure Sockets Layer. (SSL) Users will not be able to reject security updates or revert to an earlier version.
Chrome is a fast, convenient, and reliable web browser for the web today. Chrome is designed to be as fast as it gets by any means. Works quickly from the desktop, loads web pages fast, and launches complex web applications quickly. The Chrome window is clean and simple. For example, you can search and navigate in the same window and arrange your notes as quickly and easily as you like. Chrome is designed to protect you and your website with automatic protection against malware and phishing. Automatic updates and more to ensure you get the latest security fixes.
Google Chrome 97.0.4681.0 Crack + Latest PC Version (2022) Free
- Simplicity – designed for efficiency and ease of use.
- Quickly and easily organize and categorize addresses the way you want.
- New application pages, intuitive shortcuts, and dynamic notes.
- Disaster control, anonymous inspection, and safety inspection
- Search and explore the site in the same window.
- Speed: Open quickly, load web pages.
- Quick start from your desktop
- application page.
- Style: The theme that makes your browser look great.
- The web page loads quickly.
- Go to your favorite website by clicking once on one of the most visited website icons on the new.
- Try a simple theme, See the Stars or Google Chrome.
- A box for everyone
- Web applications run faster than ever.
- Instant notes, easy setup importing and downloading.
- And so on …
- Checking the junk box will prevent the site associated with the program from crashing.
- Sketches often turn the page.
- Multidisciplinary learning is fast.
- HTML 5 support
- Chrome plugins and apps
- Open-source extensions
- Medium interface plan
- Webhli web applications are not supported.
- Latest version: 97.0.4681.0
- Filename: Google Chrome
- MD5 audit: 68D0E723405653AE925C4BA18DE8
- Size: 62.5 Delete
- License: Free
- Last Update: November 13, 2021
- Compatible operating system: Windows 10 / Windows 8 / Windows 7
- the author: Google
- Source: CrackitoPC.com
How To Install & hack Google Chrome 97.0.4681.0 Crack?
- Open the downloaded file.
- Click the download button.
- Automatic software downloads Thanks for downloading it.
- Click Install
- Follow the instructions
- All Done, enjoy.
Free Download Video Repair Software
Videos are used extensively nowadays for several different purposes. They are utilized for marketing by businesses and in the entertainment industry in the form of movies. The Introduction of high-quality cameras has had a big impact on the utilization and popularity of videos.
You can now shoot videos in great detail. This has created the need for digital video formats that can store large amounts of data in a single file. However, video corruption can happen oftentimes. Here, we will talk about how to repair corrupted videos.
Part 1: 8 Free Video Repair Software to Fix Video
These days, it is simple to record videos and even download them from the internet. The videos can readily be viewed from laptops, televisions, or even smartphones. However, numerous issues related to video file codecs arise especially if specific files get corrupted or damaged. At other times, videos will tend to freeze as we try to play them causing lots of headaches. With the help of ideal free video repair software, you can always take care of these files. Luckily, there are numerous tools available online to help you with this. This part expounds on some of the tools.
It is critical to note that some of the free video repair software tools work with specific codecs while others work for all. They include:
1 The VLC Media Player
This is a global free video media player that accepts a wide portfolio of video file formats. While not many realize it yet, this tool is also perfect when it comes to the repair of damaged video files that are in formats like AVI, MOV, MP4, or QTRM. The steps to help you repair your broken video through VLC include:
Step 1 Go to the 'tools' tab of this application and select 'preferences' from the drop-down menu that pops up.
Step 2 After this, you will see a window that allows you to find and click on the 'inputs/Codecs' option.
Step 3 You should scroll down on the sidebar till you reach a selection that states 'Damaged/incomplete AVI file'. A drop-down menu is present and you should select the 'Always Fix' option. Save your preferences and you should be able to play your video without any errors. The corrupted file will have been fixed completely.
At times, your video file will not be salvaged by the VLC Media Player repair procedure. This is particularly the case with AVI format files. Using this video repair software is easy as you are just prompted to drag and drop your file into its interface. By manually selecting the ‘Add Files’ option, you can add numerous files and have them repaired simultaneously. Deleting the index section from your videos has been made easy through the ‘Strip Index’ tab. To begin repairing your files, just click the ‘Fix’ option. The ‘Check Errors’ tab to quickly check the file after fixing and you can alternatively cut out the damaged sections. DivFix++ is versatile in that it allows you to save your files in the same location or even in a different folder after you check out the bad parts.
3 Digital Video Repair
This is another useful free tool. It comes in handy if you want to fix your corrupt AVI files that have been encoded using DivX, MPEG4, Xvid, 3ivx, or Angel Potions. Hence, issues such as visual disturbances, rough playback, or video quality disruptions are all smoothened out from your AVI files. It stands out from others in this list as it supports multiple languages and caters to large files that even surpass the 2GB mark. The fixing process is simple too. You just need to select ‘input file’ and add the corrupted videos. The ‘check errors’ option is also present and the errors that get detected are reflected on the ‘File Status’ tab. Clicking o the ‘Repair’ button prompts the fixing process.
4 MP4 Video Recovery Tool
This is free video repair software that is uniquely designed for your Windows Operating System. It also repairs files that are in the MP4 format only and hence needs the Java Runtime Environment to fully function. To repair your corrupted MP4 video file, follow the following steps:
Step 1 Get the damaged video from the device by clicking on the ‘Select Corrupt Video File’ on this tool.
Step 2 The next step is to go with the ‘Select Working Video’ option to have a working MP4 file. This is developed by your machine.
Step 3 To fix the damaged file, press the ‘Click My File’ tab. The repair process is prompted and will depend on factors such as the size of the file or even your machine’s speed. MP4 Video Recovery Tool has a graphical user interface where you can view the status of the video being fixed.
At other times, your DivXfiles will not play due to a virus or breakage. Luckily, the DivXRepair video repair software deals with such and at the same time address related issues such as audio loss, image freezing, or pixel discoloration. The tool is automatic and all you have to do is give it time. After you add the damaged files, the tool searches for errors and efficiently resolves them. You can have multiple files fixed and a final report is given after the process is over.
6 Get My Videos Back
It is a tool that works with damaged DVDs and CDs. Using the software tool is easy as you simply have to click on the 'Open and Start' tab. The next thing is to select the damaged videos that you want to repair. After selecting the target folder, the process begins. Video Codecs such as FLV, 3GP, AVI, DivX, MPEG, and MP4 can perfectly be recovered and repaired by this tool.
The meteorite is an open-source project that deals with MKV files that have been corrupted. You can also repair MKV files that are actively downloading online. It has a basic layout and all you have to do is drag your videos to the interface. The tool repairs file automatically and also deletes the damaged ones. It is free and readily compatible with Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux.
8 File Repair
Finally, File Repair is a diverse video repair software. Also, this tool caters to the repair of formats such as Zip, RAR, DOCX, JPEG, PDF, GIF, PNG, PPT, WAV, and Mp3. The corrupted files and typically scanned after clicking the 'Repair' option. The whole process is observable and after completion, the original file gets reinstated alongside the repaired file.
From the above, it is clear that you do not have to worry when your files get broken or corrupted. There are tonnes of video repair software tools available online and you only need to download one that precisely meets your demand. While they vary with regards to the features, this piece highlighted tools that will not cost you even a dime. Repairing your videos or even files in different formats never got simpler. Read through the above tools to get a glimpse of how each works. Following the procedures stated for each will ensure that your files are safely recovered and repaired for use.
Part 2: How to Repair Corrupt Video Files
The countless free video repair software available online can’t recover data from corrupted videos in a comprehensive manner. Wondershare Repairit Video Repair is a free download video repair software program that is capable of repairing corrupted videos of all formats and sizes. It can restore the complete multimedia content of damaged videos and make them as good as new.
Fixes video corruption issues by rebuilding header, frame, movement, duration, and sound damages.
Repairs video files like WMV, ASF, MOV, MP4, M4V, 3G2, 3GP, and F4V files
Repairs videos stored on hard drives, memory cards, and other storage media
Provides a preview of the repaired video files in supported file formats.
Fixes various corruptions of the file on macOS X and Windows OS.
Steps on Corrupt Video File Repair
Here is an instruction manual that is going to walk you through the process of how to repair corrupt video files using the video repair software. But first, download and install Wondershare Repairit to your Windows or Mac.
Step 1Add Corrupt Video Files
With the video repair tool. Click "Add video and start repairing", or click the "Add" button to add corrupt video files.
Step 2Repair Corrupt Video Files
Select corrupt videos from the list and click the "Repair" button to start repairing the corrupted videos.
Step 3Preview and Save Repaired Video File
You can preview all repaired video file and save to the desired location.
The following are some simple but effective tips that can go a long way in preventing video files from getting corrupted.
Always use a standardized converter for converting different video file formats into one another.
Invest in backup power. It is best to buy a UPS for this purpose.
Make sure to update your operating system when a new update is introduced by the developers.
Part 3. Causes of Corrupted Videos
Before the video repair process, the following are some of the reasons that can cause these video files to get corrupted.
Improper conversion of any video from one format to another can cause it to corrupt. If you are using a substandard converter then again the chances of corruption increase manifolds.
Sudden power loss when you transfer a video from one storage media to another can result in video corruption.
Operating system issues can also cause videos to corrupt as well. If the operating system encounters a problem while the video was being played then there is every chance that the video will get damaged.
You will need free video repair software to recover the data of the corrupted videos. There are many free video repair software programs available on the internet. You will have to look out for the best free download video repair software, though.
Part 4. Extra Information on Different Video Formats
Various digital video formats have been developed for storing multimedia content of varying sizes and qualities. The following is a list of some of the digital video formats that are commonly used for video playback.
MOV: MOV is the digital video format that has been introduced by Apple. It is supported by several Media Players and MOV video files can run easily on Windows Media Player and QuickTime. MOV video files are capable of storing movies.
MTS: MTS is the digital video format that was introduced by both Sony and Panasonic. It is supported by a few Media Players only and MTS video files can run easily on Windows Media Player and VLC Media Player. MTS video files are capable of storing HD videos and movies.
MKV: MKV is the digital video format that was introduced by the Russians. It is supported by a handful of Media Players only but MKV video files can still run without issue on VLC Media Player. MKV videos are capable of storing a lot of multimedia content.
MP4: MP4 is the digital video format that is an extension of the MPEG-4 file format. It is supported by several Media Player and MP4 videos that can run easily on Windows Media Player and QuickTime. MP4 videos are capable of storing compressed videos and movies.
AVI: AVI is the digital video format that has been introduced by Microsoft. It is supported by several Media Players and AVI videos can run easily on Windows Media Player and VLC Media Player. AVI videos are capable of storing videos and audio content. What are the best methods to repair your AVI files? Here is the ultimate guide for you: How to Fix Not Playing AVI Video Problem.
All of these digital video formats are vulnerable to corruption and damage. It is hardly possible for us to repair the videos without any assistance. That's why you need a video repair program like Wondershare Repairit Video Repair. Follow the steps above to repair your corrupted videos now.
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