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Table of Contents

1. About This Reference
1.1, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Conventions Used in This Reference
1.1.1. Product Codes
1.1.2. Applicable Products
1.2. Terminology
1.3. Command Characteristics
1.3.1. Data Input
1.3.2. Free-Format Input
1.3.3. Nonrestrictive Data Input
1.3.4. Condensed Data Input
1.3.5. Units
1.3.6. Command and Argument Defaults
1.3.7. File Names
1.3.8, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Star and Slash Commands
2. Command Groupings
2.1. SESSION Commands
2.2. DATABASE Commands
2.3. GRAPHICS Commands
2.4. APDL Commands
2.5. PREP7 Commands
2.6. SOLUTION Commands
2.7. POST1 Commands
2.8. POST26 Commands
2.9. AUX2 Commands
2.10. AUX3 Commands
2.11. AUX12 Commands
2.12. AUX15 Commands
2.13. Mapping Processor Commands
2.14. DISPLAY Program Commands
2.15. REDUCED Order Modeling Commands
3. Command Dictionary
I. Connection Commands
~CAT5IN - Transfers a .CATPart file into the ANSYS program.
~CATIAIN - Transfers a CATIA model into the ANSYS program.
~PARAIN - Transfers a Parasolid file into the ANSYS program.
~PROEIN - Transfers a Creo Parametric part into the ANSYS program.
~SATIN - Transfers a .SAT file into the ANSYS program.
~UGIN - Transfers an Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen part into the ANSYS program.
II. A Commands
A - Defines an area by connecting keypoints.
AADD - Adds separate areas to create a single area.
AATT - Associates element attributes with the selected, unmeshed areas.
ABEXTRACT - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen the alpha-beta damping multipliers for Rayleigh damping.
*ABBR - Defines an abbreviation.
ABBRES - Reads abbreviations from a coded file.
ABBSAV - Writes the current abbreviation set to a coded file.
ABS - Forms the absolute value of a variable.
ACCAT - Concatenates multiple areas in preparation for mapped meshing.
ACCOPTION - Specifies GPU accelerator capability options.
ACEL - Specifies the linear acceleration of the global Cartesian reference frame for the analysis.
ACLEAR - Deletes nodes and area elements associated with selected areas.
ADAMS - Performs solutions and writes flexible body information to a modal neutral file (Jobname.MNF) for use in an ADAMS analysis.
ADD - Adds (sums) variables.
ADDAM - Specifies the acceleration spectrum computation constants for the analysis of shock resistance of shipboard structures.
ADELE - Deletes unmeshed areas.
ADGL - Lists keypoints of Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen area that lie on a parametric degeneracy.
ADRAG - Generates areas by dragging a line pattern along a path.
AEROCOEFF - Computes the aero-damping and stiffness coefficients and writes them to an APDL array.
AESIZE - Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas.
AFILLT - Generates a fillet at the intersection of two areas.
AFLIST - Lists the current data in the database.
AFSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the surface of existing solid elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
*AFUN - Specifies units for angular functions in parameter expressions.
AGEN - Generates additional areas from a pattern of areas.
AGLUE - Generates new areas by "gluing" areas.
AINA - Finds the intersection of areas.
AINP - Finds the pairwise intersection of areas.
AINV - Finds the intersection of an area with a volume.
AL - Generates an area bounded by previously defined lines.
ALIST - Lists the defined areas.
ALLSEL - Selects all entities with a single command.
ALPHAD - Defines the mass matrix multiplier for damping.
AMAP - Generates a 2-D mapped mesh based on specified area corners.
AMESH - Generates nodes and area elements within areas.
/AN3D - Specifies 3-D annotation functions
ANCNTR - Produces an animated sequence of a contoured deformed shape.
ANCUT - Produces an animated sequence of Q-slices.
ANCYC - Applies a traveling wave animation to graphics data in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
ANDATA - Displays animated graphics data for nonlinear problems.
ANDSCL - Produces an animated sequence of a deformed shape.
ANDYNA - Produces an animated sequence of contour values through substeps.
/ANFILE - Saves or resumes an animation sequence to or from a file.
ANFLOW - Produces an animated sequence of particle flow in a flowing fluid or a charged particle traveling in an electric or magnetic field.
/ANGLE - Rotates the display about an axis.
ANHARM - Produces an animated sequence of time-harmonic results or complex mode shapes.
ANIM - Displays animated graphics data for linear problems.
ANISOS - Produces an animated sequence of an isosurface.
ANMODE - Produces an animated sequence of a mode shape.
ANMRES - Performs animation of results over multiple results files in an explicit dynamic structural analysis or fluid flow analysis with remeshing.
/ANNOT - Activates graphics for annotating displays (GUI).
ANORM - Reorients area normals.
ANPRES - Produces an animated sequence of the time-harmonic pressure variation of an engine-order excitation in a cyclic harmonic analysis.
ANSOL - Specifies averaged nodal data to be stored from the results file in the solution coordinate system.
ANSTOAQWA - Creates an AQWA-LINE input file from the current Mechanical APDL model.
ANSTOASAS - Creates an ASAS input file from the current ANSYS model.
ANTIME - Generates a sequential contour animation over a range of time.
ANTYPE - Specifies the analysis type and restart status.
/ANUM - Specifies the annotation number, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, type, and hot spot (GUI).
AOFFST - Generates an area, offset from a given area.
AOVLAP - Overlaps areas.
APLOT - Displays the selected areas.
APORT - Specifies input data for plane wave and acoustic duct ports.
APPEND - Reads data from the results file and appends it to the database.
APTN - Partitions areas.
ARCLEN - Activates the arc-length method.
ARCTRM - Controls termination of the solution when the arc-length method is used.
AREAS - Specifies "Areas" as the subsequent status topic.
AREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified areas.
AREMESH - Generates an area in which to create a new mesh for rezoning.
AREVERSE - Reverses the normal of an area, regardless of its connectivity or mesh status.
AROTAT - Generates cylindrical areas by rotating a line pattern about an axis.
ARSCALE - Generates a scaled set of areas from a pattern of areas.
ARSYM - Generates areas from an area pattern by symmetry reflection.
ASBA - Subtracts areas from areas.
ASBL - Subtracts lines from areas.
ASBV - Subtracts volumes from areas.
ASBW - Subtracts the intersection of the working plane Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen areas (divides areas).
ASCRES - Specifies the output type for an acoustic scattering analysis.
ASEL - Selects a subset of areas.
ASIFILE - Writes or reads one-way acoustic-structural coupling data.
*ASK - Prompts the user to input a parameter value.
ASKIN - Generates an area by "skinning" a surface through guiding lines.
ASLL - Selects those areas containing the selected lines.
ASLV - Selects those areas contained in the selected volumes.
ASOL Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Specifies the acoustic solver with scattered field formulation.
/ASSIGN - Reassigns a file name to an ANSYS file identifier.
ASUB - Generates an area using the shape of an existing area.
ASUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected areas.
ATAN - Forms the arctangent of a complex variable.
ATRAN - Transfers a pattern of areas to another coordinate system.
ATYPE - Specifies "Analysis types" as the subsequent status topic.
/AUTO - Resets the focus and distance specifications to "automatically calculated."
AUTOTS - Specifies whether to use automatic time stepping or load stepping.
/AUX2 - Enters the binary file dumping processor.
/AUX3 - Enters the results file editing processor.
/AUX12 - Enters the radiation processor.
/AUX15 - Enters the IGES file transfer processor.
AVPRIN - Specifies how principal and vector sums are to be calculated.
AVRES - Specifies how results data will be averaged when PowerGraphics is enabled.
AWAVE - Specifies input data for an acoustic incident wave.
/AXLAB - Labels the X and Y axes on graph displays.
*AXPY - Performs the matrix operation M2= v*M1 + w*M2.
III. B Commands
/BATCH - Sets the program mode to "batch."
BCSOPTION - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen memory option for the sparse solver.
BETAD - Defines the stiffness matrix multiplier for damping.
BF - Defines a nodal body force load.
BFA - Defines a body force load on an area.
BFADELE - Deletes body force loads on an area.
BFALIST - Lists the body force loads on an area.
BFCUM - Specifies that nodal body force loads are to be accumulated.
BFDELE - Deletes nodal body force loads.
BFE - Defines an element body force load.
BFECUM - Specifies whether to ignore subsequent element body force loads.
BFEDELE - Deletes element body force loads.
BFELIST - Lists the element body force loads.
BFESCAL - Scales element body force loads.
BFINT - Activates the body force interpolation operation.
BFK Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Defines a body force load at a keypoint.
BFKDELE - Deletes body force loads at a keypoint.
BFKLIST - Lists the body force loads at keypoints.
BFL - Defines a body force load on a line.
BFLDELE - Deletes body force loads on a line.
BFLIST - Lists the body force loads on nodes.
BFLLIST - Lists the body force loads on a line.
BFSCALE - Scales body force loads at nodes.
BFTRAN - Transfers solid model body force loads to the finite element model.
BFUNIF - Assigns a Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen body force load to all nodes.
BFV - Defines a body force load on a volume.
BFVDELE - Deletes body force loads on a volume.
BFVLIST - Lists the body force loads on a volume.
BIOOPT - Specifies "Biot-Savart options" as the subsequent status topic.
BIOT - Calculates the Biot-Savart source magnetic field intensity.
BLC4 - Creates a rectangular area or block volume by corner points.
BLC5 - Creates a rectangular area or block volume by center and corner points.
BLOCK - Creates a block volume based on working plane coordinates.
BOOL - Specifies "Booleans" as the subsequent status topic.
BOPTN - Specifies Boolean operation options.
BSAX - Specifies the axial strain and axial force relationship for beam sections.
BSMD - Specifies mass per unit length for a nonlinear general beam section.
BSM1 - Specifies the bending curvature and moment relationship in plane XZ for beam sections.
BSM2 - Specifies the bending curvature and moment relationship in plane XY for beam sections.
BSPLIN - Generates a single line from a spline fit to a series of keypoints.
BSS1 - Specifies the transverse shear strain and force relationship in plane XZ for beam sections.
BSS2 - Specifies the transverse shear strain and force relationship in plane XY for beam sections.
BSTE - Specifies a thermal expansion coefficient for a nonlinear general beam section.
BSTQ - Specifies the cross section twist and torque relationship for beam sections.
BTOL - Specifies the Boolean operation tolerances.
BUCOPT - Specifies buckling analysis options.
IV, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. C Commands
C*** - Places a comment in the output.
CALC - Specifies "Calculation settings" as the subsequent status topic.
CAMPBELL - Prepares the result file for a subsequent Campbell diagram of a prestressed structure.
CBDOF - Activates cut-boundary interpolation (for submodeling).
CBMD - Specifies preintegrated section mass matrix for composite-beam sections.
CBMX - Specifies preintegrated cross-section stiffness for composite beam sections.
CBTE - Specifies a thermal expansion coefficient for a composite beam section.
CBTMP - Specifies a temperature for composite-beam input.
CDOPT - Specifies format to be used for archiving geometry.
CDREAD - Reads a file of solid model and database information into the database.
CDWRITE - Writes geometry and load database items to a file.
CE - Defines a constraint equation relating degrees of freedom.
CECHECK - Check constraint equations and couplings for rigid body motions.
CECMOD - Modifies the Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen term of a constraint equation during solution.
CECYC - Generates the constraint equations for a cyclic symmetry analysis
CEDELE - Deletes constraint equations.
CEINTF - Generates constraint equations at an interface.
CELIST - Lists the constraint equations.
CENTER - Defines a node at the center of curvature of 2 or 3 nodes.
CEQN - Specifies "Constraint equations" as the subsequent status topic.
CERIG - Defines a rigid region.
CESGEN - Generates a set of constraint equations from existing sets.
CFACT - Defines complex scaling factors to be used with operations.
*CFCLOS - Closes the "command" file.
*CFOPEN - Opens a "command" file.
*CFWRITE - Writes a Mechanical APDL command (or similar string) to a "command" file.
/CFORMAT - Controls the graphical display of alphanumeric character strings for parameters, components, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, assemblies, and tables.
CGLOC - Specifies the origin location of the acceleration coordinate system.
CGOMGA - Specifies the rotational velocity of the global origin.
CGROW - Defines crack-growth information
CHECK - Checks current database items for completeness.
CHKMSH - Checks area and volume entities for previous meshes.
CINT - Defines parameters associated with fracture parameter calculations
CIRCLE - Generates circular arc lines.
CISOL - Stores fracture parameter information in a variable.
/CLABEL - Specifies contour labeling.
/CLEAR - Clears the database.
CLOCAL - Defines a local coordinate system relative to the active coordinate system.
CLOG - Forms the common log of a variable
/CLOG - Copies the session log file to a named file.
CLRMSHLN - Clears meshed entities.
CM - Groups geometry items into a component.
CMACEL - Specifies the translational acceleration of an element component
/CMAP - Changes an existing or creates a new color mapping table.
CMATRIX - Performs electrostatic field solutions and calculates the self and mutual capacitances between multiple conductors.
CMDELE - Deletes a component or assembly definition.
CMDOMEGA - Specifies the rotational acceleration of an element component about a user-defined rotational axis.
CMEDIT - Edits an existing assembly.
CMGRP - Groups components and assemblies into an assembly.
CMLIST - Lists the contents of a component or assembly.
CMMOD - Modifies the specification of a component.
CMOMEGA - Specifies the rotational velocity of an element component about a user-defined rotational axis.
CMPLOT - Plots the entities contained in a component or assembly.
CMROTATE - Specifies the rotational velocity of an element component in a brake squeal analysis.
CMSEL - Selects a subset of components and assemblies.
CMSFILE - Specifies a list of component mode synthesis (CMS) results files for plotting results on the assembly.
CMSOPT - Specifies component mode synthesis (CMS) analysis options.
CMWRITE - Writes node and element components and assemblies to a file.
CNCHECK - Provides and/or adjusts the initial status of contact pairs.
CNKMOD - Modifies contact element key options.
CNTR - Redirects contact pair output quantities to a text file.
CNVTOL - Sets convergence values for nonlinear analyses.
/COLOR - Specifies the color mapping for various items.
/COM - Places a comment in the output.
*COMP - Compresses a matrix using a specified algorithm.
COMBINE - Combines distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) files.
COMPRESS - Deletes all specified sets.
CON4 - Creates a conical volume anywhere on the working plane.
CONE - Creates a conical volume centered about the working plane origin.
/CONFIG - Assigns values to ANSYS configuration parameters.
CONJUG - Forms the complex conjugate of a variable.
/CONTOUR - Specifies the uniform contour values on stress displays.
/COPY - Copies a Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen - Applies the Coriolis effect to a rotating structure.
COUPLE - Specifies "Node coupling" as the subsequent status topic.
COVAL - Defines PSD cospectral values.
CP - Defines (or modifies) a set of coupled degrees of freedom.
CPCYC - Couples the two side faces of a cyclically symmetric model for loadings that are the same on every segment.
CPDELE - Deletes coupled degree of freedom sets.
CPINTF - Defines coupled degrees of freedom at an interface.
/CPLANE - Specifies the cutting plane for section and capped displays.
CPLGEN - Generates sets of coupled nodes from an existing set.
CPLIST - Lists the coupled degree of freedom sets.
CPMERGE - Merges different couple sets with duplicate degrees of freedom into one couple set.
CPNGEN - Defines, modifies, or adds to a set of coupled degrees of freedom.
CPSGEN - Generates sets of coupled nodes from existing sets.
CQC - Specifies the complete quadratic mode combination method.
*CREATE - Opens (creates) a macro file.
CRPLIM - Specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping.
CS - Defines a local coordinate system by three node locations.
CSCIR - Locates the singularity for non-Cartesian local coordinate systems.
CSDELE - Deletes local coordinate systems.
CSKP - Defines a local coordinate system by three keypoint locations.
CSLIST - Lists coordinate systems.
CSWPLA - Defines a local coordinate system at the origin of the working plane.
CSYS - Activates a previously defined coordinate system.
/CTYPE - Specifies the type of contour display.
CURR2D - Calculates current flow in a 2-D conductor.
CUTCONTROL - Controls time-step cutback during a nonlinear solution.
/CVAL - Specifies nonuniform contour values on stress displays.
CVAR - Computes covariance between two quantities.
/CWD - Changes the current working directory.
CYCCALC - Calculates results from a cyclic harmonic mode-superposition analysis using the specifications defined by CYCSPEC.
/CYCEXPAND - Graphically expands displacements, stresses and strains of a cyclically symmetric model.
CYCFILES - Specifies the data files where results are to be found for a cyclic symmetry mode-superposition harmonic analysis.
CYCFREQ - Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry mode-superposition harmonic analysis.
*CYCLE - Bypasses commands within a do-loop.
CYCLIC - Specifies a cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCOPT - Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCPHASE - Provides tools for determining minimum and maximum possible result values from frequency couplets produced in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCSPEC - Defines the set of result items for a subsequent CYCCALC command in postprocessing a cyclic harmonic mode-superposition analysis.
CYL4 - Creates a circular area or cylindrical volume anywhere on the working plane.
CYL5 - Creates a circular area or cylindrical volume by end points.
CYLIND - Creates a cylindrical volume centered about the working plane origin.
CZDEL - Edits or clears cohesive zone sections.
CZMESH - Create and mesh an interface area composed of cohesive zone elements.
V. D Commands
D - Defines degree-of-freedom constraints at nodes.
DA - Defines degree-of-freedom constraints on areas.
DADELE - Deletes degree-of-freedom constraints on an Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen - Lists the DOF constraints on an area.
DAMORPH - Move nodes in selected areas to conform to structural displacements.
DATA - Reads data records from a file into a variable.
DATADEF - Specifies "Directly defined data status" as the subsequent status topic.
DCGOMG - Specifies the rotational acceleration of the global origin.
DCUM - Specifies that DOF constraint values are to be accumulated.
DCVSWP - Performs a DC voltage sweep on a ROM element.
DDASPEC - Specifies the shock spectrum computation constants for DDAM analysis.
DDELE - Deletes degree-of-freedom constraints.
DDOPTION - Sets domain decomposer option for Distributed ANSYS.
DEACT - Specifies "Element birth and death" as the subsequent status topic.
DEFINE - Specifies "Data definition settings" as the subsequent status topic.
*DEL - Deletes a parameter or parameters (GUI).
DELETE - Specifies sets in the results file to be deleted Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen postprocessing.
/DELETE - Deletes a file.
DELTIM - Specifies the time step sizes to be used for the current load step.
DEMORPH - Move nodes in selected elements to conform to structural displacements.
DERIV - Differentiates a variable.
DESIZE - Controls default element sizes.
DESOL - Defines or modifies solution results at a node of an element.
DETAB - Modifies element table results in the database.
/DEVDISP - Controls graphics device options.
/DEVICE - Controls graphics device options.
/DFLAB - Changes degree-of-freedom labels for user custom elements.
DFLX - Imposes a uniform magnetic flux B on an edge-element electromagnetic model.
DFSWAVE - Specifies the incident planar waves with random phases for a diffuse sound field.
DIG - Digitizes nodes to a surface.
DIGIT - Specifies "Node digitizing" as the subsequent status topic.
*DIM - Defines an array parameter and its dimensions.
/DIRECTORY - Put the file names in the current directory into a string parameter array.
DISPLAY - Specifies "Display settings" as the subsequent status topic.
/DIST - Specifies the viewing distance for magnifications and perspective.
DJ - Specifies boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a joint element.
DJDELE - Deletes boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a joint element.
DJLIST - Lists boundary conditions applied to joint elements.
DK - Defines DOF constraints at keypoints.
DKDELE - Deletes DOF constraints at a keypoint.
DKLIST - Lists the DOF constraints at keypoints.
DL - Defines DOF constraints on lines.
DLDELE - Deletes DOF constraints on a line.
DLIST - Lists DOF constraints.
DLLIST - Lists DOF constraints on a line.
*DMAT - Creates a dense matrix.
DMOVE - Digitizes nodes on surfaces and along intersections.
DMPEXT - Extracts modal damping coefficients in a specified frequency range.
DMPOPTION - Specifies distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) file combination options.
DMPRAT - Sets a constant modal damping ratio.
DMPSTR - Sets a constant structural damping coefficient.
DNSOL - Defines or modifies solution results at a node.
*DO - Defines the beginning of a do-loop.
DOF - Adds degrees of freedom to the current DOF set.
DOFSEL - Selects a DOF label set for reference by other commands.
DOMEGA - Specifies the rotational acceleration of the structure.
*DOT - Computes the dot (or inner) product of two vectors.
*DOWHILE - Loops repeatedly through the next *ENDDO command.
DSCALE - Scales DOF constraint values.
/DSCALE - Sets the displacement multiplier for displacement displays.
DSET - Sets the scale and drawing plane orientation for a digitizing tablet.
DSPOPTION - Sets memory option for the distributed sparse solver.
DSUM - Specifies the double sum mode combination method.
DSURF - Defines the surface upon which digitized nodes lie.
DSYM - Specifies symmetry or antisymmetry degree-of-freedom constraints on nodes.
DSYS - Activates a display coordinate system for geometry listings and plots.
DTRAN - Transfers solid model DOF constraints to the finite element model.
DUMP - Dumps the contents of a binary file.
/DV3D - Sets 3-D device option modes.
DVAL - Defines values at enforced motion base.
DVMORPH - Move nodes in selected volumes to conform to structural displacements.
DYNOPT - Specifies "Dynamic analysis options" as the subsequent status topic.
VI. E Commands
E - Defines an element by node connectivity.
EALIVE - Reactivates an element (for the birth and death capability).
ECPCHG - Optimizes degree-of-freedom usage in a coupled acoustic model.
EDADAPT - Activates adaptive meshing in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDALE - Assigns mesh smoothing to explicit dynamic elements that use the ALE formulation.
EDASMP - Creates a part assembly to be used in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDBOUND - Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry.
EDBX - Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition for explicit dynamics.
EDBVIS - Specifies global bulk viscosity coefficients for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCADAPT - Specifies adaptive meshing controls for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCGEN - Specifies contact parameters for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCLIST - Lists contact entity specifications in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCMORE - Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCNSTR - Defines various types of constraints for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCONTACT - Specifies contact surface controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCPU - Specifies CPU time limit for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCRB - Constrains two rigid bodies to act as one in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCSC - Specifies whether to use subcycling in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCTS - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen mass scaling and scale factor of computed time step for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCURVE - Specifies data curves for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDDAMP - Defines mass weighted (Alpha) or stiffness weighted (Beta) damping for an explicit dynamics model.
EDDBL - Selects a numerical precision type of the explicit dynamics analysis.
EDDC - Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact surface specifications in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDDRELAX - Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the explicit analysis.
EDDUMP - Specifies output frequency for the explicit dynamic restart file (d3dump).
EDELE - Deletes selected elements from the model.
EDENERGY - Specifies energy dissipation controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDFPLOT - Allows plotting of explicit dynamics forces and other load symbols.
EDGCALE - Defines global ALE controls for an explicit dynamic analysis.
/EDGE - Displays only the common lines (“edges”) of an object.
EDHGLS - Specifies the hourglass coefficient for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDHIST - Specifies time-history output for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDHTIME - Specifies the time-history output interval for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDINT - Specifies number of integration points for explicit shell and beam output.
EDIPART - Defines inertia for rigid parts in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDIS - Specifies stress initialization in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis.
EDLCS - Defines a local coordinate system for use in explicit dynamics analysis.
EDLOAD - Specifies loads for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDMP - Defines material properties for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDNB - Defines a nonreflecting boundary in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDNDTSD - Allows smoothing of noisy data for explicit dynamics analyses and provides a graphical representation of the data.
EDNROT - Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDOPT - Specifies the type of output for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDOUT - Specifies time-history output (ASCII format) for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDPART - Configures parts for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDPC - Selects and plots explicit dynamic contact entities.
EDPL - Plots a time dependent load curve in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDPVEL Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRC - Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRD - Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDREAD - Reads explicit dynamics output into variables for time-history postprocessing.
EDRI - Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable part is switched to rigid in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRST - Specifies the output interval for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRUN - Specify LS-DYNA serial or parallel processing.
EDSHELL - Specifies shell computation controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDSOLV - Specifies "explicit dynamics solution" as the subsequent status topic.
EDSP - Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDSTART - Specifies status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDTERM - Specifies termination criteria for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDTP - Plots explicit elements based on their time step size.
EDVEL - Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDWELD - Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld for use in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDWRITE - Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file.
EEXTRUDE - Extrudes 2-D plane elements into 3-D solids during a 2-D to 3-D analysis.
/EFACET - Specifies the number of facets per element edge for PowerGraphics displays.
EGEN - Generates elements from an existing pattern.
*EIGEN - Performs a modal solution with unsymmetric or damping matrices.
EINFIN - Generates structural infinite elements from selected nodes.
EINTF - Defines two-node elements Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen coincident or offset nodes.
EKILL - Deactivates an element (for the Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen and death capability).
ELBOW - Specifies degrees of freedom to be coupled for end release and applies section constraints to elbow elements.
ELEM - Specifies "Elements" as the subsequent status topic.
ELIST - Lists the elements and their attributes.
*ELSE - Separates the final if-then-else block.
*ELSEIF - Separates an intermediate Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen block.
EMAGERR - Calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
EMATWRITE - Forces the writing of all the element matrices to File.EMAT.
EMF - Calculates the electromotive force (emf), or voltage drop along a predefined path.
EMFT - Summarizes electromagnetic forces and torques.
EMID - Adds or removes midside nodes.
EMIS - Specifies emissivity as a material property for the Radiation Matrix method.
EMODIF - Modifies a previously defined element.
EMORE - Adds more nodes to the just-defined element.
EMSYM - Specifies circular symmetry for electromagnetic sources.
EMTGEN - Generates a set of TRANS126 elements.
EMUNIT - Specifies the system of units for magnetic field problems.
EN - Defines an element by its number and node connectivity.
*END - Closes a macro file.
*ENDDO - Ends a do-loop and starts the looping action.
*ENDIF - Ends an if-then-else.
ENDRELEASE - Specifies degrees of freedom to be decoupled for end release.
ENERSOL - Specifies the total energies to be stored.
ENGEN - Generates elements from an existing pattern.
ENORM - Reorients shell element normals or line element node connectivity.
ENSYM - Generates elements by symmetry reflection.
/EOF - Exits the file being read.
EORIENT - Reorients solid element normals.
EPLOT - Produces an element display.
EQSLV - Specifies the type of equation solver.
ERASE - Explicitly erases the current display.
/ERASE - Specifies that the screen is to be erased before each display.
EREAD - Reads elements from a file.
EREFINE - Refines the mesh around Adobe Character Animator CC 2020 ACTIVATION KEY Archives elements.
EREINF - Generates reinforcing elements from selected existing (base) elements.
ERESX - Specifies extrapolation of integration point results.
ERNORM - Controls error estimation calculations.
ERRANG - Specifies the element range to be read from a file.
ESCHECK - Perform element shape checking for a selected element set.
ESEL - Selects Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen subset of elements.
/ESHAPE - Displays elements with shapes determined from the real constants, section definition, or other inputs.
ESIZE - Specifies the default number of line divisions.
ESLA - Selects those elements associated with the selected areas.
ESLL - Selects those elements associated with the selected lines.
ESLN - Selects those elements attached to the selected nodes.
ESLV - Selects elements associated with the selected volumes.
ESOL - Specifies element data to be stored from the results file.
ESORT - Sorts the element table.
ESSOLV - Performs a coupled electrostatic-structural analysis.
ESTIF - Specifies the matrix multiplier for deactivated elements.
ESURF - Generates elements overlaid on the free faces of selected nodes.
ESYM - Generates elements from a pattern by a symmetry reflection.
ESYS - Sets the element coordinate system attribute pointer.
ET - Defines a local element type from the element library.
ETABLE - Fills a table of element values for further processing.
ETCHG - Changes element types to their corresponding types.
ETCONTROL - Control the element technologies used in element formulation (for applicable elements).
ETDELE - Deletes element types.
ETLIST - Lists currently defined element types.
ETYPE - Specifies "Element types" as the subsequent status topic.
EUSORT - Restores original order of the element table.
EWRITE - Writes elements to a file.
EXBOPT - Specifies file output options in a CMS generation pass.
*EXIT - Exits a do-loop.
/EXIT - Stops the run and returns control to the system.
EXOPTION - Specifies the EXPROFILE options for the Mechanical APDL to ANSYS CFX profile file transfer.
EXP - Forms the exponential of a variable.
EXPAND - Displays the results of a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
/EXPAND - Allows the creation of a larger graphic display than represented by the actual finite element analysis model.
EXPASS - Specifies an expansion pass of an analysis.
*EXPORT - Exports a matrix to a file in the specified format.
EXPROFILE - Exports Mechanical APDL interface data on selected nodes to an ANSYS CFX Profile file.
EXPSOL - Specifies the solution to be expanded for mode-superposition analyses or substructure analyses.
EXTOPT - Controls options relating to the generation of volume elements from area elements.
EXTREM - Lists the extreme values for variables.
EXUNIT - Specifies the interface data unit labels to be written to the profile file from Mechanical APDL to ANSYS CFX transfer.
VII. F Commands
F - Specifies force loads at nodes.
/FACET - Specifies the facet representation used to form solid model displays.
FC - Provides failure criteria information and activates a data table to input temperature-dependent stress and strain limits.
FCCHECK - Checks both the strain and stress input criteria for all materials.
FCDELE - Deletes previously defined failure criterion data for the given material.
FCLIST - To list what the failure criteria is that you have input.
/FCOMP - Specifies file compression level.
FCUM - Specifies that force loads are to be accumulated.
FCTYP - Activates or removes failure-criteria types for postprocessing.
FDELE - Deletes force loads on nodes.
/FDELE - Deletes a binary file after it is used.
FEBODY - Specifies "Body loads on elements" as the subsequent status topic.
FECONS - Specifies "Constraints on nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
FEFOR - Specifies "Forces on nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
FESURF - Specifies "Surface loads on elements" as the subsequent status topic.
*FFT - Computes the fast Fourier transformation of a specified matrix or vector.
FILE - Specifies the data file where results are to be found.
FILEAUX2 - Specifies the binary file to be dumped.
FILEAUX3 - Specifies the results file to be edited.
FILEDISP - Specifies the file containing the graphics data.
FILL - Generates a line of nodes between two existing nodes.
FILLDATA - Fills a variable by a ramp function.
/FILNAME - Changes the Jobname for the analysis.
FINISH - Exits normally from a processor.
FITEM - Identifies items chosen by a picking operation (GUI).
FJ - Specify forces or moments on the components of the relative motion of a joint element.
FJDELE - Deletes forces (or moments) on the components of the relative motion of a joint element.
FJLIST - Lists forces and moments applied on joint elements.
FK - Defines force loads at keypoints.
FKDELE - Deletes force loads at a keypoint.
FKLIST - Lists the forces at keypoints.
FLIST - Lists force loads on the nodes.
FLST - Specifies data required for a picking operation (GUI).
FLUXV - Calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
FLUREAD - Reads one-way Fluent-to-Mechanical APDL coupling data via a .cgns file with one-side fast Fourier transformation complex pressure peak value.
/FOCUS - Specifies the focus point (center of the window).
FORCE - Selects the element nodal force type for output.
FORM - Specifies the format of the file dump.
/FORMAT Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Specifies format controls for tables.
*FREE - Deletes a matrix or a solver object and frees its memory allocation.
FREQ - Defines the frequency points for the SV vs. FREQ tables.
FRQSCL - Turns on automatic scaling of the entire mass matrix and frequency range for modal analyses.
FSCALE - Scales force load values in the database.
FSSECT - Calculates and stores total linearized stress components.
FSSPARM - Calculates reflection and transmission properties of a frequency selective surface.
FSUM - Sums the nodal force and moment contributions of elements.
FTRAN - Transfers solid model forces to the finite element model.
FTYPE - Specifies the file type and pressure type for the subsequent import of source points and pressures.
FVMESH - Generates nodes and tetrahedral volume elements from detached exterior area elements (facets).
VIII. G Commands
GAP - Specifies "mode-superposition transient gap conditions" as the subsequent status topic.
GAPF - Defines the gap force data to be stored in a variable.
GAUGE - Gauges the problem domain for a magnetic edge-element formulation.
GCDEF - Defines interface interactions between general contact surfaces.
GCGEN - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen contact elements for general contact.
/GCMD - Controls the type of element or graph display used for the GPLOT command.
/GCOLUMN - Allows the user to apply a label to a specified curve.
GENOPT - Specifies "General options" as the subsequent status topic.
GEOM - Defines the geometry specifications for the radiation matrix calculation.
GEOMETRY - Specifies "Geometry" as the subsequent status topic.
*GET - Retrieves a value and stores it as a scalar parameter or part of an array parameter.
/GFILE - Specifies the pixel resolution on Z-buffered graphics files.
/GFORMAT - Specifies the format for the graphical display of numbers.
/GLINE - Specifies the element outline style.
/GMARKER - Specifies the curve marking style.
GMATRIX - Performs electric field solutions and calculates the self and mutual conductance between multiple conductors.
GMFACE - Specifies the facet representation used to form solid models.
*GO - Causes a specified line on the input file to be read next.
/GO - Reactivates suppressed printout.
/GOLIST - Reactivates the suppressed data input listing.
/GOPR - Reactivates suppressed printout.
GP - Defines a gap condition for transient analyses.
GPDELE - Deletes gap conditions.
GPLIST - Lists the gap conditions.
GPLOT - Controls general plotting.
/GRAPHICS - Defines the type of graphics display.
/GRESUME - Sets graphics settings to the settings on a file.
/GRID - Selects the type of grid on graph displays.
/GROPT - Sets various line graph display options.
GRP - Specifies the grouping mode combination method.
/GRTYP - Selects single or multiple Y-axes graph displays.
/GSAVE - Saves graphics settings to a file IDM Archives later use.
GSBDATA - Specifies the constraints or applies the load at the ending point for generalized plane strain option.
GSGDATA - Specifies the reference point and defines the geometry in the fiber direction for the generalized plane strain element option.
GSLIST - When using generalized plane strain, lists the input data or solutions.
GSSOL - Specifies which results to store from the results file when using generalized plane strain.
/GST - Turns Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) on or off.
GSUM - Calculates and prints geometry items.
/GTHK - Sets line thicknesses for graph lines.
/GTYPE - Controls the entities that the GPLOT command displays.
IX. H Commands
HARFRQ - Defines the frequency range in a harmonic analysis.
/HBC - Determines how boundary condition symbols are displayed in a display window.
HBMAT - Writes an assembled global matrix in Harwell-Boeing format.
/HEADER - Sets page and table heading print controls.
HELP - Displays help information on ANSYS commands and element types.
HELPDISP - Displays help information on DISPLAY program commands.
HEMIOPT - Specifies options for Hemicube view factor calculation.
HFANG - Defines or displays spatial angles of a spherical radiation surface for sound radiation parameter calculations.
HFSYM - Indicates the presence of symmetry planes for the computation of acoustic fields in the near and far field domains (beyond the finite element region).
HPGL - Specifies various HP options.
HPTCREATE - Defines a hard point.
HPTDELETE - Deletes selected hardpoints.
HRCPLX - Computes and stores in the database the time-harmonic solution at a prescribed phase angle.
HREXP - Specifies the phase angle for the harmonic analysis expansion pass.
HROPT - Specifies harmonic analysis options.
HROCEAN - Perform the harmonic ocean wave procedure (HOWP).
HROUT - Specifies the harmonic analysis output options.
X. I Commands
IC - Specifies initial conditions at nodes.
ICDELE - Deletes initial conditions at nodes.
ICLIST - Lists the initial conditions.
/ICLWID - Scales the line width of circuit builder icons.
ICROTATE - Specifies initial velocity at nodes as a sum of rotation about an axis and translation.
/ICSCALE - Scales the icon size for elements supported in the circuit builder.
*IF - Conditionally causes commands to be read.
IGESIN - Transfers IGES data from a file into ANSYS.
IGESOUT - Writes solid model data to a file in IGES Version 5.1 format.
/IMAGE - Ample sound Archives graphics data to be captured and saved.
IMAGIN - Forms an imaginary variable from a complex variable.
IMESH - Generates nodes and interface elements along lines or areas.
IMMED - Allows immediate display of a model as it is generated.
INISTATE - Defines initial state data and parameters.
*INIT - Initializes a vector or matrix.
/INPUT - Switches the input file for the commands that follow.
/INQUIRE - Returns system information to a parameter.
INRES - Identifies the data to be retrieved from the results file.
INRTIA - Specifies "Inertial loads" as the subsequent status topic.
INT1 - Integrates a variable.
INTSRF - Integrates nodal results on an exterior surface.
IOPTN - Controls options relating to importing a model.
IRLF - Specifies that inertia relief calculations are to be performed.
IRLIST - Prints inertia relief summary table.
*ITENGINE - Performs a solution using an iterative solver.
XI. J Commands
JPEG - Provides JPEG file export for ANSYS displays.
JSOL - Specifies result items to be stored for the joint element.
XII. K Commands
K - Defines a keypoint.
KATT - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen attributes with the selected, unmeshed keypoints.
KBC - Specifies ramped or stepped loading within a load step.
KBETW - Creates a keypoint between two existing keypoints.
KCALC - Calculates stress intensity factors in fracture mechanics analyses.
KCENTER - Creates a keypoint at the center of a circular arc defined by three locations.
KCLEAR - Deletes nodes and point elements associated with selected Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen unmeshed keypoints.
KDIST - Calculates and lists the distance between two keypoints.
KEEP - Stores POST26 definitions and data during active session.
KESIZE - Specifies the edge lengths of the elements nearest a keypoint.
KEYOPT - Sets element key options.
KEYPTS - Specifies "Keypoints" as the subsequent status topic.
KEYW - Sets a keyword used by the GUI for context filtering (GUI).
KFILL - Generates keypoints between two keypoints.
KGEN - Generates additional keypoints from a pattern of keypoints.
KL - Generates a keypoint at a specified location on an existing line.
KLIST - Lists the defined keypoints or hard points.
KMESH - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen nodes and point elements at keypoints.
KMODIF Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Modifies an existing keypoint.
KMOVE - Calculates and moves a keypoint to an intersection.
KNODE - Defines a keypoint at an existing node location.
KPLOT - Displays the selected keypoints.
KPSCALE - Generates a scaled set of (meshed) keypoints from a pattern of keypoints.
KREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified keypoints.
KSCALE - Generates a scaled pattern of keypoints from a given keypoint pattern.
KSCON - Specifies a keypoint about which an area mesh will be skewed.
KSEL - Selects a subset Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen keypoints or hard points.
KSLL - Selects those keypoints contained in the selected lines.
KSLN - Selects those keypoints associated with the selected nodes.
KSUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected keypoints.
KSYMM - Generates a reflected set of keypoints.
KTRAN - Transfers a pattern of keypoints to another coordinate system.
KUSE - Specifies whether or not to reuse the factorized matrix.
KWPAVE - Moves the working plane origin to the average location of keypoints.
KWPLAN - Defines the working plane using three keypoints.
XIII. L Commands
L - Defines a line between two keypoints.
L2ANG - Generates a line at an angle with two existing lines.
L2TAN - Generates a line tangent to two lines.
LANBOPTION - Specifies Block Lanczos eigensolver options.
LANG - Generates a straight line at an angle with a line.
LARC - Defines a circular arc.
/LARC - Creates annotation arcs (GUI).
LAREA - Generates the shortest line between two keypoints on an area.
LARGE - Finds the largest (the envelope) of three variables.
LATT - Associates element attributes with the selected, unmeshed lines.
LAYER - Specifies the element layer for which data are to be processed.
LAYERP26 - Specifies the element layer for which data are to be stored.
LAYLIST - Lists real constants material properties for layered elements.
LAYPLOT Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Displays the layer stacking sequence for layered elements.
LCABS - Specifies absolute values for load case operations.
LCASE - Reads a load case into the database.
LCCALC - Specifies "Load case settings" as the subsequent status topic.
LCCAT - Concatenates multiple lines into one line for mapped meshing.
LCDEF - Creates a load case from a set of results on a results file.
LCFACT - Defines scale factors for load case operations.
LCFILE - Creates a load case from an existing load case file.
LCLEAR - Deletes nodes and line elements associated with selected lines.
LCOMB - Combines adjacent lines into one line.
LCOPER - Performs load case operations.
LCSEL - Selects a subset of load cases.
LCSL - Divides intersecting lines at their point(s) of intersection.
LCSUM - Specifies whether to process non-summable items in load case operations.
LCWRITE - Creates a load case by writing results to a load case file.
LCZERO - Zeroes the results portion of the database.
LDELE - Deletes unmeshed lines.
LDIV - Divides a single Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen into two or more lines.
LDRAG - Generates lines by sweeping a keypoint pattern along path.
LDREAD - Reads results from the results file and applies them as loads.
LESIZE - Specifies the divisions and spacing ratio on unmeshed lines.
LEXTND - Extends a line at one end by using its slope.
LFILLT - Generates a fillet line between two intersecting lines.
LFSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the edge of existing solid elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
LGEN - Generates additional lines from a pattern of lines.
LGLUE - Generates new lines by "gluing" lines.
LGWRITE - Writes the database command log to a file.
/LIGHT - Specifies the light direction for the display window.
LINA - Finds the intersection of a line with an area.
LINE - Specifies "Lines" as the subsequent status topic.
/LINE - Creates annotation lines (GUI).
LINES - Specifies the length of a printed page.
LINL - Finds the common intersection of lines.
LINP - Finds the pairwise intersection of lines.
LINV - Finds the intersection of a line with a volume.
LIST - Lists out the sets in the results file.
*LIST - Displays the contents of an external, coded file.
LLIST - Lists the defined lines.
LMESH - Generates nodes and line elements along lines.
LNSRCH - Activates a line search to be used with Newton-Raphson.
LOCAL - Defines a local coordinate system by a location and orientation.
LOVLAP - Overlaps lines.
LPLOT - Displays the selected buy windows 10 product key Archives - Windows Activator - Partitions lines.
LREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified lines.
LREVERSE - Reverses the normal of a line, regardless of its connectivity or mesh status.
LROTAT - Generates circular lines by rotating a keypoint pattern about an axis.
LSBA - Subtracts areas from lines.
*LSBAC - Performs the solve (forward/backward substitution) of a factorized linear system, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen.
LSBL - Subtracts lines from lines.
LSBV - Subtracts volumes from lines.
LSBW - Subtracts the intersection of the working plane from lines (divides lines).
LSCLEAR - Clears loads and load step options from the database.
LSDELE - Deletes load step files.
*LSDUMP - Dumps a linear solver engine to a binary File.
LSEL - Selects a subset of lines.
*LSENGINE - Creates a linear solver engine.
*LSFACTOR - Performs the numerical factorization of a linear solver system.
LSLA - Selects those lines contained in the selected areas.
LSLK - Selects those lines containing the selected keypoints.
LSOPER - Specifies "Load step operations" as the subsequent status topic.
/LSPEC - Specifies annotation line attributes (GUI).
LSREAD - Reads load and load step option data into the database.
*LSRESTORE - Restores a linear solver engine from a binary file.
LSSCALE - Generates a scaled set of lines from a pattern of lines.
LSSOLVE - Reads and solves multiple load steps.
LSTR - Defines a straight line irrespective of the active coordinate system.
LSUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected lines.
LSWRITE - Writes load and load step option data to a file.
/LSYMBOL - Creates annotation symbols (GUI).
LSYMM - Generates lines from a line pattern by symmetry reflection.
LTAN - Generates a line at the end of, and tangent to, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, an existing line.
LTRAN - Transfers a pattern of lines to another coordinate system.
LUMPM - Specifies a lumped mass matrix formulation.
LVSCALE - Scales the load vector for mode-superposition analyses.
LWPLAN - Defines the working plane normal to a location on a line.
XIV. M Commands
M - Defines master degrees of freedom for superelement generation analyses.
MAGOPT - Specifies options for a 3-D magnetostatic field analysis.
MAGSOLV - Specifies magnetic solution options and initiates the solution.
/MAIL - Mails file to the specified address.
MAP - Maps pressures from source points to target surface elements.
/MAP - Enters the mapping processor.
MAP2DTO3D - Initiates a 2-D to 3-D analysis and maps variables.
MAPSOLVE - Maps solved node and element solutions from an original mesh to a new mesh.
MAPVAR - Defines tensors and vectors in user-defined state variables for rezoning and in 2-D to 3-D analyses.
MASCALE - Activates scaling of the entire system matrix.
MASTER - Specifies "Master DOF" as the subsequent status topic.
MAT - Sets the element material attribute pointer.
MATER - Specifies "Material properties" as the subsequent status topic.
MCHECK - Checks mesh connectivity.
MDAMP - Defines the damping ratios as a function of mode.
MDELE - Deletes master degrees of freedom.
MDPLOT - Plots frequency-dependent modal damping coefficients calculated by DMPEXT.
MEMM - Allows the current session to keep allocated memory
/MENU - Activates the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
*MERGE - Merges two dense matrices or vectors into one.
MESHING - Specifies "Meshing" as the subsequent status topic.
MFANALYSIS - Activates or deactivates an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFBUCKET - Turns a bucket search on or off.
MFCALC - Specifies a calculation frequency for a field in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFCI - Sets the control parameters used by the conservative (CPP) interpolation scheme.
MFCLEAR - Deletes ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis settings.
MFCMMAND - Captures field solution options in a command file.
MFCONV - Sets convergence values for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFDTIME - Sets time step sizes for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFELEM - Defines a field by grouping element types.
MFEM - Add more element types to a previously defined field number.
MFEXTER - Defines external fields for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFFNAME - Specifies a file name for a field in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFFR - Setup Multi-Field relaxation factors for field solutions.
MFIMPORT - Imports a new field into a Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFINTER - Specifies the interface load transfer interpolation option for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFITER - Sets the number of stagger iterations for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFLCOMM - Defines a load transfer for code coupling analyses.
MFLIST - Lists the settings for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFMAP - Calculates, saves, resumes, or deletes mapping data in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFORDER - Specifies field solution order for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFOUTPUT - Specifies results file output frequency for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
*MFOURI - Calculates the coefficients for, or evaluates, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, a Fourier series.
MFPSIMUL - Sets up a field solver group to simultaneously process with code coupling analyses.
MFRC - Controls file writing for multiframe restarts for the ANSYS Multi-field solver.
MFRELAX - Sets relaxation values for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFRSTART - Specifies restart status for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFSORDER - Sets up the solution sequence of simultaneous field solver groups for code coupling analyses.
MFSURFACE - Defines a surface privacy eraser pro serial key Archives transfer for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFTIME - Sets end time for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFTOL - Activates or deactivates normal distance checking for surface mapping in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
*MFUN - Copies or transposes an array parameter matrix.
MFVOLUME - Defines a volume load transfer for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFWRITE - Writes an ANSYS master input file for MFX multiple code coupling.
MGEN - Generates additional MDOF from a previously defined set.
MIDTOL - Sets midstep residual criterion values for structural transient analyses.
/MKDIR - Creates a directory.
MLIST - Lists the MDOF of freedom.
MMASS - Specifies the missing mass response calculation.
MMF - Calculates the magnetomotive force along a path.
MODCONT - Specify additional modal analysis options.
MODDIR - Activates the remote read-only modal files usage.
MODE - Specifies the harmonic loading term for this load step.
MODIFY - Changes the listed values of the data in a set.
MODMSH - Controls the relationship of the solid model and the FE model.
MODSELOPTION - Specifies the criteria for selecting the modes to be expanded.
MODOPT - Specifies modal analysis options.
MONITOR - Controls Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen of three variable fields in nonlinear solution monitor file.
*MOPER - Performs matrix operations on array parameter matrices.
MOPT - Specifies meshing options.
MORPH - Specifies morphing and remeshing controls.
MOVE - Calculates and moves a node to an intersection.
MP - Defines a linear material property as a constant or a function of temperature.
MPAMOD - Modifies temperature-dependent secant coefficients of thermal expansion.
MPCHG - Changes the material number attribute of an element.
MPCOPY - Copies linear material model data from one material reference number to another.
MPDATA - Defines property data to be associated with the temperature table.
MPDELE - Deletes linear material properties.
MPDRES - Reassembles existing material data with the temperature table.
/MPLIB - Sets the default material library read and write paths.
MPLIST - Lists linear material properties.
MPPLOT - Plots linear material properties as a function of temperature.
MPREAD - Reads a file containing material properties.
MPRINT - Specifies that radiation matrices are to be printed.
MPTEMP - Defines a temperature table for material properties.
MPTGEN - Adds temperatures to the temperature table by generation.
MPTRES - Restores a temperature table previously defined.
MPWRITE - Writes linear material properties in the database to a file (if the LIB option is not specified) or writes both linear and nonlinear material properties (if LIB is specified) from the database to a Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen - Enables you to reissue the graphics command macro "name" during a replot or zoom operation.
MRPM - Defines the revolutions per minute (RPM) for a machine rotation.
MSAVE - Sets the solver memory saving option. This option only applies to the PCG solver (including PCG Lanczos).
*MSG - Writes an output message via the ANSYS message subroutine.
MSHAPE - For elements that support multiple shapes, specifies the element shape to be used for meshing.
MSHCOPY - Simplifies the generation of meshes that have matching node element patterns on two different line groups (in 2-D) or area groups (3-D).
MSHKEY - Specifies whether free meshing or mapped meshing should be used to mesh a model.
MSHMID - Specifies placement of midside nodes.
MSHPATTERN - Specifies pattern to be used for mapped triangle meshing.
MSOLVE - Starts multiple solutions for an acoustic analysis.
/MSTART - Controls the initial GUI components.
MSTOLE - Adds two extra nodes from FLUID116 elements to SURF151 or SURF152 elements for convection analyses.
*MULT - Performs the matrix multiplication M3 Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen M1(T1)*M2(T2).
*MWRITE - Writes a matrix to a file in a formatted sequence.
MXPAND - Specifies the number of modes to expand and write for a modal or buckling analysis.
XV. N Commands
N - Defines a node.
NANG - Rotates a nodal coordinate system by direction cosines.
NAXIS - Generates nodes for general axisymmetric element sections.
NCNV - Sets the key to terminate an analysis.
NDELE - Deletes nodes.
NDIST - Calculates and lists the distance between two nodes.
NDSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the edge of existing elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
NEQIT - Specifies the maximum number of equilibrium iterations for nonlinear analyses.
/NERR - Limits the number of warning and error messages displayed.
NFORCE - Sums the nodal forces and moments of elements attached to nodes.
NGEN - Generates additional nodes from a pattern of nodes.
NKPT - Defines a node at an existing keypoint location.
NLADAPTIVE - Defines the criteria under which the mesh is refined or modified during a nonlinear solution.
NLDIAG - Sets nonlinear diagnostics functionality.
NLDPOST - Gets element component information from nonlinear diagnostic files.
NLGEOM - Includes large-deflection effects in a static or full transient analysis.
NLHIST - Specify result items to track during solution.
NLIST - Lists nodes.
NLMESH - Controls remeshing in nonlinear adaptivity.
NLOG - Forms the natural log of a variable.
NLOPT - Specifies "Nonlinear analysis options" as the subsequent status topic.
NMODIF - Modifies an existing node.
NOCOLOR - Removes color from graphics displays.
NODES - Specifies "Nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
/NOERASE Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Prevents the screen erase between displays.
/NOLIST - Suppresses the data input listing.
NOOFFSET - Prevents the CDREAD command from offsetting specified data items
/NOPR - Suppresses the expanded interpreted input data listing.
NORA - Rotates nodal coordinate systems to surface normal
NORL - Rotates nodal coordinate systems perpendicular to line normal
/NORMAL - Allows displaying area elements by top or bottom faces.
NPLOT - Displays nodes.
NPRINT - Defines which time points stored are to be listed.
NREAD - Reads nodes from a file.
NREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified nodes.
NRLSUM - Specifies the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sum mode combination method.
*NRM - Computes the norm of the specified matrix or vector.
NROPT - Specifies the Newton-Raphson options in a static or full transient analysis.
NROTAT - Rotates nodal coordinate systems into the active system.
NRRANG - Specifies the range of nodes to be read from the node file.
NSCALE - Generates a scaled set of nodes from a pattern of nodes.
NSEL - Selects a subset of nodes.
NSLA - Selects those nodes associated with the selected areas.
NSLE - Selects those nodes attached to the selected elements.
NSLK - Selects those nodes associated with the selected keypoints.
NSLL - Selects those nodes associated with the selected lines.
NSLV - Selects those nodes associated with the selected volumes.
NSMOOTH - Smooths selected nodes among selected elements.
NSOL - Specifies nodal data to be stored from the results file.
NSORT - Sorts nodal data.
NSTORE - Defines which time points are to be stored.
NSUBST - Specifies the number of substeps to be taken this load step.
NSVR - Defines the number of variables for user-programmable element options.
NSYM - Generates a reflected set of nodes.
/NUMBER - Specifies whether numbers, colors, or both are used for displays.
NUMCMP - Compresses the numbering of defined items.
NUMEXP - Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen solutions to be expanded from mode-superposition analyses or substructure analyses.
NUMMRG - Merges coincident or equivalently defined items.
NUMOFF - Adds a number offset to defined items.
NUMSTR - Establishes starting numbers for automatically numbered items.
NUMVAR - Specifies the number of variables allowed in POST26.
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Affinity Photo

Photo editing app

Violet lens diaphragm shaped like the letter A
Affinity Photo.png

Affinity Photo 1.8 on macOS Catalina

Developer(s)Serif
Initial release9 July 2015; 6 years ago (2015-07-09)
Stable release

1.10 / 5 August 2021; 3 months ago (2021-08-05)[1]

Operating systemiOS, macOS, Windows
Size994 MB (iOS)
2.81 GB (macOS)
866 MB (Windows)
Available inEnglish, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, Russian[2]
TypeRaster graphics editor
LicenseTrialware
Websiteaffinity.serif.com/photo/

Affinity Photo is a raster graphics editorSerif Ltd. has developed for iOS,[3][4]macOS,[5] and Windows,[6][7] alongside Affinity Designer and Affinity Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen.

Development of Affinity Photo started on 2009, as a raster graphics editor for macOS. Its first version reached general availability in 2015. Serif launched the Windows version of the app a year later. Features of this app includes RAW processing, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, color space options, live previews as effects are applied, as well as image stitching, alpha compositing, black point compensation, and optical aberration corrections.[2]

Functionality[edit]

Affinity Photo serves as a successor to PhotoPlus, which Serif discontinued in 2017 in order to focus on the Affinity product range.[8] It has been described as an Adobe Photoshop alternative, and is compatible with common file formats such as Adobe's PSD (including Photoshop Smart Objects).[9][10][11]

Functionality includes RAW processing, color space options, live previews as effects are applied, as well as image stitching, alpha compositing, black point compensation, and optical aberration corrections.[2] Working in Affinity Photo is always live, with pan and zoom at 60fps and non-destructive editing. It supports unlimited layers and a dedicated workspace for developing RAW photos; as well as RGB, CMYK, LAB, Greyscale color spaces with ICC color management and 16-bit per channel editing.[12][2]

Affinity Photo is not an image organizer like Apple Aperture or Adobe Lightroom.[13]

Development[edit]

Affinity Photo began as a raster graphics editor solely for macOS. It was Serif's second macOS app, and (like Affinity Designer) was built from the ground up to leverage core native technologies, including Grand Central Dispatch, Core Graphics, OpenGL[14] and Metal 2[15] hardware acceleration.[16]

Serif established an R&D team for Affinity Photo in 2009, headed by lead designer Andy Somerfield. A free beta test version of the Affinity Photo app was released to the public on 9 February 2015.[17]

The Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen stable release of Affinity Photo, version 1.3.1, launched on the Mac App Store 9 July 2015 for macOS 10.7 and later.[5] At Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen time, Serif's raster graphics application for Windows was PhotoPlus; however, following the release of Affinity Photo for Windows, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, this product has now been discontinued.[18] Version 1.3.5 of Affinity Photo, released in August, provided numerous bug fixes and improvements.[19]

Serif announced its first major update to Affinity Photo in December 2015. Version 1.4 added panorama photo stitching as well as support for macOS 10.11 El Capitan, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, including six Affinity extensions for Apple Photos.[20] Updates to both Affinity apps (Designer and Photo) provided language support for Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Japanese and Chinese (Simplified). These augmented the four languages in previous versions: English (US and UK), German, French and Spanish. Stability and bug fixes were released with Affinity Photo 1.4.1 and 1.4.2, in January and June 2016. Version 1.4.3 in September 2016 optimized Affinity Photo for macOS 10.12 Sierra.[19]

In December, 2016, Serif Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Affinity Photo for Windows, and released an update to the macOS version at the same time,[21] Affinity Photo 1.5.1 added a 32-bit RGB editing mode with support for 32-bit file formats and more than 70 new camera RAW file formats, as well as the ability to develop RAW files directly into a 32-bit document. Version 1.5.1 also added support Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen the new MacBook Pro with Touchbar.[22]

Serif launched Affinity Photo for iPad during the keynote at Apple's WWDC in San Jose on 5 June 2017.[3] In September 2017, the iPad version was updated for compatibility with Apple's new iOS 11.[4]

Serif released major updates to Affinity Photo, as well as Affinity Designer, in November 2017. Affinity Photo 1.6.6 was optimized for macOS 10.13 High Sierra (and Metal 2 acceleration), better integration with Apple Photos, improved Photoshop Plugins support and added an option to switch between a dark or light user interface.[23]

In February 2020, version 1.8 of Photo added support for Photoshop smart objects in PSD files, and expanded plug-in compatibility, with focus on DxO's Nik Collection of plug-ins.[11]

Reception[edit]

The macOS version of Affinity Photo was received favorably by professional photographers, and Apple named it as the best Mac app of 2015.[24][25] In 2016, Affinity Photo was awarded the prize for Best Imaging Software by the Technical Image Press Association (TIPA) at Photokina.[26][27][25] In November 2017, the iOS app was named by Apple as its best iPad app of the year,[28][29] and Tom's Guide selected Affinity Photo for their first list of Best Tech Values.[30][31] In February 2019, Affinity Photo received Amateur Photographer'sSoftware of the Year award,[32] followed by Photography News' Best Software award in March 2019.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Superpower your creativity with the new Affinity v1.10". Affinity Newsroom, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  2. ^ abcd"Affinity Photo Full Feature List". Affinity.serif.com. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  3. ^ abBenjamin, Jeff (23 June 2017). "Friday 5: Affinity Photo – a must-have photo editing app for iPad Pro owners". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  4. ^ abCarlson, Jeff (13 November 2017). "Affinity Photo for iPad Review". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  5. ^ abLane, Terry (19 August 2015). "Affinity emerges as Photoshop alternative but only for Macs", Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  6. ^Hillen, Brittany (9 December 2016). "Affinity Photo for Windows now available, Mac version updated to 1.5". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  7. ^Ellis, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Cat (14 December 2016). "Serif Affinity Photo comes to Windows". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  8. ^Ogunjobi, Anino (2017-08-10). "Digital Craft: Serif discontinues its Pageplus, Drawplus and Photoplus designing software to focus on its(Serif) new Affinity range of Professional graphic design software". ANINO. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  9. ^Zhang, Michael (9 February 2015). "Affinity Photo is a New Pro Photoshop Alternative for Mac Users: Get It for Free". PetaPixel. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
  10. ^Hillen, Brittany (10 February 2015). "Serif launches Affinity Photo, a Photoshop alternative for Mac". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  11. ^ abBenjamin, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen (2020-02-26). "Affinity Photo, Publisher, and Designer updated to version 1.8". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 2020-03-07.
  12. ^Banks, Adam (5 September 2015). "Photoshop for 40 quid: Affinity Photo pushes pixels further than most". The Register. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  13. ^Dyer, Alan (15 December 2017). "I Tested 10+ Photoshop Alternatives to See How They Stack Up". PetaPixel. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  14. ^Clover, Juli (9 July 2015). "Serif's Image Editing App 'Affinity Photo' Launches for Mac". MacRumors. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  15. ^Demolder, Damien (3 November 2017). "Affinity Photo 1.6 released: faster processing, new features, and free stuff". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  16. ^Burgett, Gannon (2 November 2017). "Serif boosts its Photoshop competitor, Affinity Photo, with new update". Digital Trends. Designtechnica. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  17. ^Schneider, Jaron (2 July 2015). "The Finished Version of Affinity Photo is Coming & Yes, You Should Be Excited for this Photoshop Competitor". Resource. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  18. ^"Digital Craft: Serif discontinues its Pageplus, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Drawplus and Photoplus designing software to focus on its(Serif) new Affinity range of Professional graphic design software - ANINO". ANINO. 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  19. ^ ab"Affinity Photo", Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. macbed.com. AppKed. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  20. ^Lawton, Rod (9 December 2015). "Serif's Adobe Photoshop rival Affinity Photo gets a major update". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  21. ^Rogers, Graham K, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. (10 August 2016). "A visit to Affinity apps developers". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  22. ^Schneider, Jaron (8 December 2016). "Affinity Photo 1.5 Launches with Overhauled RAW Processor, Touch Bar Support, 32-Bit Editing & More". Resource. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  23. ^Benjamin, Jeff (2 November 2017). "Affinity Designer and Photo for Mac receive big 1.6 Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen including free limited-time content bundles". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 14 December 360 Total Security 10.8.0.1382 Crack + License Key 2022 Photo is App of the Year!". Affinity Blog. Serif (Europe) Ltd. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  24. ^ abWarren, Tom (10 November 2016). "Apple's 'best Mac App' of 2015 is now available on Windows". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  25. ^"XXVI TIPA AWARDS (2016)", Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. TIPA.com. Technical Image Press Association. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  26. ^Zipper, Bernd (9 November 2016). "Serif: are Affinity products set to challenge the dominance of top dog Adobe in the print industry?". beyond-print.de. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  27. ^Cade, D.L. (8 December 2017). "Affinity Photo named Best iPad App of 2017, celebrates with 50% off sale". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  28. ^Watson, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Fay (8 December 2017). "Affinity Photo: 'Apple's best iPad app of 2017' is half price". Amateur Photographer. Time Inc. (UK) Ltd. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  29. ^"Best Tech Value Awards: Top Bargains of 2017". Tom's Guide. Purch. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  30. ^Grotta, Sally Wiener (16 March 2017). "Affinity Photo 1.5 Review: Best Budget Editor for Pros". Tom's Guide. Purch. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  31. ^"AP Awards 2019: Accessories of the Year". Amateur Photographer. 2019-02-24. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  32. ^Cheung, Will (2019-03-12). "Photography News Awards 2018 winners announced". Photography News. Retrieved 2019-03-13.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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Features new to Windows 7

Overview of the features newly introduced in the Microsoft Windows 7 operating system

Some of the new features included in Windows 7 are advancements in touch, speech[1] and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, support for additional file formats, improved performance on multi-core processors,[2] improved boot performance, and kernel improvements.

Shell and user interface[edit]

Windows 7 retains the Windows Aerographical user interface and visual style introduced in its predecessor, Windows Vista, but many areas have seen enhancements. Unlike Windows Vista, window borders and the taskbar do not turn opaque when a window is maximized while Windows Aero is active; instead, they remain translucent.

Desktop[edit]

The Desktop Slideshow feature in Windows 7.

Themes[edit]

Support for themes has been extended in Windows 7.[3] In addition to providing options to customize colors of window chrome and other aspects of the interface including the desktop background, icons, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, mouse cursors, and sound schemes, the operating system also includes a native desktop slideshow feature. A new theme pack extension has been introduced,which is essentially a collection of cabinet files that consist of theme resources including background images, color preferences, desktop icons, mouse cursors, and sound schemes.[4] The new theme extension simplifies sharing of themes and can also display desktop wallpapers via RSS feeds provided by the Windows RSS Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Microsoft provides additional themes for free through its website.[3]

The default theme in Windows 7 consists of a single desktop wallpaper named "Harmony" and the default desktop icons, mouse cursors, and sound scheme introduced in Windows Vista; however, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, none of the desktop backgrounds included with Windows Vista are present in Windows 7. New themes include Architecture, Characters, Landscapes, Nature, and Scenes, and an additional country-specific theme that is determined based on the defined locale when the operating system is installed; although only the theme for a user's home country is displayed within the user interface, the files for all of these other country-specific themes are included in the operating system.[5] All themes included in Windows 7—excluding the default theme—include six wallpaper images.[3] A number of new sound schemes (each associated with an included theme) have also been introduced: Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters, Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savana, and Sonata.[6][7] Themes may introduce their own custom sounds, which can be used with others themes as well.[8]

Desktop Slideshow[edit]

Windows 7 introduces a desktop slideshow feature that periodically changes the desktop wallpaper based on a user-defined interval; the change is accompanied by a smooth fade transition with a duration that can be customized via the Windows Registry.[9] The desktop slideshow feature supports local images and images obtained via RSS.[10][11]

Gadgets[edit]

With Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced gadgets to display information such as image slideshows and RSS feeds on the user's desktop; the gadgets could optionally be displayed on a sidebar docked to a side of the screen.[13] In Windows 7, the sidebar has been removed, but gadgets can still be placed on the desktop.[13] Gadgets can be brought to the foreground on top of active applications by pressing +.[13] Several new features for gadgets are introduced, including new desktop context menu options to access gadgets and hide all active gadgets; high DPI support; and a feature that can automatically rearrange a gadget based on the position of other gadgets.[13][14] Additional new features include cached gadget content; optimizations for touch-based devices; and a gadget for Windows Media Center.[13]

Gadgets are more closely integrated with Windows Explorer, but the gadgets themselves continue to operate in a single process, unlike in Windows Vista where gadgets could operate in multiple processes. Active gadgets can also be hidden via a new desktop menu option; Microsoft has stated that this option can result in power-saving benefits.[14]

Branding and customization[edit]

For original equipment manufacturers and enterprises, Windows 7 natively supports the ability to customize the wallpaper that is displayed during user login. Because the settings to change the wallpaper are available via the Windows Registry, users can also customize this wallpaper.[15] Options to customize the appearance of interface lighting and shadows are also available.[16]

Windows Explorer[edit]

Libraries[edit]

Windows Explorer in Windows 7 supports file libraries that aggregate content from various locations – including shared folders on networked systems if the shared folder has been indexed by the host system – and present them in a unified view. The libraries hide the actual location the file is stored in. Searching in a library automatically federates the query to the remote systems, in addition to searching on the local system, so that files on the remote systems are also searched. Unlike search folders, Libraries are backed by a physical location which allows files to be saved in the Libraries. Such files are transparently saved in the backing physical folder. The default save location for a library may be configured by the user, as can the default view layout for each library. Libraries Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen generally stored in the Libraries special folder, which allows them to be displayed on the navigation pane.

By default, a new user account in Windows 7 contains four libraries for different file types: Documents, Music, Pictures, and Videos. They are configured to include the user's profile folders for these respective file types, as well as the computer's corresponding Public Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. The Public folder also contains a hidden Recorded TV library that appears in the Windows Explorer sidepane when TV is set up in Media Center for the first time.

In addition to aggregating multiple storage locations, Libraries enable Arrangement Views and Search Filter Suggestions. Arrangement Views allow you to pivot your view of the library's contents based on metadata. For example, selecting the "By Month" view in the Pictures library will display photos in stacks, where each stack represents a month of photos based on the date they were taken. In the Music library, the "By Artist" view will display stacks of albums from the artists in your collection, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, and browsing into an artist stack will then display the relevant albums.

Search Filter Suggestions are a new feature of the Windows 7 Explorer's search box. When the user clicks in the search box, a menu shows up below it showing recent searches as well as suggested Advanced Query Syntax filters that the user can type. When one is selected (or typed in manually), the menu will update to show the possible values to filter by for that property, and this list is based on the current location and other parts of the query already typed. For example, selecting the "tags" filter or typing "tags:" into the search box will display the list of possible tag values which will return search results.

Arrangement Views and Search Filter Suggestions are database-backed features which require that all locations in the Library be indexed by the Windows Search service, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Local disk locations must be indexed by the local indexer, and Windows Explorer will automatically add locations to the indexing scope when they are included in a library. Remote locations can be indexed by the indexer on another Windows arcade output crack mac Archives machine, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen a Windows machine running Windows Search 4 (such as Windows Vista or Windows Home Server), or on another device that implements the MS-WSP remote query protocol.[17]

Federated search[edit]

Windows Explorer also supports federating search to external data sources, such as custom databases or web services, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, that are exposed over the web and described via an OpenSearch definition. The federated location description (called a Search Connector) is provided as an file. Once installed, the data source becomes queryable directly from Windows Explorer. Windows Explorer features, such as previews and thumbnails, work with the results of a federated search as well.

Miscellaneous shell enhancements[edit]

Windows Explorer has received numerous minor enhancements that improve its overall functionality. The Explorer's search box and the address bar can be resized. Folders such as those on the desktop or user profile folders can be hidden in the navigation pane to reduce clutter. A new Content view is added, which shows thumbnails and metadata together. A new button to toggle the Preview Pane has been added to the toolbar, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. The button to create a new folder has been moved from the Organize menu and onto the toolbar. List view provides more space between items than in Windows Vista. Finally, storage space consumption bars that were only present IObit Uninstaller PRO Crack 10.5.0.5 + License Key hard Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen in Windows Vista are now shown for removable storage devices.

Other areas of the shell have also received similar fine-tunings: Progress bars and overlay icons may now appear on an application's button on the taskbar to better alert the user of the status of the application or the work in progress. File types for which property handlers or iFilters are installed are re-indexed by default. Previously, adding submenus to shell context menus or customizing the context menu's behavior for a certain folder was only possible by installing a form of plug-in known as shell extensions. In Windows 7 however, computer-savvy users can do so by editing Windows Registry and/or desktop.ini files.[18][19] Additionally, a new shell API was introduced designed to simplify the writing of context menushell extensions by software developers.[20][21]

Windows 7 includes native support for Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen ISO files. The functionality is available when a user selects the Burn disc image option within the context menu of an ISO file. Support for disc image verification is also included. In previous versions of Windows, users were required to install-third-party software to burn ISO images.[22]

[edit]

The start orb now has a fade-in highlight effect when the user hovers the mouse cursor over it. The Start Menu's right column is now the Aero glass color. In Windows Vista, it was always black.

The search results pane in Windows 7, demonstrating a search for the word "wireless".

Windows 7's Start menu retains the two-column layout of its predecessors, with several functional changes:

  • The "Documents", "Pictures" and "Music" buttons now link to the Libraries of the same name.
  • A "Devices and Printers" option has been added that displays a new device manager.
  • The "shut down" icon in Windows Vista has been replaced with a text link indicating what action will be taken when the icon is clicked. The default action (switch user, log off, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, lock, restart, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, sleep, hibernate or shut down) to take is now configurable through the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties window.
  • Taskbar Jump Lists are presented in the Start Menu via a guillemet; when the user moves the mouse cursor over the guillemet, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, or presses the right-arrow key, the right-hand side of the Start menu is widened and replaced with the application's Jump List.
  • Links to the "Videos", "Downloads", and "Recorded TV", Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, the Connect To menu, the Homegroup and Network menus, the Favorites and Recent Items folders and menus can now be added to the Start menu, and the Administrative Tools folder can be added to the All Programs menu.

The Start Search field, introduced in Windows Vista, has been extended to support searching for keywords of Control Panel items. For example, clicking the Start button then typing "wireless" will show Control Panel options related to configuring and connecting to wireless network, adding Bluetooth devices, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, and troubleshooting. Group Policy settings for Windows Explorer provide the ability for administrators of an Active Directory domain, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, or an expert user to add up to five Internet web sites and five additional "search connectors" to the Search Results view in the Start menu. The links, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, which appear at the bottom of the pane, allow the search to be executed again on the selected web site or search connector. Microsoft suggests that network administrators could use this feature to enable searching of corporate Intranets or an internal SharePoint server.[23]

Taskbar[edit]

The Windows Taskbar has seen its most significant revision since its introduction in Windows 95 and combines the previous Quick Launch functionality with open Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen window icons. The taskbar is now rendered as an Aero glass element whose color can be changed via the Personalization Control Panel. It is 10 pixels taller than in Windows Vista to accommodate touch screen input and a new larger default icon size (although a smaller taskbar size is available), as well as maintain proportion to newer high resolution monitor modes.[24] Running applications are denoted by a border frame around the icon. Within this border, a color effect (dependent on the predominant color of the icon) that follows the mouse cursor also indicates the opened status of the application. The glass taskbar is more translucent than in Windows Vista. Taskbar buttons show icons by default, not application titles, unless they are set to 'not combine', or 'combine when taskbar is full.' In this case, only icons are shown when the application is Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen running. Programs running or pinned on the taskbar can be rearranged. Items in the notification area can also be rearranged.

The default taskbar of Windows 7.

Pinned applications[edit]

The Quick Launch toolbar has been removed from the default configuration, but may be easily added.[25] The Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen 7 taskbar is more application-oriented than window-oriented, and therefore doesn't show window titles (these are shown when an application icon is clicked or hovered over). Applications can now be pinned to the taskbar allowing the user instant access to the applications they commonly use. There are a few ways to pin applications to the taskbar. Icons can be dragged and dropped onto the taskbar, or the application's icon can be right-clicked to pin it to the taskbar.

The Windows 7 taskbar shows a preview of the window.

Thumbnail previews[edit]

Thumbnail previews which were introduced in Windows Vista have been expanded to not only preview the windows opened by the application in a small-sized thumbnail view, but to also interact with them. The user can close any window opened by clicking the X on the corresponding thumbnail preview, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. The name of the window is also shown in the thumbnail preview. A "peek" at the window is obtained by hovering over the thumbnail preview. Peeking brings up Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen the window of the thumbnail preview over which the mouse cursor hovers, and turns any other windows on the desktop transparent. This also works for tabs in Internet Explorer: individual tabs may be peeked at in the thumbnail previews. Thumbnail previews integrate Thumbnail Toolbars[26] which can control the application from the thumbnail previews themselves. For example, if Windows Media Player is Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen and the mouse cursor is hovering on the application icon, the thumbnail preview will allow the user the ability to Play, Stop, and Play Next/Previous track without having to switch to the Windows Media Player window.

Jump lists[edit]

Jump lists are menu options available by right-clicking a taskbar icon or holding the left mouse button and sliding towards the center of the desktop on an icon. Each application has a jump list corresponding to its features, Microsoft Word's displaying recently opened documents; Windows Media Player's recent tracks and playlists; frequently opened directories in Windows Explorer; Internet Explorer's recent browsing history and options for opening new tabs or starting InPrivate Browsing; Windows Live Messenger's common tasks such as instant messaging, signing off, and changing online status. Third-party software can add custom actions through a dedicated API, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Up to 10 menu items may appear on a list, partially customizable by user. Frequently used files and folders can be pinned by the user as to not get usurped from the list if others are opened more frequently.[27][28]

The redesigned notification area with balloon notification showing Action Centermessages
Action Center displaying notification of security threats

Task progress[edit]

Progress bar in taskbar's tasks allows users to know the progress of a task without switching to the pending window.[29] Task progress is used in Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer and third-party software.

A testing program using Task progress

Notification area[edit]

The notification area has been redesigned; the standard Volume, Network, Power and Action Center status icons are present, but no other application icons are shown unless the user has Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen them to be shown. A new "Notification Area Icons" control panel has been added which replaces the "Customize Notification Icons" dialog box in the "Taskbar and Start Menu Properties" window first introduced in Windows XP. In addition to being able to configure whether the application icons are shown, the ability to hide each application's notification balloons has been added. The user can then view the notifications at a later time, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen.

A triangle to the left of the visible notification icons displays the hidden notification icons. Unlike Windows Vista and Windows XP, the hidden icons are displayed in a window above the taskbar, instead of on the taskbar. Icons can be dragged between this window and the notification area.

Windows 7 desktop displayed through Peek.

Aero Peek[edit]

In previous versions of Windows, the taskbar ended with the notification area on the right-hand side. Windows 7, however, introduces a show desktop button on the far right side of the taskbar which can initiate an Aero Peek feature that makes all open windows translucent when hovered over by a mouse cursor. Clicking this button shows the desktop, and clicking it again brings all windows to focus. The new button replaces the show desktop shortcut located in the Quick Launch toolbar in previous versions of Windows.[30]

On touch-based devices, Aero Peek can be initiated by pressing and holding the show desktop button; touching the button itself shows the desktop. The button also increases in width to accommodate being pressed by a finger.[31]

Window management mouse gestures[edit]

Aero Snap[edit]

Windows can be dragged to the top of the screen to maximize them and dragged away to restore them. Dragging a window to the left or right of the screen makes it take up half the screen, allowing the user to tile two windows next to each other. Also, resizing the window to the bottom of the screen or its top will extend the window to full height but retain its width.[32] These features can be disabled via the Ease of Access Center if users do not wish the windows to automatically resize.[33]

Aero Shake[edit]

Aero Shake allows users to clear up any clutter on their screen by shaking (dragging back and forth) a window of their choice with the mouse. All other windows will minimize, while the window the user shook stays active on the screen.[34] When the window is shaken again, all previously minimized windows are restored, similar to desktop preview.

Keyboard shortcuts[edit]

A variety of new keyboard shortcuts have been introduced.[35][36][37]

Global keyboard shortcuts:

  • + operates as a keyboard shortcut for Aero Peek.
  • + maximizes the current window.
  • + if current window is maximized, restores it; otherwise minimizes current window.
  • ++ makes upper and lower edge of current window nearly touch the upper and lower edge of the Windows desktop environment, respectively.
  • ++ restores the original size of the current window.
  • + snaps the current window to the left edge of the screen.
  • + snaps the current window to the right half of the screen.
  • ++ and ++ move the current window to the left or right display.
  • + functions as zoom in command wherever applicable.
  • + functions as zoom out command wherever applicable.
  • + turn off zoom once enabled.
  • + operates as a keyboard shortcut for Aero Shake.
  • + View opened application and windows in 3D stack view.
  • + Opens Connect to a Network Projector, which has been updated from previous versions of Windows, and allows one to dictate where the desktop is displayed: on the main monitor, an external display, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, both; or allows one to display two independent desktops on two separate monitors.

Taskbar:

  • Shift + Click, or Middle click starts a new instance of the application, regardless of whether it's already running.
  • Ctrl + Shift + Click starts a new instance with Administrator privileges; by default, a User Account Control prompt will be displayed.
  • Shift + Right-click (or right-clicking the program's thumbnail) shows the titlebar's context menu which, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen default, contains "Restore", "Move", "Size", "Maximize", "Minimize" and "Close" commands. If the icon being clicked on is a grouped icon, a specialized context menu with "Restore All", "Minimize All", and "Close All" commands is shown.
  • Ctrl + Click on a grouped icon cycles between the windows (or tabs) in the group.

Font management[edit]

The user interface for font management has been overhauled in Windows 7. As with Windows Vista, the collection of installed fonts is displayed in a Windows Explorer window, but fonts that originate from the same font family appear as icons that are represented as stacks that display font previews within the interface. Windows 7 also introduces the option to hide installed fonts; certain fonts are automatically removed from view based on a user's Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen settings.[38] An option to manually hide installed fonts is also available. Hidden fonts remain installed but are not enumerated when an application asks for a list of available fonts, thus reducing the amount of fonts to scroll through within the interface and also reducing memory usage.[39] Windows 7 includes over 40 new fonts,[40] including a new "Gabriola" font.[39][41]

The dialog box for fonts in Windows 7 has also been updated to display font previews within the interface, which allows users to preview fonts before selecting them. Previous versions of windows only displayed the name of the font.[42][43]

The ClearType Text Tuner which was previously available as a Microsoft Powertoy for earlier Windows versions has been integrated into, and updated for Windows 7, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen.

Microsoft would later backport Windows 8Emoji features to Windows 7.[44]

Devices[edit]

There are two major new user interface components for device management in Windows 7, "Devices and Printers" and "Device Stage". Both of these are integrated with Windows Explorer, and together provide a simplified view of what devices are connected to the computer, and what capabilities they support.

Devices and Printers[edit]

The new Devices and Printers Control Panel. Custom icons can be downloaded via the Internet.

Devices and Printers is a new Control Panel interface that is directly accessible from the Start menu. Unlike the Device Manager Control Panel applet, which is still present, the icons shown on the Devices and Printers screen are limited to components of the system that a non-expert user will recognize as plug-in devices. For example, an external monitor connected to the system will be displayed as a device, but the internal monitor on a laptop will not. Device-specific features are available through the context menu for each device; an external monitor's context menu, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, for example, provides a link to the "Display Settings" control panel.

This new Control Panel applet also replaces the "Printers" window in prior versions of Windows; common printer operations such as setting the default printer, installing or removing printers, and configuring properties such as paper size are done through this control panel.

Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 introduce print driver isolation, which improves the reliability of the print spooler by running printer drivers in a separate process to the spooler service. If a third party print driver fails while isolated, it does not impact other drivers or the print spooler service.

Device Stage[edit]

A Device Stage window showing available options for a MicrosoftWireless Comfort Keyboard4000.

Device Stage provides a centralized location for an externally connected multi-function device to present its functionality to the user. When a device such as a portable music player is connected to the system, the device appears as an icon on the task bar, as well as in Windows Explorer.

Windows 7 ships with high-resolution images of a number of popular devices, and is capable of connecting to the Internet to download images of devices it doesn't recognize. Opening the icon presents a window that displays actions relevant to that device. Screenshots of the technology presented by Microsoft suggest that a mobile phone could offer options for two-way synchronization, configuring ring-tones, copying pictures and videos, managing the device in Windows Media Player, and using Windows Explorer to navigate through the device.[45] Other device status information such as free memory and battery life can also be shown. The actual per-device functionality is defined via XML files that are downloaded when the device is first connected to the computer, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, or are provided by the manufacturer on an installation disc.[46][permanent dead link]

Mobility enhancements[edit]

Multi-touch support[edit]

Hilton Locke, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen worked on the Tablet PC team at Microsoft, reported on December 11, 2007 that Windows 7 will have new touch features on devices supporting multi-touch. An overview and demonstration of the multi-touch capabilities, including a virtual piano program, a mapping and directions program and a touch-aware version of Microsoft Paint, was given at the All Things Digital Conference on May 27, 2008; a video of the multi-touch capabilities was made available on the web later the same day.[47]

Sensors[edit]

Windows 7 introduces native support for sensors, including accelerometer sensors, ambient light sensors, and location-based sensors;[48] the operating system also provides a unified driver model for sensor devices.[49] A notable use of this technology in Windows 7 is the operating system's adaptive display brightness feature, which automatically adjusts the brightness of a compatible computer's display based on environmental light conditions and factors.[50] Gadgets developed for Windows 7 can also display location-based information.[51] Applications for certain sensor capabilities can be developed without the requisite hardware.[52]

Because data acquired by some sensors can be considered personally identifiable information, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, all sensors are disabled by default in Windows 7, and an account in Windows 7 requires administrative permissions to enable a sensor. Sensors also require user consent to share location data.[49]

Power management[edit]

Battery notification messages[edit]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 7 is able to report when a laptop battery is in need of a replacement. The operating system works with design capabilities present in modern laptop batteries to report this information.[53]

Hibernation improvements[edit]

The powercfgcommand enables the customization of the hibernation file size. By default, Windows 7 automatically sets the size of the hibernation file to 75% of a computer's total physical memory. The operating system also compresses the contents of memory during the hibernate process to minimize the possibility that the contents exceeds the default size of the hibernation file.[54]

Power analysis and reporting[edit]

Windows 7 introduces a new /Energy parameter for the powercfg command, which generates an HTML report of a computer's energy efficiency and displays information related to devices or settings.[55]

USB suspension[edit]

Windows 7 can individually suspend USB hubs and supports selective suspend for all in-box USB class drivers.[56]

Graphics[edit]

DirectX[edit]

Direct3D 11, Direct2D, DirectWrite, DXGI 1.1, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, WARP and several other components are currently available for Windows Vista SP2 and Windows Server 2008 SP2 by installing the Platform Update for Windows Vista.[59]

Desktop Window Manager[edit]

First introduced in Windows Vista, the Desktop Window Manager (DWM) in Windows 7 has been updated to use version 10.1 of Direct3D API, and its performance has been improved significantly.[60]

The Desktop Window Manager still requires at least a Direct3D 9-capable video card (supported with new [61] device type introduced with the Direct3D 11 runtime).

With a video driver conforming to Windows Display Driver Model v1.1, DXGI kernel in Windows 7 provides 2D hardware acceleration to APIs such as GDI, Direct2D and DirectWrite (though GDI+ was not updated to use this functionality). This allows DWM to use significantly lower amounts of system memory, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, which do not grow regardless of Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen many windows are opened, like it was in Windows Vista.[62] Systems equipped with a WDDM 1.0 video card will operate in the same fashion as in Windows Vista, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, using software-only rendering.

The Desktop Window Manager in Windows 7 also adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors.[63]

Other changes[edit]

Support for color depths of 30 and 48 bits is included, along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3 can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB.[64][65]

Each user of Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 has individual DPI settings, rather than the machine having a single setting as in previous versions of Windows. DPI settings can be changed by logging on and off, without needing to restart.[66]

File system[edit]

Solid state drives[edit]

Over time, several technologies have been incorporated into subsequent versions of Windows to improve the performance of the operating system on traditional hard disk drives (HDD) with rotating platters. Since Solid state drives (SSD) differ from mechanical HDDs in some key areas (no moving parts, write amplification, limited number of erase cycles allowed for reliable operation), Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, it is beneficial to disable certain Jogos de Archery de Graça para Baixar and add others, specifically for SSDs.

Windows 7 incorporates many engineering changes to reduce the frequency of writes and flushes, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, which benefit SSDs in particular since each write operation wears the flash memory.

Windows 7 also makes use of the TRIM command, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. If supported by the SSD (not implemented on early devices), this optimizes when erase cycles are performed, reducing the need to erase blocks before each write and increasing write performance.

Several tools and techniques that were implemented in the past to reduce the impact of the rotational latency of traditional HDDs, most notably disk defragmentation, SuperFetch, ReadyBoost, and application launch prefetching, involve reorganizing (rewriting) the data on the platters. Since SSDs have no moving platters, this reorganization has no advantages, and may instead shorten the life of the solid state memory. Therefore, these tools are by default disabled on SSDs in Windows 7, except for some early generation SSDs that might still benefit.

Finally, partitions made with Windows 7's partition-creating tools are created with the SSD's alignment needs in mind, avoiding unwanted systematic write amplification.[67]

Virtual hard disks[edit]

The Enterprise and Ultimate editions of Windows 7 incorporate support for the Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) file format. VHD files can be mounted as drives, created, and booted from, in the same way as WIM files.[68] Furthermore, an installed version of Windows 7 can be booted and run from a VHD drive, even on non-virtual hardware, thereby providing a new way to multi boot Windows. Some features such as hibernation and BitLocker are not available when booting from VHD.

Disk partitioning[edit]

By default, a computer's disk is partitioned into two partitions: one of limited size for booting, BitLocker and running the Windows Recovery Environment and the second with the Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen system and user files.[69]

Removable media[edit]

Windows 7 has also seen improvements to the Safely Remove Hardware menu, including the ability to eject just one camera card at the same time (from a single hub) and retain the ports for future use without reboot; and the labels of removable media are now also listed, rather than just the drive letter.[70] Windows Explorer now by default only shows memory card reader ports in My Computer if they contain a card.[70]

BitLocker to Go[edit]

BitLocker brings encryption support to removable disks such as USB drives. Such devices can be protected by a passphrase, a recovery key, or be automatically unlocked on a computer.[71]

Boot performance[edit]

According to data gathered from Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Microsoft Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP), 35% of Vista SP1 installations boot up in 30 seconds or less. The more lengthy boot times on the remainder of the machines are mainly due to some services or programs that are loaded but are not required when the system is first started. Microsoft's Mike Fortin, a distinguished engineer on the Windows team, noted in August 2008 that Microsoft has set aside a team to work solely on Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen issue, and that team aims to "significantly increase the number of systems that experience very good boot times". They "focused very hard on increasing parallelism of driver initialization". Also, Microsoft aims to "dramatically reduce" the number of system services, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, along with their demands on processors, storage, and memory.[72]

Multimedia[edit]

Windows Media Center[edit]

Main article: Windows Media Center

Windows Media Center in Windows 7 has retained much of the design and feel of its predecessor, but with a variety of user interface shortcuts and browsing capabilities.[73] Playback of H.264 video both locally and through a Media Center Extender (including the Xbox 360) Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen supported.

Some notable enhancements in Windows 7 Media Center include a new mini guide, a new scrub bar, the option to color code the guide by show type, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, and internet content that is more tightly integrated with regular TV via the guide. All Windows 7 versions now support up to four tuners of each type (QAM, ATSC, CableCARD, NTSC, etc.).

When browsing the media library, items that don't have album art are shown in a range of foreground and background color combinations instead of using white text on a blue background. When the left or right remote control buttons are held down to browse the library quickly, a two-letter prefix of the current album name is prominently shown as a visual aid, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. The Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Library includes new slideshow capabilities, and individual pictures can be rated.

Also, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, while browsing a media library, a new column appears at the top named "Shared." This allows users to access shared media libraries on other Media Center PCs from directly within Media Center.

For television support, the Windows Media Center "TV Pack" released by Microsoft in 2008 is incorporated into Windows Media Center. This includes support for CableCARD and North American (ATSC) clear QAM tuners, as well as creating lists of favorite stations.[74]

A gadget for Windows Media Center is also included.[13]

Format support[edit]

Windows 7 includes AVI, WAV, AAC/ADTS file media sinks to read the respective formats,[75] an MPEG-4 file source to read MP4, M4A, M4V, MP4V MOV and 3GPcontainer formats[76] and an MPEG-4 file sink to output to MP4 format.[77] Windows 7 also includes a media source to read MPEG transport stream/BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream (M2TS, MTS, M2T and AVCHD) files.[citation needed]

Transcoding (encoding) support is not exposed through any built-in Windows application but codecs are included as Media Foundation Transforms (MFTs).[75] In addition to Windows Media Audio and Windows Media Video encoders and decoders, and ASF file sink and file source introduced in Windows Vista,[75] Windows 7 includes an H.264 encoder with Baseline profile level 3 and Main profile support[78] and an AAC Low Complexity (AAC-LC) profile encoder.[79]

For playback of various media formats, Windows 7 also introduces an H.264 decoder with Baseline, Main, and High profiles support, up to level 5.1,[80]AAC-LC and HE-AAC v1 (SBR) multichannel, HE-AAC v2 (PS) stereo decoders,[81]MPEG-4 Part 2Simple Profile and Advanced Simple Profile decoders[82] which includes decoding popular codec implementations such as DivX, Xvid and Nero Digital as well as MJPEG[75] and DV[83] MFT decoders for AVI. Windows Media Player 12 uses the built-in Media Foundation codecs to play these formats by default.

Windows 7 also updates the DirectShow filters introduced in Windows Vista for playback of MPEG-2 and Dolby Digital to decode H.264, AAC, HE-AAC v1 and v2[84] and Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Digital Plus[85] (including downmixing to Dolby Digital), Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen.

Security[edit]

Action Center, formerly Windows Security Center, now encompasses both security and maintenance. It was called Windows Health Center and Windows Solution Center in earlier builds.[citation needed]

A new user interface for User Account Control has been introduced, which provides the ability to select four different levels of notifications, one of these notification settings, Default, is new to Windows 7.[86] Geo-tracking capabilities are also available in Windows 7. The feature will be disabled by default. When enabled the user will only have limited control as to which applications can track their location.[87]

The Encrypting File System supports Elliptic-curve cryptographic algorithms (ECC) in Windows 7. For backward compatibility with previous releases of Windows, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Windows 7 supports a mixed-mode operation of ECC and RSA algorithms. EFS self-signed certificates, when using ECC, will use 256-bit key by default. EFS can be configured to use 1K/2k/4k/8k/16k-bit keys when using self-signed RSA certificates, or 256/384/512-bit keys when using ECC certificates.

In Windows Vista, the Protected User-Mode Audio (PUMA) content protection facilities are only available to applications that are running in a Protected Media Path environment. Because only the Media Foundationapplication programming interface could interact with this environment, a media player application had to be designed to use Media Foundation. In Windows 7, this restriction is lifted.[88] PUMA also incorporates stricter enforcement of "Copy Never" bits when using Serial Copy Management System (SCMS) copy protection over an S/PDIF connection, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, as well as with High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) over HDMI connections, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen.

Biometrics[edit]

Windows 7 includes the new Windows Biometric Framework.[89] This framework consists of a set of components that standardizes the use of fingerprint biometric devices, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. In prior releases of Microsoft Windows, biometric hardware device manufacturers were required to provide a complete stack of software to support their device, including device drivers, software development kits, and support applications. Microsoft noted in a white paper on the Windows Biometric Framework that the proliferation of these proprietary stacks resulted in compatibility issues, compromised the quality and reliability of the system, and made servicing and maintenance more difficult. By incorporating the core biometric functionality into the operating system, Microsoft aims to bring biometric device support on par with other classes of devices.

A new Control Panel called Biometric Device Control Panel is included which provides an interface for deleting stored biometrics information, troubleshooting, and enabling or disabling the types of logins that are allowed using biometrics. Biometrics configuration can also be configured using Group Policy settings.

Networking[edit]

  • DirectAccess, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, a VPN tunnel technology based on IPv6 and IPsec. DirectAccess requires domain-joined machines, Windows Server 2008 R2 on the DirectAccess server, at least Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and a PKI to issue authentication certificates.[90]
  • BranchCache, a WAN optimization technology.[91]
  • The Bluetooth stack includes improvements introduced in the Windows Vista Feature Pack for Wireless, namely, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR support and remote wake from S3 or S4 support for self-powered Bluetooth modules.[92]
  • NDIS 6.20[93] (Network Driver Interface Specification)
  • WWAN (Mobile broadband) support (driver model based on NDIS miniport driver for CDMA and GSM device interfaces, Connection Manager support and Mobile Broadband COM and COM Interop API).
  • Wireless Hosted Network capabilities: The Windows 7 wireless LAN service supports two new functions – Virtual Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, that allows a single wireless network adapter to act like two client devices,[94] or a software-based wireless access point (SoftAP) to act as both a wireless hotspot in infrastructure mode and a wireless client at the same time.[95] This feature is not exposed through the GUI; however the Virtual WiFi Miniport adapter can be installed and enabled for wireless adapters with drivers that support a hosted network by using the command netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow "ssid=<network SSID>" "key=<wlan security key>" keyusage=persistent temporary at an elevated command prompt.[96] The wireless SoftAP can afterwards be started using the command netsh wlan start hostednetwork. Windows 7 also supports WPA2-PSK/AES security for the hosted network, but DNS resolution for clients requires it to be used with Internet Connection Sharing or a similar feature.
  • SMB 2.1, which includes minor performance enhancements Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen SMB2, such as a new opportunistic locking mechanism.[97]
  • RDP 7.0[98]
  • Background Intelligent Transfer Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen 4.0[99]

HomeGroup[edit]

Alongside the workgroup system used by previous versions, Windows 7 adds a new ad hochome networking system known as HomeGroup. The system uses a password to join computers into the group, and allows users' libraries, along with individual files and folders, to be shared between multiple computers. Only computers running Windows 7 to Windows 10 version 1709 can create or join a HomeGroup;[100][101] however, users can make files and printers shared in a HomeGroup accessible to Windows XP and Windows Vista through a separate account, dedicated to sharing HomeGroup content, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, that uses traditional Windows sharing.[102] HomeGroup support was deprecated in Windows 10[103] and has been removed from Windows 10 version 1803 and later.[104][105][106]

HomeGroup as a concept is very similar to a feature slated for Windows Vista, known as Castle, which would have made it possible to have an identification service for all members on the network, without a centralized server.

HomeGroup is created in response to the need for a simple sharing model for inexperienced users who need to share files without wrestling with user accounts, Security descriptors and share permissions.[107] To that end, Microsoft previously created Simple File Sharing mode in Windows XP that, once enabled, caused all connected computers to be authenticated as Guest. Under this model, either a certain file or folder was shared with anyone who connects to the network (even unauthorized parties who are in range of the wireless network) or was not shared at all.[108] In a HomeGroup, however:

  1. Communication between HomeGroup computers is encrypted with a pre-shared password.[107]
  2. A certain file or folder can be shared with the entire HomeGroup (anyone who joins) or a certain person only.[107]
  3. HomeGroup computers can also be a member of a Windows domain or Windows workgroup at the same time and take advantage of those file Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen mechanisms.[109]
  4. Only computers that support HomeGroup (Windows 7 to Windows 10 version 1709) can join the network.[100][109]

Windows Firewall[edit]

Windows 7 adds support for multiple firewall profiles. The Windows Firewall in Windows Vista dynamically changes which network traffic is allowed or blocked based on the location of the computer (based on which network it is connected to). This approach falls short if the computer is connected to more than one network at the same time (as for a computer with both an Ethernet and a wireless interface). In this case, Vista applies the profile that is more secure to all network connections. This is often not desirable; Windows 7 resolves this by being able to Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen a separate firewall profile to each network connection.

DNSSEC[edit]

Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 introduce support for Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC),[110] a set of specifications for securing certain kinds of information provided by the Domain Name System (DNS) as used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. DNSSEC employs digital signatures to ensure the authenticity of DNS data Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen from a DNS server, which protect against DNS cache poisoning attacks.

Management features[edit]

Windows 7 contains Windows PowerShell 2.0 out-of-the-box, which is also available as a download to install on older platforms:[111]

  • Windows Troubleshooting Platform
  • Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment
  • PowerShell Remoting

Other new management features include:

  • AppLocker (a set of Group Policy settings that evolved from Software Restriction Policies, to restrict which applications can run on a corporate network, including the ability to restrict based on the application's version number or publisher)
  • Group Policy Preferences (also available as a download for Windows XP and Windows Vista).
  • The Windows Automation API (also available as a download for Windows XP and Windows Vista).

Upgraded components[edit]

Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer 8,[112].NET Framework 3.5 SP1,[113]Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.5,[114]Windows Installer 5.0 and a standalone XPS Viewer.[115][116]Paint, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Calculator, Resource Monitor, on-screen keyboard, and WordPad have also been updated.

Paint and WordPad feature a Ribbon interface similar to the one introduced in Office 2007, with both sporting several new features. WordPad supports Office Open XML and ODFfile formats.[117]

Calculator has been rewritten, with multiline capabilities including Programmer and Statistics modes, unit conversion, and date calculations. Calculator was also given a graphical facelift, the first since Windows 95 in 1995 and Windows NT 4.0 in 1996.

Resource Monitor includes an improved RAM usage display and supports display of TCP/IPports being listened to, filtering processes using networking, filtering processes with disk activity and listing and searching process handles (e.g. files used by a process) and loaded modules (files required by an executable file, e.g. DLL files).

Microsoft Magnifier, an accessibility utility for low vision users has been dramatically improved. Magnifier now supports the full screen zoom feature, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, whereas previous Windows versions had the Magnifier attached to the top of the screen in a dock layout. The new full screen feature is enabled by default, however, it requires Windows Aero for the advantage of the full screen zoom feature. If Windows is set to the Windows 7 Basic, Windows Classic, or High Contrast themes, Magnifier will still function like it did in Windows Vista and earlier.

Windows Installer 5.0 supports installing and configuring Windows Services,[118] and provides developers with more control over setting permissions during software installation.[119] Neither of these features will be available for prior versions of Windows; custom actions to support these features will continue to be required for Windows Installer packages that need to implement these features.

Other features[edit]

  • Windows 7 improves the Tablet PC Input Panel to make faster corrections using new gestures, supports text prediction in the soft keyboard and introduces a new Math Input Panel for inputting math into programs that support MathML.[120] It recognizes handwritten math expressions and formulas. Additional language support for handwriting recognition can be gained by installing the respective MUI pack for that language (also called language pack).
  • Windows 7 introduces a new Problem Steps Recorder tool that enables users to record their interaction with software for analysis and support. The feature can be used to replicate a problem to show support when and where a problem occurred.[121]
  • As opposed to the blank start-up screen in Windows Vista, Windows 7's start-up screen consists of an animation featuring four colored light balls (one red, one yellow, one green, and one blue). They twirl around for a few seconds and then join together to form a glowing Windows logo. This only occurs on displays with a vertical resolution of 768 pixels or higher, as the animation is 1024x768. Any screen with a resolution below this displays the same startup screen that Vista used.
  • The Starter Edition of Windows 7 can run an unlimited number of applications, compared to only 3 in Windows Vista Starter. Microsoft had initially intended to ship Windows 7 Starter Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen with this limitation, but announced after the release of the Release Candidate that this restriction would not be imposed in the final release.[122]
  • For developers, Windows 7 includes a new networking API with support for building SOAP-based web services in native code (as opposed to .NET-based WCF web services),[123] new features to shorten application install times, reduced UAC prompts, simplified development of installation packages,[124] and improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services API.[125]
  • If an application crashes twice in a row, Windows 7 will automatically attempt to apply a shim. If an application fails to install a similar self-correcting fix, a tool that asks some questions about the application launches.[126]
  • Windows 7 includes an optional TIFFIFilter that enables indexing of TIFF documents by reading them with optical character recognition (OCR), thus making their text content searchable. TIFF iFilter supports Adobe TIFF Revision 6.0 specifications and four compression schemes: LZW, JPEG, CCITT v4, CCITT v6[127]
  • The Windows Console now adheres to the current Windows theme, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, instead of showing controls from the Windows Classic theme.
  • Games Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7.
  • Users can disable many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. The new components which can now be disabled include: Handwriting Recognition, Internet Explorer, Windows DVD Maker, Windows Fax and Scan, Windows Gadget PlatformWindows Media Center, Windows Media Player, Windows Search, and the XPS Viewer (with its services).[128]
  • Windows XP Mode is a fully functioning copy of 32-bit Windows XP Professional SP3 running in a virtual machine in Windows Virtual PC (as opposed to Hyper-V) running on top of Windows 7. Through the use of the RDP protocol, it allows applications incompatible with Windows 7 to be run on the underlying Windows XP virtual machine, but still to appear to be part of the Windows 7 desktop,[129] thereby sharing the native Start Menu of Windows 7 as well as participating in file BurnAware Professional 14.1 Crack With Keygen Latest Version Full Download 2021 associations. It is not distributed with Windows 7 media, but is offered as a free download to users of the Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate editions from Microsoft's web site. Users of Home Premium who want Windows XP functionality on their systems can download Windows Virtual PC free of charge, but must provide their own licensed copy of Windows XP. XP Mode is intended for consumers rather than enterprises, as it offers no central management capabilities. Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (Med-V) is available for the enterprise market.
  • Native support for Hyper-V virtual machines through the inclusion of VMBus integration drivers.[130]
  • The memory manager is optimized to mitigate the problem of total memory consumption in the event of excessive cached read operations, which occurred on earlier releases of 64-bit Windows.[131]
  • AVCHD camera support and Universal Video Class 1.1
  • Protected Broadcast Driver Architecture (PBDA) for TV tuner cards, first implemented in Windows Media Center TV Pack 2008 for Windows Vista.
  • Support for up to 256 logical processors[132]
  • Fewer hardware locks and greater parallelism[133]
  • Timer coalescing: modern processors and chipsets can switch to very low power usage levels while the CPU is idle. In order to reduce the number of times the CPU enters and exits idle states, Windows 7 introduces the concept of "timer coalescing"; multiple applications or device drivers which perform actions on a regular basis can be set to occur at once, instead of each action being performed on their own schedule. This facility is available in both kernel mode, via the API (which would be used in place of ), and in user mode with the Windows API call (which replaces ).[134]
  • Multi-function devices and Device Containers: Prior to Windows 7, every device attached to the system was treated as a single functional end-point, known as a devnode, that has a set of capabilities and a "status". While this is appropriate for single-function devices (such as a keyboard or scanner), it does not accurately represent multi-function devices such as a combined printer, fax machine, and scanner, or web-cams with a built-in microphone. In Windows 7, the drivers and status information for multi-function device can be grouped together as a single "Device Container", which is presented to the user in the new "Devices and Printers" Control Panel as a single unit. This capability is provided by a new Plug and Play property,which is a Globally Unique Identifier that is different for every instance of a physical device. The Container ID can be embedded within the device by the manufacturer, or created by Windows and associated with each devnode when it is first connected to the computer. In order to ensure the uniqueness of the generated Container ID, Windows will attempt to use information unique to the device, such as a MAC address or USB serial number, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Devices connected to the computer via USB, IEEE 1394 (FireWire), eSATA, PCI Express, Bluetooth, and Windows Rally's PnP-X support can make use of Device Containers.[135]
  • User-Mode Scheduling: The 64-bit versions of Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 introduce a user-mode scheduling framework.[136] On Microsoft Windows operating systems, scheduling of threads inside a process is handled by the kernel. While for most applications this is sufficient, applications with large concurrent threading requirements, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, such as a database server, can benefit from having a thread scheduler in-process. This is because the kernel no longer needs to be involved in context switches between threads, and it obviates the need for a thread pool mechanism as threads can be created and destroyed much more quickly when no kernel context switches are required.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Brown, Eric (January 29, 2009). Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen new in Windows Speech Recognition?". MSDN Blogs. Microsoft. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  2. ^Foley Jo, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Mary (September 30, 2008), Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. "Windows 7 to get parallel-processing tweaks". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  3. ^ abcThurrott, Paul (October 6, 2010). "Windows 7 Feature Focus: Aero Themes". SuperSite for Windows. Penton. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  4. ^ ab"Theme File Format". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. May 31, 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  5. ^"How to Activate All Regional Themes in Windows 7". Brothersoft. Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  6. ^Thurrott, Paul (October 6, 2010). "Windows 7 Build 7048 Notes". SuperSite for Windows. Penton, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  7. ^Shepherd, Jennifer (January 10, 2011). "Your PC is alive.with the sound Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen Windows!". The Windows Blog. Microsoft. Archived from the original on January 13, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  8. ^Shepherd, Jennifer (March 31, 2011). "Windows 7 themes: Reusing 'custom' sound-schemes". Windows Blogs. Microsoft. Archived from the original on April 29, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  9. ^Srinivasan, Ramesh (July 6, 2011). "How to Increase Windows 7 Desktop Slideshow Transition Animation Duration". WinHelpOnline. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011. Retrieved June 15, Autodesk AutoCAD Crack 2021 Keygen Free Download, Long (August 6, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, 2008). "Windows 7 to add slideshow wallpapers, theme gallery and theme packs". istartedsomething. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  10. ^Rivera, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Rafael (November 3, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, 2008). "Windows 7 to let users create a Desktop Slideshow from files, feeds". Within Windows. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  11. ^ abcdefThurrott, Paul (October 6, 2010). "Windows 7 Feature Focus: Windows Gadgets". SuperSite for Windows. Penton. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  12. ^ abKennedy, John; Satran, Michael (May 31, 2018). "Introduction to the Gadget Platform". Microsoft Developer Network. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  13. ^Rivera, Rafael (March 15, 2009). "Windows 7 to officially support logon UI background customization". Within Windows. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  14. ^Shultz, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Gred (July 25, 2011). "Change and customize Windows 7's Logon screen wallpaper". TechRepublic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  15. ^"[MS-WSP]: Windows Search Protocol". Microsoft Developer Network, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Microsoft. February 15, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  16. ^"Creating Shortcut Menu Handlers". MSDN. Creating Static Cascading Menus: Microsoft Corporation. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  17. ^"How to Implement Custom Verbs for Folders through Desktop.ini". MSDN. Microsoft. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  18. ^Chen, Raymond (12 March 2010). "Simplifying context menu extensions with IExecuteCommand". The Old New Thing.
  19. ^"IExecuteCommand interface". MSDN.
  20. ^LeBlanc, Brandon (April 13, 2009). "Burn ISO Images Natively in Windows 7". Windows Experience Blog. Microsoft. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  21. ^"Federating Windows Search with Enterprise Data Sources". Engineering Windows 7. Microsoft. March 23, 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  22. ^Zheng, Long (5 January 2009). "Measuring up Windows 7′s new "super" taskbar", Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. I Started Something. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  23. ^"Add the Quick Launch Bar to the Taskbar in Windows 7". How-To Geek. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  24. ^"Introducing The Taskbar APIs". MSDN. Microsoft. July 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  25. ^Kiriaty, Yochay; Goldshtein, Sasha (2009), Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. "Windows 7 Taskbar APIs". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  26. ^"Adjust Size of Jump Lists on Windows 7 Taskbar". MalekTips.com. Envision Programming. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  27. ^Thurrott, Paul. "Windows 7 Feature Focus: Windows Taskbar". Supersite Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Chaitanya (March 25, 2009). Sinofsky, Steven (ed.). "The Windows 7 Taskbar". MSDN Blogs. Microsoft. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  28. ^Townsend, Reed; Matthews, Dave; LeGrow, Ian (March 25, 2009). Sinofsky, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, Steven (ed.). "Touching Windows 7". MSDN Blogs. Microsoft. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  29. ^"Deep inside the Windows 7 Public Beta: an in-depth tour". arstechnica.com. 11 January 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
  30. ^"Disable Automatic Docking and Maximizing of Windows". MalekTips.com, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Envision Programming. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  31. ^Pennington, Kenneth (8 January 2009). "Aero Shake Feature – HD Video". w7info.com. Archived from Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
  32. ^Paddock, Brandon (10 January 1009). "Windows 7 Beta hotkey cheat sheet". Retrieved 18 January 2009.
  33. ^Steinmetz, Oliver (31 May 1009). "Windows 7 Beta Shortcuts Overview". Archived from YouTubeByClick crack serial keygen original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  34. ^Mukherjee, Abhijeet, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. "15 Killer Windows 7 Keyboard Shortcuts That Might Surprise You". Guiding Tech. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  35. ^Microsoft. "ChooseFont() Win32 Common Dialog". MSDN. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  36. ^ abZheng, Long (October 30, 2008). "Improvements to fonts in Windows 7". istartedsomething. Retrieved June 15, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen, 2015.
  37. ^Microsoft. "New Fonts in Windows 7". Typography. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  38. ^Rivera, Rafael (October 29, 2008). "Users, say hello to Gabriola. Gabriola, say hello to Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen users". Within Windows. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  39. ^Zheng, Long (July 27, 2009). "Native live font previews in Windows Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. istartedsomething. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  40. ^Microsoft. "Font Dialog Box". MSDN. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  41. ^Zheng, Long (August 18, 2012). "Microsoft backports Windows 8 emoji for Segoe UI Symbol to Windows 7". istartedsomething, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  42. ^Mackey, Kurt (October 31, 2008). "Ars@PDC: The new "Device Stage" in Windows 7". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  43. ^"Device Experience for Printers, Scanners, and Multifunction Printers". MSDN, Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Microsoft. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  44. ^Flores, Chris (May 27, 2008). "Microsoft demonstrates Multi-touch", Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. Windows Vista Team Blog. Microsoft. Archived from the original on May 29, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  45. ^Familiar, Bob (August 31, 2009). "Windows 7 – Sexy, Sensitive and Heading Your Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen. MSDN Blogs. Microsoft. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
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Make a demonstration video for your app or capture web conference for backup and later review. Voice commentary and webcam are also supported to be included in the recording.

Teaching & Studying

Record online courses for e-learning and add extra annotations to it for better illustration. And this video recording software helps to make your video presentation more vivid as well.

Entertainment

Record your finest gaming moments smoothly with HD quality, take screenshots of certain segments and share these awesome gameplay experiences with others.

General Use

Other general use offered by this PC screen recorder includes saving great video chat moment, recording a short video clip for troubleshooting and customer support, etc.

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Send video to Google Drive cloud storage and share the video with your Google friends instantly.

Upload video to Dropbox with a simple click so that you can organize the videos and get them in sync with your team.

System Requirements

Being a powerful screen recorder for Windows and Mac, ApowerREC also supports recording screen activities with internal audio and microphone for your iOS and Android devices. For iOS users, you can add your own voice and facecam to the video after the recording. And for Android users, you are able to easily control the screen recording with an overlay icon and adjust multiple recording configurations.

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How to get free VIP account?

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सेटअप त्वरित और ऊंचा नीचा है, खासकर के बाद से यह जरूरत पर जोर देता decompressing संग्रह है । शुरू करने पर, आप आने का सामना करने के लिए चेहरे के साथ एक छोटी सी खिड़की है कि है भी इंटरफ़ेस का कार्यक्रम है । आप कर सकते हैं, में और बाहर ज़ूम करने के लिए किसी भी स्थान पर अपने डेस्कटॉप के लिए माउस पहिया का उपयोग करके, जबकि क्षेत्र का चयन करने के लिए बढ़ाना है एक साधारण बात रखने के लिए कर्सर का उपयोग करें ।

आवेदन की अनुमति देता है आप को बदलने के लिए ज़ूम अनुपात, और आप भी कर सकते हैं वृद्धि देखने के क्षेत्र खींचकर कोनों में से एक है । के निचले खंड में इंटरफेस आप कर सकते हैं पूर्वावलोकन सूचक के निर्देशांक के रूप में अच्छी तरह के आकार के रूप में देखने के क्षेत्र.

के प्रकार के आधार पर परियोजना तुम पर काम कर रहे हैं, आप कर सकते हैं के लिए कार्यक्रम निर्धारित करने के लिए हमेशा शीर्ष पर होना है । इस सुविधा के काम में आ सकता है जब आप पर काम कर रहे हैं एक ग्राफिक तत्व, अभी तक आप चाहते हैं की बड़ी तस्वीर देखने के लिए निर्धारित करने के लिए अगर यह यह मिश्रणों, उदाहरण के लिए.

यह आवश्यक है कि उल्लेख करने के लिए उपयोगिता के साथ आता है विभिन्न ज़ूम अनुपात से लेकर 0.5 करने के लिए 65. इसलिए, यदि आप में असमर्थ रहे हैं की पहचान करने के लिए संभावित दोष नहीं कर रहे हैं कि नग्न आंखों को दिखाई है, आप कर सकते हैं स्विच करने के लिए एक बड़ा अनुपात और की पुष्टि करें या कमजोर अपने सिद्धांत है.

छोटे ज़ूम अनुपात, दूसरे हाथ पर, उपयोगी हो सकता है जब आप की कोशिश कर रहे हैं पढ़ने के लिए विभिन्न ग्रंथों लेखन छोटे फोंट के साथ उदाहरण के लिए.

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Table of Contents

1. About This Reference
1.1. Conventions Used in This Reference
1.1.1. Product Codes
1.1.2. Applicable Products
1.2. Terminology
1.3. Command Characteristics
1.3.1. Data Input
1.3.2. Free-Format Input
1.3.3. Nonrestrictive Data Input
1.3.4. Condensed Data Input
1.3.5. Units
1.3.6. Command and Argument Defaults
1.3.7. File Names
1.3.8. Star and Slash Commands
2. Command Groupings
2.1. SESSION Commands
2.2. DATABASE Commands
2.3. GRAPHICS Commands
2.4. APDL Commands
2.5. PREP7 Commands
2.6. SOLUTION Commands
2.7. POST1 Commands
2.8. POST26 Commands
2.9. AUX2 Commands
2.10. AUX3 Commands
2.11. AUX12 Commands
2.12. AUX15 Commands
2.13. Mapping Processor Commands
2.14. DISPLAY Program Commands
2.15. REDUCED Order Modeling Commands
3. Command Dictionary
I. Connection Commands
~CAT5IN - Transfers a .CATPart file into the ANSYS program.
~CATIAIN - Transfers a CATIA model into the ANSYS program.
~PARAIN - Transfers a Parasolid file into the ANSYS program.
~PROEIN - Transfers a Creo Parametric part into the ANSYS program.
~SATIN - Transfers a .SAT file into the ANSYS program.
~UGIN - Transfers an NX part into the ANSYS program.
II. A Commands
A - Defines an area by connecting keypoints.
AADD - Adds separate areas to create a single area.
AATT - Associates element attributes with the selected, unmeshed areas.
ABEXTRACT - Extracts the alpha-beta damping multipliers for Rayleigh damping.
*ABBR - Defines an abbreviation.
ABBRES - Reads abbreviations from a coded file.
ABBSAV - Writes the current abbreviation set to a coded file.
ABS - Forms the absolute value of a variable.
ACCAT - Concatenates multiple areas in preparation for mapped meshing.
ACCOPTION - Specifies GPU accelerator capability options.
ACEL - Specifies the linear acceleration of the global Cartesian reference frame for the analysis.
ACLEAR - Deletes nodes and area elements associated with selected areas.
ADAMS - Performs solutions and writes flexible body information to a modal neutral file (Jobname.MNF) for use in an ADAMS analysis.
ADD - Adds (sums) variables.
ADDAM - Specifies the acceleration spectrum computation constants for the analysis of shock resistance of shipboard structures.
ADELE - Deletes unmeshed areas.
ADGL - Lists keypoints of an area that lie on a parametric degeneracy.
ADRAG - Generates areas by dragging a line pattern along a path.
AEROCOEFF - Computes the aero-damping and stiffness coefficients and writes them to an APDL array.
AESIZE - Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas.
AFILLT - Generates a fillet at the intersection of two areas.
AFLIST - Lists the current data in the database.
AFSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the surface of existing solid elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
*AFUN - Specifies units for angular functions in parameter expressions.
AGEN - Generates additional areas from a pattern of areas.
AGLUE - Generates new areas by "gluing" areas.
AINA - Finds the intersection of areas.
AINP - Finds the pairwise intersection of areas.
AINV - Finds the intersection of an area with a volume.
AL - Generates an area bounded by previously defined lines.
ALIST - Lists the defined areas.
ALLSEL - Selects all entities with a single command.
ALPHAD - Defines the mass matrix multiplier for damping.
AMAP - Generates a 2-D mapped mesh based on specified area corners.
AMESH - Generates nodes and area elements within areas.
/AN3D - Specifies 3-D annotation functions
ANCNTR - Produces an animated sequence of a contoured deformed shape.
ANCUT - Produces an animated sequence of Q-slices.
ANCYC - Applies a traveling wave animation to graphics data in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
ANDATA - Displays animated graphics data for nonlinear problems.
ANDSCL - Produces an animated sequence of a deformed shape.
ANDYNA - Produces an animated sequence of contour values through substeps.
/ANFILE - Saves or resumes an animation sequence to or from a file.
ANFLOW - Produces an animated sequence of particle flow in a flowing fluid or a charged particle traveling in an electric or magnetic field.
/ANGLE - Rotates the display about an axis.
ANHARM - Produces an animated sequence of time-harmonic results or complex mode shapes.
ANIM - Displays animated graphics data for linear problems.
ANISOS - Produces an animated sequence of an isosurface.
ANMODE - Produces an animated sequence of a mode shape.
ANMRES - Performs animation of results over multiple results files in an explicit dynamic structural analysis or fluid flow analysis with remeshing.
/ANNOT - Activates graphics for annotating displays (GUI).
ANORM - Reorients area normals.
ANPRES - Produces an animated sequence of the time-harmonic pressure variation of an engine-order excitation in a cyclic harmonic analysis.
ANSOL - Specifies averaged nodal data to be stored from the results file in the solution coordinate system.
ANSTOAQWA - Creates an AQWA-LINE input file from the current Mechanical APDL model.
ANSTOASAS - Creates an ASAS input file from the current ANSYS model.
ANTIME - Generates a sequential contour animation over a range of time.
ANTYPE - Specifies the analysis type and restart status.
/ANUM - Specifies the annotation number, type, and hot spot (GUI).
AOFFST - Generates an area, offset from a given area.
AOVLAP - Overlaps areas.
APLOT - Displays the selected areas.
APORT - Specifies input data for plane wave and acoustic duct ports.
APPEND - Reads data from the results file and appends it to the database.
APTN - Partitions areas.
ARCLEN - Activates the arc-length method.
ARCTRM - Controls termination of the solution when the arc-length method is used.
AREAS - Specifies "Areas" as the subsequent status topic.
AREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified areas.
AREMESH - Generates an area in which to create a new mesh for rezoning.
AREVERSE - Reverses the normal of an area, regardless of its connectivity or mesh status.
AROTAT - Generates cylindrical areas by rotating a line pattern about an axis.
ARSCALE - Generates a scaled set of areas from a pattern of areas.
ARSYM - Generates areas from an area pattern by symmetry reflection.
ASBA - Subtracts areas from areas.
ASBL - Subtracts lines from areas.
ASBV - Subtracts volumes from areas.
ASBW - Subtracts the intersection of the working plane from areas (divides areas).
ASCRES - Specifies the output type for an acoustic scattering analysis.
ASEL - Selects a subset of areas.
ASIFILE - Writes or reads one-way acoustic-structural coupling data.
*ASK - Prompts the user to input a parameter value.
ASKIN - Generates an area by "skinning" a surface through guiding lines.
ASLL - Selects those areas containing the selected lines.
ASLV - Selects those areas contained in the selected volumes.
ASOL - Specifies the acoustic solver with scattered field formulation.
/ASSIGN - Reassigns a file name to an ANSYS file identifier.
ASUB - Generates an area using the shape of an existing area.
ASUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected areas.
ATAN - Forms the arctangent of a complex variable.
ATRAN - Transfers a pattern of areas to another coordinate system.
ATYPE - Specifies "Analysis types" as the subsequent status topic.
/AUTO - Resets the focus and distance specifications to "automatically calculated."
AUTOTS - Specifies whether to use automatic time stepping or load stepping.
/AUX2 - Enters the binary file dumping processor.
/AUX3 - Enters the results file editing processor.
/AUX12 - Enters the radiation processor.
/AUX15 - Enters the IGES file transfer processor.
AVPRIN - Specifies how principal and vector sums are to be calculated.
AVRES - Specifies how results data will be averaged when PowerGraphics is enabled.
AWAVE - Specifies input data for an acoustic incident wave.
/AXLAB - Labels the X and Y axes on graph displays.
*AXPY - Performs the matrix operation M2= v*M1 + w*M2.
III. B Commands
/BATCH - Sets the program mode to "batch."
BCSOPTION - Sets memory option for the sparse solver.
BETAD - Defines the stiffness matrix multiplier for damping.
BF - Defines a nodal body force load.
BFA - Defines a body force load on an area.
BFADELE - Deletes body force loads on an area.
BFALIST - Lists the body force loads on an area.
BFCUM - Specifies that nodal body force loads are to be accumulated.
BFDELE - Deletes nodal body force loads.
BFE - Defines an element body force load.
BFECUM - Specifies whether to ignore subsequent element body force loads.
BFEDELE - Deletes element body force loads.
BFELIST - Lists the element body force loads.
BFESCAL - Scales element body force loads.
BFINT - Activates the body force interpolation operation.
BFK - Defines a body force load at a keypoint.
BFKDELE - Deletes body force loads at a keypoint.
BFKLIST - Lists the body force loads at keypoints.
BFL - Defines a body force load on a line.
BFLDELE - Deletes body force loads on a line.
BFLIST - Lists the body force loads on nodes.
BFLLIST - Lists the body force loads on a line.
BFSCALE - Scales body force loads at nodes.
BFTRAN - Transfers solid model body force loads to the finite element model.
BFUNIF - Assigns a uniform body force load to all nodes.
BFV - Defines a body force load on a volume.
BFVDELE - Deletes body force loads on a volume.
BFVLIST - Lists the body force loads on a volume.
BIOOPT - Specifies "Biot-Savart options" as the subsequent status topic.
BIOT - Calculates the Biot-Savart source magnetic field intensity.
BLC4 - Creates a rectangular area or block volume by corner points.
BLC5 - Creates a rectangular area or block volume by center and corner points.
BLOCK - Creates a block volume based on working plane coordinates.
BOOL - Specifies "Booleans" as the subsequent status topic.
BOPTN - Specifies Boolean operation options.
BSAX - Specifies the axial strain and axial force relationship for beam sections.
BSMD - Specifies mass per unit length for a nonlinear general beam section.
BSM1 - Specifies the bending curvature and moment relationship in plane XZ for beam sections.
BSM2 - Specifies the bending curvature and moment relationship in plane XY for beam sections.
BSPLIN - Generates a single line from a spline fit to a series of keypoints.
BSS1 - Specifies the transverse shear strain and force relationship in plane XZ for beam sections.
BSS2 - Specifies the transverse shear strain and force relationship in plane XY for beam sections.
BSTE - Specifies a thermal expansion coefficient for a nonlinear general beam section.
BSTQ - Specifies the cross section twist and torque relationship for beam sections.
BTOL - Specifies the Boolean operation tolerances.
BUCOPT - Specifies buckling analysis options.
IV. C Commands
C*** - Places a comment in the output.
CALC - Specifies "Calculation settings" as the subsequent status topic.
CAMPBELL - Prepares the result file for a subsequent Campbell diagram of a prestressed structure.
CBDOF - Activates cut-boundary interpolation (for submodeling).
CBMD - Specifies preintegrated section mass matrix for composite-beam sections.
CBMX - Specifies preintegrated cross-section stiffness for composite beam sections.
CBTE - Specifies a thermal expansion coefficient for a composite beam section.
CBTMP - Specifies a temperature for composite-beam input.
CDOPT - Specifies format to be used for archiving geometry.
CDREAD - Reads a file of solid model and database information into the database.
CDWRITE - Writes geometry and load database items to a file.
CE - Defines a constraint equation relating degrees of freedom.
CECHECK - Check constraint equations and couplings for rigid body motions.
CECMOD - Modifies the constant term of a constraint equation during solution.
CECYC - Generates the constraint equations for a cyclic symmetry analysis
CEDELE - Deletes constraint equations.
CEINTF - Generates constraint equations at an interface.
CELIST - Lists the constraint equations.
CENTER - Defines a node at the center of curvature of 2 or 3 nodes.
CEQN - Specifies "Constraint equations" as the subsequent status topic.
CERIG - Defines a rigid region.
CESGEN - Generates a set of constraint equations from existing sets.
CFACT - Defines complex scaling factors to be used with operations.
*CFCLOS - Closes the "command" file.
*CFOPEN - Opens a "command" file.
*CFWRITE - Writes a Mechanical APDL command (or similar string) to a "command" file.
/CFORMAT - Controls the graphical display of alphanumeric character strings for parameters, components, assemblies, and tables.
CGLOC - Specifies the origin location of the acceleration coordinate system.
CGOMGA - Specifies the rotational velocity of the global origin.
CGROW - Defines crack-growth information
CHECK - Checks current database items for completeness.
CHKMSH - Checks area and volume entities for previous meshes.
CINT - Defines parameters associated with fracture parameter calculations
CIRCLE - Generates circular arc lines.
CISOL - Stores fracture parameter information in a variable.
/CLABEL - Specifies contour labeling.
/CLEAR - Clears the database.
CLOCAL - Defines a local coordinate system relative to the active coordinate system.
CLOG - Forms the common log of a variable
/CLOG - Copies the session log file to a named file.
CLRMSHLN - Clears meshed entities.
CM - Groups geometry items into a component.
CMACEL - Specifies the translational acceleration of an element component
/CMAP - Changes an existing or creates a new color mapping table.
CMATRIX - Performs electrostatic field solutions and calculates the self and mutual capacitances between multiple conductors.
CMDELE - Deletes a component or assembly definition.
CMDOMEGA - Specifies the rotational acceleration of an element component about a user-defined rotational axis.
CMEDIT - Edits an existing assembly.
CMGRP - Groups components and assemblies into an assembly.
CMLIST - Lists the contents of a component or assembly.
CMMOD - Modifies the specification of a component.
CMOMEGA - Specifies the rotational velocity of an element component about a user-defined rotational axis.
CMPLOT - Plots the entities contained in a component or assembly.
CMROTATE - Specifies the rotational velocity of an element component in a brake squeal analysis.
CMSEL - Selects a subset of components and assemblies.
CMSFILE - Specifies a list of component mode synthesis (CMS) results files for plotting results on the assembly.
CMSOPT - Specifies component mode synthesis (CMS) analysis options.
CMWRITE - Writes node and element components and assemblies to a file.
CNCHECK - Provides and/or adjusts the initial status of contact pairs.
CNKMOD - Modifies contact element key options.
CNTR - Redirects contact pair output quantities to a text file.
CNVTOL - Sets convergence values for nonlinear analyses.
/COLOR - Specifies the color mapping for various items.
/COM - Places a comment in the output.
*COMP - Compresses a matrix using a specified algorithm.
COMBINE - Combines distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) files.
COMPRESS - Deletes all specified sets.
CON4 - Creates a conical volume anywhere on the working plane.
CONE - Creates a conical volume centered about the working plane origin.
/CONFIG - Assigns values to ANSYS configuration parameters.
CONJUG - Forms the complex conjugate of a variable.
/CONTOUR - Specifies the uniform contour values on stress displays.
/COPY - Copies a file.
CORIOLIS - Applies the Coriolis effect to a rotating structure.
COUPLE - Specifies "Node coupling" as the subsequent status topic.
COVAL - Defines PSD cospectral values.
CP - Defines (or modifies) a set of coupled degrees of freedom.
CPCYC - Couples the two side faces of a cyclically symmetric model for loadings that are the same on every segment.
CPDELE - Deletes coupled degree of freedom sets.
CPINTF - Defines coupled degrees of freedom at an interface.
/CPLANE - Specifies the cutting plane for section and capped displays.
CPLGEN - Generates sets of coupled nodes from an existing set.
CPLIST - Lists the coupled degree of freedom sets.
CPMERGE - Merges different couple sets with duplicate degrees of freedom into one couple set.
CPNGEN - Defines, modifies, or adds to a set of coupled degrees of freedom.
CPSGEN - Generates sets of coupled nodes from existing sets.
CQC - Specifies the complete quadratic mode combination method.
*CREATE - Opens (creates) a macro file.
CRPLIM - Specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping.
CS - Defines a local coordinate system by three node locations.
CSCIR - Locates the singularity for non-Cartesian local coordinate systems.
CSDELE - Deletes local coordinate systems.
CSKP - Defines a local coordinate system by three keypoint locations.
CSLIST - Lists coordinate systems.
CSWPLA - Defines a local coordinate system at the origin of the working plane.
CSYS - Activates a previously defined coordinate system.
/CTYPE - Specifies the type of contour display.
CURR2D - Calculates current flow in a 2-D conductor.
CUTCONTROL - Controls time-step cutback during a nonlinear solution.
/CVAL - Specifies nonuniform contour values on stress displays.
CVAR - Computes covariance between two quantities.
/CWD - Changes the current working directory.
CYCCALC - Calculates results from a cyclic harmonic mode-superposition analysis using the specifications defined by CYCSPEC.
/CYCEXPAND - Graphically expands displacements, stresses and strains of a cyclically symmetric model.
CYCFILES - Specifies the data files where results are to be found for a cyclic symmetry mode-superposition harmonic analysis.
CYCFREQ - Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry mode-superposition harmonic analysis.
*CYCLE - Bypasses commands within a do-loop.
CYCLIC - Specifies a cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCOPT - Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCPHASE - Provides tools for determining minimum and maximum possible result values from frequency couplets produced in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCSPEC - Defines the set of result items for a subsequent CYCCALC command in postprocessing a cyclic harmonic mode-superposition analysis.
CYL4 - Creates a circular area or cylindrical volume anywhere on the working plane.
CYL5 - Creates a circular area or cylindrical volume by end points.
CYLIND - Creates a cylindrical volume centered about the working plane origin.
CZDEL - Edits or clears cohesive zone sections.
CZMESH - Create and mesh an interface area composed of cohesive zone elements.
V. D Commands
D - Defines degree-of-freedom constraints at nodes.
DA - Defines degree-of-freedom constraints on areas.
DADELE - Deletes degree-of-freedom constraints on an area.
DALIST - Lists the DOF constraints on an area.
DAMORPH - Move nodes in selected areas to conform to structural displacements.
DATA - Reads data records from a file into a variable.
DATADEF - Specifies "Directly defined data status" as the subsequent status topic.
DCGOMG - Specifies the rotational acceleration of the global origin.
DCUM - Specifies that DOF constraint values are to be accumulated.
DCVSWP - Performs a DC voltage sweep on a ROM element.
DDASPEC - Specifies the shock spectrum computation constants for DDAM analysis.
DDELE - Deletes degree-of-freedom constraints.
DDOPTION - Sets domain decomposer option for Distributed ANSYS.
DEACT - Specifies "Element birth and death" as the subsequent status topic.
DEFINE - Specifies "Data definition settings" as the subsequent status topic.
*DEL - Deletes a parameter or parameters (GUI).
DELETE - Specifies sets in the results file to be deleted before postprocessing.
/DELETE - Deletes a file.
DELTIM - Specifies the time step sizes to be used for the current load step.
DEMORPH - Move nodes in selected elements to conform to structural displacements.
DERIV - Differentiates a variable.
DESIZE - Controls default element sizes.
DESOL - Defines or modifies solution results at a node of an element.
DETAB - Modifies element table results in the database.
/DEVDISP - Controls graphics device options.
/DEVICE - Controls graphics device options.
/DFLAB - Changes degree-of-freedom labels for user custom elements.
DFLX - Imposes a uniform magnetic flux B on an edge-element electromagnetic model.
DFSWAVE - Specifies the incident planar waves with random phases for a diffuse sound field.
DIG - Digitizes nodes to a surface.
DIGIT - Specifies "Node digitizing" as the subsequent status topic.
*DIM - Defines an array parameter and its dimensions.
/DIRECTORY - Put the file names in the current directory into a string parameter array.
DISPLAY - Specifies "Display settings" as the subsequent status topic.
/DIST - Specifies the viewing distance for magnifications and perspective.
DJ - Specifies boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a joint element.
DJDELE - Deletes boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a joint element.
DJLIST - Lists boundary conditions applied to joint elements.
DK - Defines DOF constraints at keypoints.
DKDELE - Deletes DOF constraints at a keypoint.
DKLIST - Lists the DOF constraints at keypoints.
DL - Defines DOF constraints on lines.
DLDELE - Deletes DOF constraints on a line.
DLIST - Lists DOF constraints.
DLLIST - Lists DOF constraints on a line.
*DMAT - Creates a dense matrix.
DMOVE - Digitizes nodes on surfaces and along intersections.
DMPEXT - Extracts modal damping coefficients in a specified frequency range.
DMPOPTION - Specifies distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) file combination options.
DMPRAT - Sets a constant modal damping ratio.
DMPSTR - Sets a constant structural damping coefficient.
DNSOL - Defines or modifies solution results at a node.
*DO - Defines the beginning of a do-loop.
DOF - Adds degrees of freedom to the current DOF set.
DOFSEL - Selects a DOF label set for reference by other commands.
DOMEGA - Specifies the rotational acceleration of the structure.
*DOT - Computes the dot (or inner) product of two vectors.
*DOWHILE - Loops repeatedly through the next *ENDDO command.
DSCALE - Scales DOF constraint values.
/DSCALE - Sets the displacement multiplier for displacement displays.
DSET - Sets the scale and drawing plane orientation for a digitizing tablet.
DSPOPTION - Sets memory option for the distributed sparse solver.
DSUM - Specifies the double sum mode combination method.
DSURF - Defines the surface upon which digitized nodes lie.
DSYM - Specifies symmetry or antisymmetry degree-of-freedom constraints on nodes.
DSYS - Activates a display coordinate system for geometry listings and plots.
DTRAN - Transfers solid model DOF constraints to the finite element model.
DUMP - Dumps the contents of a binary file.
/DV3D - Sets 3-D device option modes.
DVAL - Defines values at enforced motion base.
DVMORPH - Move nodes in selected volumes to conform to structural displacements.
DYNOPT - Specifies "Dynamic analysis options" as the subsequent status topic.
VI. E Commands
E - Defines an element by node connectivity.
EALIVE - Reactivates an element (for the birth and death capability).
ECPCHG - Optimizes degree-of-freedom usage in a coupled acoustic model.
EDADAPT - Activates adaptive meshing in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDALE - Assigns mesh smoothing to explicit dynamic elements that use the ALE formulation.
EDASMP - Creates a part assembly to be used in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDBOUND - Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry.
EDBX - Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition for explicit dynamics.
EDBVIS - Specifies global bulk viscosity coefficients for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCADAPT - Specifies adaptive meshing controls for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCGEN - Specifies contact parameters for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCLIST - Lists contact entity specifications in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCMORE - Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCNSTR - Defines various types of constraints for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCONTACT - Specifies contact surface controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCPU - Specifies CPU time limit for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCRB - Constrains two rigid bodies to act as one in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCSC - Specifies whether to use subcycling in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCTS - Specifies mass scaling and scale factor of computed time step for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCURVE - Specifies data curves for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDDAMP - Defines mass weighted (Alpha) or stiffness weighted (Beta) damping for an explicit dynamics model.
EDDBL - Selects a numerical precision type of the explicit dynamics analysis.
EDDC - Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact surface specifications in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDDRELAX - Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the explicit analysis.
EDDUMP - Specifies output frequency for the explicit dynamic restart file (d3dump).
EDELE - Deletes selected elements from the model.
EDENERGY - Specifies energy dissipation controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDFPLOT - Allows plotting of explicit dynamics forces and other load symbols.
EDGCALE - Defines global ALE controls for an explicit dynamic analysis.
/EDGE - Displays only the common lines (“edges”) of an object.
EDHGLS - Specifies the hourglass coefficient for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDHIST - Specifies time-history output for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDHTIME - Specifies the time-history output interval for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDINT - Specifies number of integration points for explicit shell and beam output.
EDIPART - Defines inertia for rigid parts in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDIS - Specifies stress initialization in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis.
EDLCS - Defines a local coordinate system for use in explicit dynamics analysis.
EDLOAD - Specifies loads for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDMP - Defines material properties for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDNB - Defines a nonreflecting boundary in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDNDTSD - Allows smoothing of noisy data for explicit dynamics analyses and provides a graphical representation of the data.
EDNROT - Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDOPT - Specifies the type of output for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDOUT - Specifies time-history output (ASCII format) for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDPART - Configures parts for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDPC - Selects and plots explicit dynamic contact entities.
EDPL - Plots a time dependent load curve in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDPVEL - Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRC - Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRD - Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDREAD - Reads explicit dynamics output into variables for time-history postprocessing.
EDRI - Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable part is switched to rigid in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRST - Specifies the output interval for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRUN - Specify LS-DYNA serial or parallel processing.
EDSHELL - Specifies shell computation controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDSOLV - Specifies "explicit dynamics solution" as the subsequent status topic.
EDSP - Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDSTART - Specifies status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDTERM - Specifies termination criteria for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDTP - Plots explicit elements based on their time step size.
EDVEL - Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDWELD - Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld for use in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDWRITE - Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file.
EEXTRUDE - Extrudes 2-D plane elements into 3-D solids during a 2-D to 3-D analysis.
/EFACET - Specifies the number of facets per element edge for PowerGraphics displays.
EGEN - Generates elements from an existing pattern.
*EIGEN - Performs a modal solution with unsymmetric or damping matrices.
EINFIN - Generates structural infinite elements from selected nodes.
EINTF - Defines two-node elements between coincident or offset nodes.
EKILL - Deactivates an element (for the birth and death capability).
ELBOW - Specifies degrees of freedom to be coupled for end release and applies section constraints to elbow elements.
ELEM - Specifies "Elements" as the subsequent status topic.
ELIST - Lists the elements and their attributes.
*ELSE - Separates the final if-then-else block.
*ELSEIF - Separates an intermediate if-then-else block.
EMAGERR - Calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
EMATWRITE - Forces the writing of all the element matrices to File.EMAT.
EMF - Calculates the electromotive force (emf), or voltage drop along a predefined path.
EMFT - Summarizes electromagnetic forces and torques.
EMID - Adds or removes midside nodes.
EMIS - Specifies emissivity as a material property for the Radiation Matrix method.
EMODIF - Modifies a previously defined element.
EMORE - Adds more nodes to the just-defined element.
EMSYM - Specifies circular symmetry for electromagnetic sources.
EMTGEN - Generates a set of TRANS126 elements.
EMUNIT - Specifies the system of units for magnetic field problems.
EN - Defines an element by its number and node connectivity.
*END - Closes a macro file.
*ENDDO - Ends a do-loop and starts the looping action.
*ENDIF - Ends an if-then-else.
ENDRELEASE - Specifies degrees of freedom to be decoupled for end release.
ENERSOL - Specifies the total energies to be stored.
ENGEN - Generates elements from an existing pattern.
ENORM - Reorients shell element normals or line element node connectivity.
ENSYM - Generates elements by symmetry reflection.
/EOF - Exits the file being read.
EORIENT - Reorients solid element normals.
EPLOT - Produces an element display.
EQSLV - Specifies the type of equation solver.
ERASE - Explicitly erases the current display.
/ERASE - Specifies that the screen is to be erased before each display.
EREAD - Reads elements from a file.
EREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified elements.
EREINF - Generates reinforcing elements from selected existing (base) elements.
ERESX - Specifies extrapolation of integration point results.
ERNORM - Controls error estimation calculations.
ERRANG - Specifies the element range to be read from a file.
ESCHECK - Perform element shape checking for a selected element set.
ESEL - Selects a subset of elements.
/ESHAPE - Displays elements with shapes determined from the real constants, section definition, or other inputs.
ESIZE - Specifies the default number of line divisions.
ESLA - Selects those elements associated with the selected areas.
ESLL - Selects those elements associated with the selected lines.
ESLN - Selects those elements attached to the selected nodes.
ESLV - Selects elements associated with the selected volumes.
ESOL - Specifies element data to be stored from the results file.
ESORT - Sorts the element table.
ESSOLV - Performs a coupled electrostatic-structural analysis.
ESTIF - Specifies the matrix multiplier for deactivated elements.
ESURF - Generates elements overlaid on the free faces of selected nodes.
ESYM - Generates elements from a pattern by a symmetry reflection.
ESYS - Sets the element coordinate system attribute pointer.
ET - Defines a local element type from the element library.
ETABLE - Fills a table of element values for further processing.
ETCHG - Changes element types to their corresponding types.
ETCONTROL - Control the element technologies used in element formulation (for applicable elements).
ETDELE - Deletes element types.
ETLIST - Lists currently defined element types.
ETYPE - Specifies "Element types" as the subsequent status topic.
EUSORT - Restores original order of the element table.
EWRITE - Writes elements to a file.
EXBOPT - Specifies file output options in a CMS generation pass.
*EXIT - Exits a do-loop.
/EXIT - Stops the run and returns control to the system.
EXOPTION - Specifies the EXPROFILE options for the Mechanical APDL to ANSYS CFX profile file transfer.
EXP - Forms the exponential of a variable.
EXPAND - Displays the results of a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
/EXPAND - Allows the creation of a larger graphic display than represented by the actual finite element analysis model.
EXPASS - Specifies an expansion pass of an analysis.
*EXPORT - Exports a matrix to a file in the specified format.
EXPROFILE - Exports Mechanical APDL interface data on selected nodes to an ANSYS CFX Profile file.
EXPSOL - Specifies the solution to be expanded for mode-superposition analyses or substructure analyses.
EXTOPT - Controls options relating to the generation of volume elements from area elements.
EXTREM - Lists the extreme values for variables.
EXUNIT - Specifies the interface data unit labels to be written to the profile file from Mechanical APDL to ANSYS CFX transfer.
VII. F Commands
F - Specifies force loads at nodes.
/FACET - Specifies the facet representation used to form solid model displays.
FC - Provides failure criteria information and activates a data table to input temperature-dependent stress and strain limits.
FCCHECK - Checks both the strain and stress input criteria for all materials.
FCDELE - Deletes previously defined failure criterion data for the given material.
FCLIST - To list what the failure criteria is that you have input.
/FCOMP - Specifies file compression level.
FCUM - Specifies that force loads are to be accumulated.
FCTYP - Activates or removes failure-criteria types for postprocessing.
FDELE - Deletes force loads on nodes.
/FDELE - Deletes a binary file after it is used.
FEBODY - Specifies "Body loads on elements" as the subsequent status topic.
FECONS - Specifies "Constraints on nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
FEFOR - Specifies "Forces on nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
FESURF - Specifies "Surface loads on elements" as the subsequent status topic.
*FFT - Computes the fast Fourier transformation of a specified matrix or vector.
FILE - Specifies the data file where results are to be found.
FILEAUX2 - Specifies the binary file to be dumped.
FILEAUX3 - Specifies the results file to be edited.
FILEDISP - Specifies the file containing the graphics data.
FILL - Generates a line of nodes between two existing nodes.
FILLDATA - Fills a variable by a ramp function.
/FILNAME - Changes the Jobname for the analysis.
FINISH - Exits normally from a processor.
FITEM - Identifies items chosen by a picking operation (GUI).
FJ - Specify forces or moments on the components of the relative motion of a joint element.
FJDELE - Deletes forces (or moments) on the components of the relative motion of a joint element.
FJLIST - Lists forces and moments applied on joint elements.
FK - Defines force loads at keypoints.
FKDELE - Deletes force loads at a keypoint.
FKLIST - Lists the forces at keypoints.
FLIST - Lists force loads on the nodes.
FLST - Specifies data required for a picking operation (GUI).
FLUXV - Calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
FLUREAD - Reads one-way Fluent-to-Mechanical APDL coupling data via a .cgns file with one-side fast Fourier transformation complex pressure peak value.
/FOCUS - Specifies the focus point (center of the window).
FORCE - Selects the element nodal force type for output.
FORM - Specifies the format of the file dump.
/FORMAT - Specifies format controls for tables.
*FREE - Deletes a matrix or a solver object and frees its memory allocation.
FREQ - Defines the frequency points for the SV vs. FREQ tables.
FRQSCL - Turns on automatic scaling of the entire mass matrix and frequency range for modal analyses.
FSCALE - Scales force load values in the database.
FSSECT - Calculates and stores total linearized stress components.
FSSPARM - Calculates reflection and transmission properties of a frequency selective surface.
FSUM - Sums the nodal force and moment contributions of elements.
FTRAN - Transfers solid model forces to the finite element model.
FTYPE - Specifies the file type and pressure type for the subsequent import of source points and pressures.
FVMESH - Generates nodes and tetrahedral volume elements from detached exterior area elements (facets).
VIII. G Commands
GAP - Specifies "mode-superposition transient gap conditions" as the subsequent status topic.
GAPF - Defines the gap force data to be stored in a variable.
GAUGE - Gauges the problem domain for a magnetic edge-element formulation.
GCDEF - Defines interface interactions between general contact surfaces.
GCGEN - Creates contact elements for general contact.
/GCMD - Controls the type of element or graph display used for the GPLOT command.
/GCOLUMN - Allows the user to apply a label to a specified curve.
GENOPT - Specifies "General options" as the subsequent status topic.
GEOM - Defines the geometry specifications for the radiation matrix calculation.
GEOMETRY - Specifies "Geometry" as the subsequent status topic.
*GET - Retrieves a value and stores it as a scalar parameter or part of an array parameter.
/GFILE - Specifies the pixel resolution on Z-buffered graphics files.
/GFORMAT - Specifies the format for the graphical display of numbers.
/GLINE - Specifies the element outline style.
/GMARKER - Specifies the curve marking style.
GMATRIX - Performs electric field solutions and calculates the self and mutual conductance between multiple conductors.
GMFACE - Specifies the facet representation used to form solid models.
*GO - Causes a specified line on the input file to be read next.
/GO - Reactivates suppressed printout.
/GOLIST - Reactivates the suppressed data input listing.
/GOPR - Reactivates suppressed printout.
GP - Defines a gap condition for transient analyses.
GPDELE - Deletes gap conditions.
GPLIST - Lists the gap conditions.
GPLOT - Controls general plotting.
/GRAPHICS - Defines the type of graphics display.
/GRESUME - Sets graphics settings to the settings on a file.
/GRID - Selects the type of grid on graph displays.
/GROPT - Sets various line graph display options.
GRP - Specifies the grouping mode combination method.
/GRTYP - Selects single or multiple Y-axes graph displays.
/GSAVE - Saves graphics settings to a file for later use.
GSBDATA - Specifies the constraints or applies the load at the ending point for generalized plane strain option.
GSGDATA - Specifies the reference point and defines the geometry in the fiber direction for the generalized plane strain element option.
GSLIST - When using generalized plane strain, lists the input data or solutions.
GSSOL - Specifies which results to store from the results file when using generalized plane strain.
/GST - Turns Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) on or off.
GSUM - Calculates and prints geometry items.
/GTHK - Sets line thicknesses for graph lines.
/GTYPE - Controls the entities that the GPLOT command displays.
IX. H Commands
HARFRQ - Defines the frequency range in a harmonic analysis.
/HBC - Determines how boundary condition symbols are displayed in a display window.
HBMAT - Writes an assembled global matrix in Harwell-Boeing format.
/HEADER - Sets page and table heading print controls.
HELP - Displays help information on ANSYS commands and element types.
HELPDISP - Displays help information on DISPLAY program commands.
HEMIOPT - Specifies options for Hemicube view factor calculation.
HFANG - Defines or displays spatial angles of a spherical radiation surface for sound radiation parameter calculations.
HFSYM - Indicates the presence of symmetry planes for the computation of acoustic fields in the near and far field domains (beyond the finite element region).
HPGL - Specifies various HP options.
HPTCREATE - Defines a hard point.
HPTDELETE - Deletes selected hardpoints.
HRCPLX - Computes and stores in the database the time-harmonic solution at a prescribed phase angle.
HREXP - Specifies the phase angle for the harmonic analysis expansion pass.
HROPT - Specifies harmonic analysis options.
HROCEAN - Perform the harmonic ocean wave procedure (HOWP).
HROUT - Specifies the harmonic analysis output options.
X. I Commands
IC - Specifies initial conditions at nodes.
ICDELE - Deletes initial conditions at nodes.
ICLIST - Lists the initial conditions.
/ICLWID - Scales the line width of circuit builder icons.
ICROTATE - Specifies initial velocity at nodes as a sum of rotation about an axis and translation.
/ICSCALE - Scales the icon size for elements supported in the circuit builder.
*IF - Conditionally causes commands to be read.
IGESIN - Transfers IGES data from a file into ANSYS.
IGESOUT - Writes solid model data to a file in IGES Version 5.1 format.
/IMAGE - Allows graphics data to be captured and saved.
IMAGIN - Forms an imaginary variable from a complex variable.
IMESH - Generates nodes and interface elements along lines or areas.
IMMED - Allows immediate display of a model as it is generated.
INISTATE - Defines initial state data and parameters.
*INIT - Initializes a vector or matrix.
/INPUT - Switches the input file for the commands that follow.
/INQUIRE - Returns system information to a parameter.
INRES - Identifies the data to be retrieved from the results file.
INRTIA - Specifies "Inertial loads" as the subsequent status topic.
INT1 - Integrates a variable.
INTSRF - Integrates nodal results on an exterior surface.
IOPTN - Controls options relating to importing a model.
IRLF - Specifies that inertia relief calculations are to be performed.
IRLIST - Prints inertia relief summary table.
*ITENGINE - Performs a solution using an iterative solver.
XI. J Commands
JPEG - Provides JPEG file export for ANSYS displays.
JSOL - Specifies result items to be stored for the joint element.
XII. K Commands
K - Defines a keypoint.
KATT - Associates attributes with the selected, unmeshed keypoints.
KBC - Specifies ramped or stepped loading within a load step.
KBETW - Creates a keypoint between two existing keypoints.
KCALC - Calculates stress intensity factors in fracture mechanics analyses.
KCENTER - Creates a keypoint at the center of a circular arc defined by three locations.
KCLEAR - Deletes nodes and point elements associated with selected keypoints.
KDELE - Deletes unmeshed keypoints.
KDIST - Calculates and lists the distance between two keypoints.
KEEP - Stores POST26 definitions and data during active session.
KESIZE - Specifies the edge lengths of the elements nearest a keypoint.
KEYOPT - Sets element key options.
KEYPTS - Specifies "Keypoints" as the subsequent status topic.
KEYW - Sets a keyword used by the GUI for context filtering (GUI).
KFILL - Generates keypoints between two keypoints.
KGEN - Generates additional keypoints from a pattern of keypoints.
KL - Generates a keypoint at a specified location on an existing line.
KLIST - Lists the defined keypoints or hard points.
KMESH - Generates nodes and point elements at keypoints.
KMODIF - Modifies an existing keypoint.
KMOVE - Calculates and moves a keypoint to an intersection.
KNODE - Defines a keypoint at an existing node location.
KPLOT - Displays the selected keypoints.
KPSCALE - Generates a scaled set of (meshed) keypoints from a pattern of keypoints.
KREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified keypoints.
KSCALE - Generates a scaled pattern of keypoints from a given keypoint pattern.
KSCON - Specifies a keypoint about which an area mesh will be skewed.
KSEL - Selects a subset of keypoints or hard points.
KSLL - Selects those keypoints contained in the selected lines.
KSLN - Selects those keypoints associated with the selected nodes.
KSUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected keypoints.
KSYMM - Generates a reflected set of keypoints.
KTRAN - Transfers a pattern of keypoints to another coordinate system.
KUSE - Specifies whether or not to reuse the factorized matrix.
KWPAVE - Moves the working plane origin to the average location of keypoints.
KWPLAN - Defines the working plane using three keypoints.
XIII. L Commands
L - Defines a line between two keypoints.
L2ANG - Generates a line at an angle with two existing lines.
L2TAN - Generates a line tangent to two lines.
LANBOPTION - Specifies Block Lanczos eigensolver options.
LANG - Generates a straight line at an angle with a line.
LARC - Defines a circular arc.
/LARC - Creates annotation arcs (GUI).
LAREA - Generates the shortest line between two keypoints on an area.
LARGE - Finds the largest (the envelope) of three variables.
LATT - Associates element attributes with the selected, unmeshed lines.
LAYER - Specifies the element layer for which data are to be processed.
LAYERP26 - Specifies the element layer for which data are to be stored.
LAYLIST - Lists real constants material properties for layered elements.
LAYPLOT - Displays the layer stacking sequence for layered elements.
LCABS - Specifies absolute values for load case operations.
LCASE - Reads a load case into the database.
LCCALC - Specifies "Load case settings" as the subsequent status topic.
LCCAT - Concatenates multiple lines into one line for mapped meshing.
LCDEF - Creates a load case from a set of results on a results file.
LCFACT - Defines scale factors for load case operations.
LCFILE - Creates a load case from an existing load case file.
LCLEAR - Deletes nodes and line elements associated with selected lines.
LCOMB - Combines adjacent lines into one line.
LCOPER - Performs load case operations.
LCSEL - Selects a subset of load cases.
LCSL - Divides intersecting lines at their point(s) of intersection.
LCSUM - Specifies whether to process non-summable items in load case operations.
LCWRITE - Creates a load case by writing results to a load case file.
LCZERO - Zeroes the results portion of the database.
LDELE - Deletes unmeshed lines.
LDIV - Divides a single line into two or more lines.
LDRAG - Generates lines by sweeping a keypoint pattern along path.
LDREAD - Reads results from the results file and applies them as loads.
LESIZE - Specifies the divisions and spacing ratio on unmeshed lines.
LEXTND - Extends a line at one end by using its slope.
LFILLT - Generates a fillet line between two intersecting lines.
LFSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the edge of existing solid elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
LGEN - Generates additional lines from a pattern of lines.
LGLUE - Generates new lines by "gluing" lines.
LGWRITE - Writes the database command log to a file.
/LIGHT - Specifies the light direction for the display window.
LINA - Finds the intersection of a line with an area.
LINE - Specifies "Lines" as the subsequent status topic.
/LINE - Creates annotation lines (GUI).
LINES - Specifies the length of a printed page.
LINL - Finds the common intersection of lines.
LINP - Finds the pairwise intersection of lines.
LINV - Finds the intersection of a line with a volume.
LIST - Lists out the sets in the results file.
*LIST - Displays the contents of an external, coded file.
LLIST - Lists the defined lines.
LMESH - Generates nodes and line elements along lines.
LNSRCH - Activates a line search to be used with Newton-Raphson.
LOCAL - Defines a local coordinate system by a location and orientation.
LOVLAP - Overlaps lines.
LPLOT - Displays the selected lines.
LPTN - Partitions lines.
LREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified lines.
LREVERSE - Reverses the normal of a line, regardless of its connectivity or mesh status.
LROTAT - Generates circular lines by rotating a keypoint pattern about an axis.
LSBA - Subtracts areas from lines.
*LSBAC - Performs the solve (forward/backward substitution) of a factorized linear system.
LSBL - Subtracts lines from lines.
LSBV - Subtracts volumes from lines.
LSBW - Subtracts the intersection of the working plane from lines (divides lines).
LSCLEAR - Clears loads and load step options from the database.
LSDELE - Deletes load step files.
*LSDUMP - Dumps a linear solver engine to a binary File.
LSEL - Selects a subset of lines.
*LSENGINE - Creates a linear solver engine.
*LSFACTOR - Performs the numerical factorization of a linear solver system.
LSLA - Selects those lines contained in the selected areas.
LSLK - Selects those lines containing the selected keypoints.
LSOPER - Specifies "Load step operations" as the subsequent status topic.
/LSPEC - Specifies annotation line attributes (GUI).
LSREAD - Reads load and load step option data into the database.
*LSRESTORE - Restores a linear solver engine from a binary file.
LSSCALE - Generates a scaled set of lines from a pattern of lines.
LSSOLVE - Reads and solves multiple load steps.
LSTR - Defines a straight line irrespective of the active coordinate system.
LSUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected lines.
LSWRITE - Writes load and load step option data to a file.
/LSYMBOL - Creates annotation symbols (GUI).
LSYMM - Generates lines from a line pattern by symmetry reflection.
LTAN - Generates a line at the end of, and tangent to, an existing line.
LTRAN - Transfers a pattern of lines to another coordinate system.
LUMPM - Specifies a lumped mass matrix formulation.
LVSCALE - Scales the load vector for mode-superposition analyses.
LWPLAN - Defines the working plane normal to a location on a line.
XIV. M Commands
M - Defines master degrees of freedom for superelement generation analyses.
MAGOPT - Specifies options for a 3-D magnetostatic field analysis.
MAGSOLV - Specifies magnetic solution options and initiates the solution.
/MAIL - Mails file to the specified address.
MAP - Maps pressures from source points to target surface elements.
/MAP - Enters the mapping processor.
MAP2DTO3D - Initiates a 2-D to 3-D analysis and maps variables.
MAPSOLVE - Maps solved node and element solutions from an original mesh to a new mesh.
MAPVAR - Defines tensors and vectors in user-defined state variables for rezoning and in 2-D to 3-D analyses.
MASCALE - Activates scaling of the entire system matrix.
MASTER - Specifies "Master DOF" as the subsequent status topic.
MAT - Sets the element material attribute pointer.
MATER - Specifies "Material properties" as the subsequent status topic.
MCHECK - Checks mesh connectivity.
MDAMP - Defines the damping ratios as a function of mode.
MDELE - Deletes master degrees of freedom.
MDPLOT - Plots frequency-dependent modal damping coefficients calculated by DMPEXT.
MEMM - Allows the current session to keep allocated memory
/MENU - Activates the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
*MERGE - Merges two dense matrices or vectors into one.
MESHING - Specifies "Meshing" as the subsequent status topic.
MFANALYSIS - Activates or deactivates an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFBUCKET - Turns a bucket search on or off.
MFCALC - Specifies a calculation frequency for a field in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFCI - Sets the control parameters used by the conservative (CPP) interpolation scheme.
MFCLEAR - Deletes ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis settings.
MFCMMAND - Captures field solution options in a command file.
MFCONV - Sets convergence values for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFDTIME - Sets time step sizes for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFELEM - Defines a field by grouping element types.
MFEM - Add more element types to a previously defined field number.
MFEXTER - Defines external fields for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFFNAME - Specifies a file name for a field in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFFR - Setup Multi-Field relaxation factors for field solutions.
MFIMPORT - Imports a new field into a current ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFINTER - Specifies the interface load transfer interpolation option for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFITER - Sets the number of stagger iterations for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFLCOMM - Defines a load transfer for code coupling analyses.
MFLIST - Lists the settings for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFMAP - Calculates, saves, resumes, or deletes mapping data in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFORDER - Specifies field solution order for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFOUTPUT - Specifies results file output frequency for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
*MFOURI - Calculates the coefficients for, or evaluates, a Fourier series.
MFPSIMUL - Sets up a field solver group to simultaneously process with code coupling analyses.
MFRC - Controls file writing for multiframe restarts for the ANSYS Multi-field solver.
MFRELAX - Sets relaxation values for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFRSTART - Specifies restart status for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFSORDER - Sets up the solution sequence of simultaneous field solver groups for code coupling analyses.
MFSURFACE - Defines a surface load transfer for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFTIME - Sets end time for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFTOL - Activates or deactivates normal distance checking for surface mapping in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
*MFUN - Copies or transposes an array parameter matrix.
MFVOLUME - Defines a volume load transfer for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFWRITE - Writes an ANSYS master input file for MFX multiple code coupling.
MGEN - Generates additional MDOF from a previously defined set.
MIDTOL - Sets midstep residual criterion values for structural transient analyses.
/MKDIR - Creates a directory.
MLIST - Lists the MDOF of freedom.
MMASS - Specifies the missing mass response calculation.
MMF - Calculates the magnetomotive force along a path.
MODCONT - Specify additional modal analysis options.
MODDIR - Activates the remote read-only modal files usage.
MODE - Specifies the harmonic loading term for this load step.
MODIFY - Changes the listed values of the data in a set.
MODMSH - Controls the relationship of the solid model and the FE model.
MODSELOPTION - Specifies the criteria for selecting the modes to be expanded.
MODOPT - Specifies modal analysis options.
MONITOR - Controls contents of three variable fields in nonlinear solution monitor file.
*MOPER - Performs matrix operations on array parameter matrices.
MOPT - Specifies meshing options.
MORPH - Specifies morphing and remeshing controls.
MOVE - Calculates and moves a node to an intersection.
MP - Defines a linear material property as a constant or a function of temperature.
MPAMOD - Modifies temperature-dependent secant coefficients of thermal expansion.
MPCHG - Changes the material number attribute of an element.
MPCOPY - Copies linear material model data from one material reference number to another.
MPDATA - Defines property data to be associated with the temperature table.
MPDELE - Deletes linear material properties.
MPDRES - Reassembles existing material data with the temperature table.
/MPLIB - Sets the default material library read and write paths.
MPLIST - Lists linear material properties.
MPPLOT - Plots linear material properties as a function of temperature.
MPREAD - Reads a file containing material properties.
MPRINT - Specifies that radiation matrices are to be printed.
MPTEMP - Defines a temperature table for material properties.
MPTGEN - Adds temperatures to the temperature table by generation.
MPTRES - Restores a temperature table previously defined.
MPWRITE - Writes linear material properties in the database to a file (if the LIB option is not specified) or writes both linear and nonlinear material properties (if LIB is specified) from the database to a file.
/MREP - Enables you to reissue the graphics command macro "name" during a replot or zoom operation.
MRPM - Defines the revolutions per minute (RPM) for a machine rotation.
MSAVE - Sets the solver memory saving option. This option only applies to the PCG solver (including PCG Lanczos).
*MSG - Writes an output message via the ANSYS message subroutine.
MSHAPE - For elements that support multiple shapes, specifies the element shape to be used for meshing.
MSHCOPY - Simplifies the generation of meshes that have matching node element patterns on two different line groups (in 2-D) or area groups (3-D).
MSHKEY - Specifies whether free meshing or mapped meshing should be used to mesh a model.
MSHMID - Specifies placement of midside nodes.
MSHPATTERN - Specifies pattern to be used for mapped triangle meshing.
MSOLVE - Starts multiple solutions for an acoustic analysis.
/MSTART - Controls the initial GUI components.
MSTOLE - Adds two extra nodes from FLUID116 elements to SURF151 or SURF152 elements for convection analyses.
*MULT - Performs the matrix multiplication M3 = M1(T1)*M2(T2).
*MWRITE - Writes a matrix to a file in a formatted sequence.
MXPAND - Specifies the number of modes to expand and write for a modal or buckling analysis.
XV. N Commands
N - Defines a node.
NANG - Rotates a nodal coordinate system by direction cosines.
NAXIS - Generates nodes for general axisymmetric element sections.
NCNV - Sets the key to terminate an analysis.
NDELE - Deletes nodes.
NDIST - Calculates and lists the distance between two nodes.
NDSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the edge of existing elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
NEQIT - Specifies the maximum number of equilibrium iterations for nonlinear analyses.
/NERR - Limits the number of warning and error messages displayed.
NFORCE - Sums the nodal forces and moments of elements attached to nodes.
NGEN - Generates additional nodes from a pattern of nodes.
NKPT - Defines a node at an existing keypoint location.
NLADAPTIVE - Defines the criteria under which the mesh is refined or modified during a nonlinear solution.
NLDIAG - Sets nonlinear diagnostics functionality.
NLDPOST - Gets element component information from nonlinear diagnostic files.
NLGEOM - Includes large-deflection effects in a static or full transient analysis.
NLHIST - Specify result items to track during solution.
NLIST - Lists nodes.
NLMESH - Controls remeshing in nonlinear adaptivity.
NLOG - Forms the natural log of a variable.
NLOPT - Specifies "Nonlinear analysis options" as the subsequent status topic.
NMODIF - Modifies an existing node.
NOCOLOR - Removes color from graphics displays.
NODES - Specifies "Nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
/NOERASE - Prevents the screen erase between displays.
/NOLIST - Suppresses the data input listing.
NOOFFSET - Prevents the CDREAD command from offsetting specified data items
/NOPR - Suppresses the expanded interpreted input data listing.
NORA - Rotates nodal coordinate systems to surface normal
NORL - Rotates nodal coordinate systems perpendicular to line normal
/NORMAL - Allows displaying area elements by top or bottom faces.
NPLOT - Displays nodes.
NPRINT - Defines which time points stored are to be listed.
NREAD - Reads nodes from a file.
NREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified nodes.
NRLSUM - Specifies the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sum mode combination method.
*NRM - Computes the norm of the specified matrix or vector.
NROPT - Specifies the Newton-Raphson options in a static or full transient analysis.
NROTAT - Rotates nodal coordinate systems into the active system.
NRRANG - Specifies the range of nodes to be read from the node file.
NSCALE - Generates a scaled set of nodes from a pattern of nodes.
NSEL - Selects a subset of nodes.
NSLA - Selects those nodes associated with the selected areas.
NSLE - Selects those nodes attached to the selected elements.
NSLK - Selects those nodes associated with the selected keypoints.
NSLL - Selects those nodes associated with the selected lines.
NSLV - Selects those nodes associated with the selected volumes.
NSMOOTH - Smooths selected nodes among selected elements.
NSOL - Specifies nodal data to be stored from the results file.
NSORT - Sorts nodal data.
NSTORE - Defines which time points are to be stored.
NSUBST - Specifies the number of substeps to be taken this load step.
NSVR - Defines the number of variables for user-programmable element options.
NSYM - Generates a reflected set of nodes.
/NUMBER - Specifies whether numbers, colors, or both are used for displays.
NUMCMP - Compresses the numbering of defined items.
NUMEXP - Specifies solutions to be expanded from mode-superposition analyses or substructure analyses.
NUMMRG - Merges coincident or equivalently defined items.
NUMOFF - Adds a number offset to defined items.
NUMSTR - Establishes starting numbers for automatically numbered items.
NUMVAR - Specifies the number of variables allowed in POST26.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Affinity Photo

Photo editing app

Violet lens diaphragm shaped like the letter A
Affinity Photo.png

Affinity Photo 1.8 on macOS Catalina

Developer(s)Serif
Initial release9 July 2015; 6 years ago (2015-07-09)
Stable release

1.10 / 5 August 2021; 3 months ago (2021-08-05)[1]

Operating systemiOS, macOS, Windows
Size994 MB (iOS)
2.81 GB (macOS)
866 MB (Windows)
Available inEnglish, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, Russian[2]
TypeRaster graphics editor
LicenseTrialware
Websiteaffinity.serif.com/photo/

Affinity Photo is a raster graphics editorSerif Ltd. has developed for iOS,[3][4]macOS,[5] and Windows,[6][7] alongside Affinity Designer and Affinity Publisher.

Development of Affinity Photo started on 2009, as a raster graphics editor for macOS. Its first version reached general availability in 2015. Serif launched the Windows version of the app a year later. Features of this app includes RAW processing, color space options, live previews as effects are applied, as well as image stitching, alpha compositing, black point compensation, and optical aberration corrections.[2]

Functionality[edit]

Affinity Photo serves as a successor to PhotoPlus, which Serif discontinued in 2017 in order to focus on the Affinity product range.[8] It has been described as an Adobe Photoshop alternative, and is compatible with common file formats such as Adobe's PSD (including Photoshop Smart Objects).[9][10][11]

Functionality includes RAW processing, color space options, live previews as effects are applied, as well as image stitching, alpha compositing, black point compensation, and optical aberration corrections.[2] Working in Affinity Photo is always live, with pan and zoom at 60fps and non-destructive editing. It supports unlimited layers and a dedicated workspace for developing RAW photos; as well as RGB, CMYK, LAB, Greyscale color spaces with ICC color management and 16-bit per channel editing.[12][2]

Affinity Photo is not an image organizer like Apple Aperture or Adobe Lightroom.[13]

Development[edit]

Affinity Photo began as a raster graphics editor solely for macOS. It was Serif's second macOS app, and (like Affinity Designer) was built from the ground up to leverage core native technologies, including Grand Central Dispatch, Core Graphics, OpenGL[14] and Metal 2[15] hardware acceleration.[16]

Serif established an R&D team for Affinity Photo in 2009, headed by lead designer Andy Somerfield. A free beta test version of the Affinity Photo app was released to the public on 9 February 2015.[17]

The initial stable release of Affinity Photo, version 1.3.1, launched on the Mac App Store 9 July 2015 for macOS 10.7 and later.[5] At that time, Serif's raster graphics application for Windows was PhotoPlus; however, following the release of Affinity Photo for Windows, this product has now been discontinued.[18] Version 1.3.5 of Affinity Photo, released in August, provided numerous bug fixes and improvements.[19]

Serif announced its first major update to Affinity Photo in December 2015. Version 1.4 added panorama photo stitching as well as support for macOS 10.11 El Capitan, including six Affinity extensions for Apple Photos.[20] Updates to both Affinity apps (Designer and Photo) provided language support for Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Japanese and Chinese (Simplified). These augmented the four languages in previous versions: English (US and UK), German, French and Spanish. Stability and bug fixes were released with Affinity Photo 1.4.1 and 1.4.2, in January and June 2016. Version 1.4.3 in September 2016 optimized Affinity Photo for macOS 10.12 Sierra.[19]

In December, 2016, Serif launched Affinity Photo for Windows, and released an update to the macOS version at the same time,[21] Affinity Photo 1.5.1 added a 32-bit RGB editing mode with support for 32-bit file formats and more than 70 new camera RAW file formats, as well as the ability to develop RAW files directly into a 32-bit document. Version 1.5.1 also added support for the new MacBook Pro with Touchbar.[22]

Serif launched Affinity Photo for iPad during the keynote at Apple's WWDC in San Jose on 5 June 2017.[3] In September 2017, the iPad version was updated for compatibility with Apple's new iOS 11.[4]

Serif released major updates to Affinity Photo, as well as Affinity Designer, in November 2017. Affinity Photo 1.6.6 was optimized for macOS 10.13 High Sierra (and Metal 2 acceleration), better integration with Apple Photos, improved Photoshop Plugins support and added an option to switch between a dark or light user interface.[23]

In February 2020, version 1.8 of Photo added support for Photoshop smart objects in PSD files, and expanded plug-in compatibility, with focus on DxO's Nik Collection of plug-ins.[11]

Reception[edit]

The macOS version of Affinity Photo was received favorably by professional photographers, and Apple named it as the best Mac app of 2015.[24][25] In 2016, Affinity Photo was awarded the prize for Best Imaging Software by the Technical Image Press Association (TIPA) at Photokina.[26][27][25] In November 2017, the iOS app was named by Apple as its best iPad app of the year,[28][29] and Tom's Guide selected Affinity Photo for their first list of Best Tech Values.[30][31] In February 2019, Affinity Photo received Amateur Photographer'sSoftware of the Year award,[32] followed by Photography News' Best Software award in March 2019.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Superpower your creativity with the new Affinity v1.10". Affinity Newsroom. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  2. ^ abcd"Affinity Photo Full Feature List". Affinity.serif.com. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  3. ^ abBenjamin, Jeff (23 June 2017). "Friday 5: Affinity Photo – a must-have photo editing app for iPad Pro owners". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  4. ^ abCarlson, Jeff (13 November 2017). "Affinity Photo for iPad Review". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  5. ^ abLane, Terry (19 August 2015). "Affinity emerges as Photoshop alternative but only for Macs". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  6. ^Hillen, Brittany (9 December 2016). "Affinity Photo for Windows now available, Mac version updated to 1.5". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  7. ^Ellis, Cat (14 December 2016). "Serif Affinity Photo comes to Windows". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  8. ^Ogunjobi, Anino (2017-08-10). "Digital Craft: Serif discontinues its Pageplus, Drawplus and Photoplus designing software to focus on its(Serif) new Affinity range of Professional graphic design software". ANINO. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  9. ^Zhang, Michael (9 February 2015). "Affinity Photo is a New Pro Photoshop Alternative for Mac Users: Get It for Free". PetaPixel. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
  10. ^Hillen, Brittany (10 February 2015). "Serif launches Affinity Photo, a Photoshop alternative for Mac". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  11. ^ abBenjamin, Jeff (2020-02-26). "Affinity Photo, Publisher, and Designer updated to version 1.8". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 2020-03-07.
  12. ^Banks, Adam (5 September 2015). "Photoshop for 40 quid: Affinity Photo pushes pixels further than most". The Register. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  13. ^Dyer, Alan (15 December 2017). "I Tested 10+ Photoshop Alternatives to See How They Stack Up". PetaPixel. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  14. ^Clover, Juli (9 July 2015). "Serif's Image Editing App 'Affinity Photo' Launches for Mac". MacRumors. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  15. ^Demolder, Damien (3 November 2017). "Affinity Photo 1.6 released: faster processing, new features, and free stuff". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  16. ^Burgett, Gannon (2 November 2017). "Serif boosts its Photoshop competitor, Affinity Photo, with new update". Digital Trends. Designtechnica. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  17. ^Schneider, Jaron (2 July 2015). "The Finished Version of Affinity Photo is Coming & Yes, You Should Be Excited for this Photoshop Competitor". Resource. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  18. ^"Digital Craft: Serif discontinues its Pageplus, Drawplus and Photoplus designing software to focus on its(Serif) new Affinity range of Professional graphic design software - ANINO". ANINO. 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  19. ^ ab"Affinity Photo". macbed.com. AppKed. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  20. ^Lawton, Rod (9 December 2015). "Serif's Adobe Photoshop rival Affinity Photo gets a major update". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  21. ^Rogers, Graham K. (10 August 2016). "A visit to Affinity apps developers". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  22. ^Schneider, Jaron (8 December 2016). "Affinity Photo 1.5 Launches with Overhauled RAW Processor, Touch Bar Support, 32-Bit Editing & More". Resource. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  23. ^Benjamin, Jeff (2 November 2017). "Affinity Designer and Photo for Mac receive big 1.6 update including free limited-time content bundles". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  24. ^"Affinity Photo is App of the Year!". Affinity Blog. Serif (Europe) Ltd. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  25. ^ abWarren, Tom (10 November 2016). "Apple's 'best Mac App' of 2015 is now available on Windows". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  26. ^"XXVI TIPA AWARDS (2016)". TIPA.com. Technical Image Press Association. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  27. ^Zipper, Bernd (9 November 2016). "Serif: are Affinity products set to challenge the dominance of top dog Adobe in the print industry?". beyond-print.de. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  28. ^Cade, D.L. (8 December 2017). "Affinity Photo named Best iPad App of 2017, celebrates with 50% off sale". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  29. ^Watson, Fay (8 December 2017). "Affinity Photo: 'Apple's best iPad app of 2017' is half price". Amateur Photographer. Time Inc. (UK) Ltd. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  30. ^"Best Tech Value Awards: Top Bargains of 2017". Tom's Guide. Purch. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  31. ^Grotta, Sally Wiener (16 March 2017). "Affinity Photo 1.5 Review: Best Budget Editor for Pros". Tom's Guide. Purch. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  32. ^"AP Awards 2019: Accessories of the Year". Amateur Photographer. 2019-02-24. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  33. ^Cheung, Will (2019-03-12). "Photography News Awards 2018 winners announced". Photography News. Retrieved 2019-03-13.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Features new to Windows 7

Overview of the features newly introduced in the Microsoft Windows 7 operating system

Some of the new features included in Windows 7 are advancements in touch, speech[1] and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, support for additional file formats, improved performance on multi-core processors,[2] improved boot performance, and kernel improvements.

Shell and user interface[edit]

Windows 7 retains the Windows Aerographical user interface and visual style introduced in its predecessor, Windows Vista, but many areas have seen enhancements. Unlike Windows Vista, window borders and the taskbar do not turn opaque when a window is maximized while Windows Aero is active; instead, they remain translucent.

Desktop[edit]

The Desktop Slideshow feature in Windows 7.

Themes[edit]

Support for themes has been extended in Windows 7.[3] In addition to providing options to customize colors of window chrome and other aspects of the interface including the desktop background, icons, mouse cursors, and sound schemes, the operating system also includes a native desktop slideshow feature. A new theme pack extension has been introduced, , which is essentially a collection of cabinet files that consist of theme resources including background images, color preferences, desktop icons, mouse cursors, and sound schemes.[4] The new theme extension simplifies sharing of themes and can also display desktop wallpapers via RSS feeds provided by the Windows RSS Platform.[4] Microsoft provides additional themes for free through its website.[3]

The default theme in Windows 7 consists of a single desktop wallpaper named "Harmony" and the default desktop icons, mouse cursors, and sound scheme introduced in Windows Vista; however, none of the desktop backgrounds included with Windows Vista are present in Windows 7. New themes include Architecture, Characters, Landscapes, Nature, and Scenes, and an additional country-specific theme that is determined based on the defined locale when the operating system is installed; although only the theme for a user's home country is displayed within the user interface, the files for all of these other country-specific themes are included in the operating system.[5] All themes included in Windows 7—excluding the default theme—include six wallpaper images.[3] A number of new sound schemes (each associated with an included theme) have also been introduced: Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters, Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savana, and Sonata.[6][7] Themes may introduce their own custom sounds, which can be used with others themes as well.[8]

Desktop Slideshow[edit]

Windows 7 introduces a desktop slideshow feature that periodically changes the desktop wallpaper based on a user-defined interval; the change is accompanied by a smooth fade transition with a duration that can be customized via the Windows Registry.[9] The desktop slideshow feature supports local images and images obtained via RSS.[10][11]

Gadgets[edit]

With Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced gadgets to display information such as image slideshows and RSS feeds on the user's desktop; the gadgets could optionally be displayed on a sidebar docked to a side of the screen.[13] In Windows 7, the sidebar has been removed, but gadgets can still be placed on the desktop.[13] Gadgets can be brought to the foreground on top of active applications by pressing +.[13] Several new features for gadgets are introduced, including new desktop context menu options to access gadgets and hide all active gadgets; high DPI support; and a feature that can automatically rearrange a gadget based on the position of other gadgets.[13][14] Additional new features include cached gadget content; optimizations for touch-based devices; and a gadget for Windows Media Center.[13]

Gadgets are more closely integrated with Windows Explorer, but the gadgets themselves continue to operate in a single process, unlike in Windows Vista where gadgets could operate in multiple processes. Active gadgets can also be hidden via a new desktop menu option; Microsoft has stated that this option can result in power-saving benefits.[14]

Branding and customization[edit]

For original equipment manufacturers and enterprises, Windows 7 natively supports the ability to customize the wallpaper that is displayed during user login. Because the settings to change the wallpaper are available via the Windows Registry, users can also customize this wallpaper.[15] Options to customize the appearance of interface lighting and shadows are also available.[16]

Windows Explorer[edit]

Libraries[edit]

Windows Explorer in Windows 7 supports file libraries that aggregate content from various locations – including shared folders on networked systems if the shared folder has been indexed by the host system – and present them in a unified view. The libraries hide the actual location the file is stored in. Searching in a library automatically federates the query to the remote systems, in addition to searching on the local system, so that files on the remote systems are also searched. Unlike search folders, Libraries are backed by a physical location which allows files to be saved in the Libraries. Such files are transparently saved in the backing physical folder. The default save location for a library may be configured by the user, as can the default view layout for each library. Libraries are generally stored in the Libraries special folder, which allows them to be displayed on the navigation pane.

By default, a new user account in Windows 7 contains four libraries for different file types: Documents, Music, Pictures, and Videos. They are configured to include the user's profile folders for these respective file types, as well as the computer's corresponding Public folders. The Public folder also contains a hidden Recorded TV library that appears in the Windows Explorer sidepane when TV is set up in Media Center for the first time.

In addition to aggregating multiple storage locations, Libraries enable Arrangement Views and Search Filter Suggestions. Arrangement Views allow you to pivot your view of the library's contents based on metadata. For example, selecting the "By Month" view in the Pictures library will display photos in stacks, where each stack represents a month of photos based on the date they were taken. In the Music library, the "By Artist" view will display stacks of albums from the artists in your collection, and browsing into an artist stack will then display the relevant albums.

Search Filter Suggestions are a new feature of the Windows 7 Explorer's search box. When the user clicks in the search box, a menu shows up below it showing recent searches as well as suggested Advanced Query Syntax filters that the user can type. When one is selected (or typed in manually), the menu will update to show the possible values to filter by for that property, and this list is based on the current location and other parts of the query already typed. For example, selecting the "tags" filter or typing "tags:" into the search box will display the list of possible tag values which will return search results.

Arrangement Views and Search Filter Suggestions are database-backed features which require that all locations in the Library be indexed by the Windows Search service. Local disk locations must be indexed by the local indexer, and Windows Explorer will automatically add locations to the indexing scope when they are included in a library. Remote locations can be indexed by the indexer on another Windows 7 machine, on a Windows machine running Windows Search 4 (such as Windows Vista or Windows Home Server), or on another device that implements the MS-WSP remote query protocol.[17]

Federated search[edit]

Windows Explorer also supports federating search to external data sources, such as custom databases or web services, that are exposed over the web and described via an OpenSearch definition. The federated location description (called a Search Connector) is provided as an file. Once installed, the data source becomes queryable directly from Windows Explorer. Windows Explorer features, such as previews and thumbnails, work with the results of a federated search as well.

Miscellaneous shell enhancements[edit]

Windows Explorer has received numerous minor enhancements that improve its overall functionality. The Explorer's search box and the address bar can be resized. Folders such as those on the desktop or user profile folders can be hidden in the navigation pane to reduce clutter. A new Content view is added, which shows thumbnails and metadata together. A new button to toggle the Preview Pane has been added to the toolbar. The button to create a new folder has been moved from the Organize menu and onto the toolbar. List view provides more space between items than in Windows Vista. Finally, storage space consumption bars that were only present for hard disks in Windows Vista are now shown for removable storage devices.

Other areas of the shell have also received similar fine-tunings: Progress bars and overlay icons may now appear on an application's button on the taskbar to better alert the user of the status of the application or the work in progress. File types for which property handlers or iFilters are installed are re-indexed by default. Previously, adding submenus to shell context menus or customizing the context menu's behavior for a certain folder was only possible by installing a form of plug-in known as shell extensions. In Windows 7 however, computer-savvy users can do so by editing Windows Registry and/or desktop.ini files.[18][19] Additionally, a new shell API was introduced designed to simplify the writing of context menushell extensions by software developers.[20][21]

Windows 7 includes native support for burning ISO files. The functionality is available when a user selects the Burn disc image option within the context menu of an ISO file. Support for disc image verification is also included. In previous versions of Windows, users were required to install-third-party software to burn ISO images.[22]

[edit]

The start orb now has a fade-in highlight effect when the user hovers the mouse cursor over it. The Start Menu's right column is now the Aero glass color. In Windows Vista, it was always black.

The search results pane in Windows 7, demonstrating a search for the word "wireless".

Windows 7's Start menu retains the two-column layout of its predecessors, with several functional changes:

  • The "Documents", "Pictures" and "Music" buttons now link to the Libraries of the same name.
  • A "Devices and Printers" option has been added that displays a new device manager.
  • The "shut down" icon in Windows Vista has been replaced with a text link indicating what action will be taken when the icon is clicked. The default action (switch user, log off, lock, restart, sleep, hibernate or shut down) to take is now configurable through the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties window.
  • Taskbar Jump Lists are presented in the Start Menu via a guillemet; when the user moves the mouse cursor over the guillemet, or presses the right-arrow key, the right-hand side of the Start menu is widened and replaced with the application's Jump List.
  • Links to the "Videos", "Downloads", and "Recorded TV", the Connect To menu, the Homegroup and Network menus, the Favorites and Recent Items folders and menus can now be added to the Start menu, and the Administrative Tools folder can be added to the All Programs menu.

The Start Search field, introduced in Windows Vista, has been extended to support searching for keywords of Control Panel items. For example, clicking the Start button then typing "wireless" will show Control Panel options related to configuring and connecting to wireless network, adding Bluetooth devices, and troubleshooting. Group Policy settings for Windows Explorer provide the ability for administrators of an Active Directory domain, or an expert user to add up to five Internet web sites and five additional "search connectors" to the Search Results view in the Start menu. The links, which appear at the bottom of the pane, allow the search to be executed again on the selected web site or search connector. Microsoft suggests that network administrators could use this feature to enable searching of corporate Intranets or an internal SharePoint server.[23]

Taskbar[edit]

The Windows Taskbar has seen its most significant revision since its introduction in Windows 95 and combines the previous Quick Launch functionality with open application window icons. The taskbar is now rendered as an Aero glass element whose color can be changed via the Personalization Control Panel. It is 10 pixels taller than in Windows Vista to accommodate touch screen input and a new larger default icon size (although a smaller taskbar size is available), as well as maintain proportion to newer high resolution monitor modes.[24] Running applications are denoted by a border frame around the icon. Within this border, a color effect (dependent on the predominant color of the icon) that follows the mouse cursor also indicates the opened status of the application. The glass taskbar is more translucent than in Windows Vista. Taskbar buttons show icons by default, not application titles, unless they are set to 'not combine', or 'combine when taskbar is full.' In this case, only icons are shown when the application is not running. Programs running or pinned on the taskbar can be rearranged. Items in the notification area can also be rearranged.

The default taskbar of Windows 7.

Pinned applications[edit]

The Quick Launch toolbar has been removed from the default configuration, but may be easily added.[25] The Windows 7 taskbar is more application-oriented than window-oriented, and therefore doesn't show window titles (these are shown when an application icon is clicked or hovered over). Applications can now be pinned to the taskbar allowing the user instant access to the applications they commonly use. There are a few ways to pin applications to the taskbar. Icons can be dragged and dropped onto the taskbar, or the application's icon can be right-clicked to pin it to the taskbar.

The Windows 7 taskbar shows a preview of the window.

Thumbnail previews[edit]

Thumbnail previews which were introduced in Windows Vista have been expanded to not only preview the windows opened by the application in a small-sized thumbnail view, but to also interact with them. The user can close any window opened by clicking the X on the corresponding thumbnail preview. The name of the window is also shown in the thumbnail preview. A "peek" at the window is obtained by hovering over the thumbnail preview. Peeking brings up only the window of the thumbnail preview over which the mouse cursor hovers, and turns any other windows on the desktop transparent. This also works for tabs in Internet Explorer: individual tabs may be peeked at in the thumbnail previews. Thumbnail previews integrate Thumbnail Toolbars[26] which can control the application from the thumbnail previews themselves. For example, if Windows Media Player is opened and the mouse cursor is hovering on the application icon, the thumbnail preview will allow the user the ability to Play, Stop, and Play Next/Previous track without having to switch to the Windows Media Player window.

Jump lists[edit]

Jump lists are menu options available by right-clicking a taskbar icon or holding the left mouse button and sliding towards the center of the desktop on an icon. Each application has a jump list corresponding to its features, Microsoft Word's displaying recently opened documents; Windows Media Player's recent tracks and playlists; frequently opened directories in Windows Explorer; Internet Explorer's recent browsing history and options for opening new tabs or starting InPrivate Browsing; Windows Live Messenger's common tasks such as instant messaging, signing off, and changing online status. Third-party software can add custom actions through a dedicated API. Up to 10 menu items may appear on a list, partially customizable by user. Frequently used files and folders can be pinned by the user as to not get usurped from the list if others are opened more frequently.[27][28]

The redesigned notification area with balloon notification showing Action Centermessages
Action Center displaying notification of security threats

Task progress[edit]

Progress bar in taskbar's tasks allows users to know the progress of a task without switching to the pending window.[29] Task progress is used in Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer and third-party software.

A testing program using Task progress

Notification area[edit]

The notification area has been redesigned; the standard Volume, Network, Power and Action Center status icons are present, but no other application icons are shown unless the user has chosen them to be shown. A new "Notification Area Icons" control panel has been added which replaces the "Customize Notification Icons" dialog box in the "Taskbar and Start Menu Properties" window first introduced in Windows XP. In addition to being able to configure whether the application icons are shown, the ability to hide each application's notification balloons has been added. The user can then view the notifications at a later time.

A triangle to the left of the visible notification icons displays the hidden notification icons. Unlike Windows Vista and Windows XP, the hidden icons are displayed in a window above the taskbar, instead of on the taskbar. Icons can be dragged between this window and the notification area.

Windows 7 desktop displayed through Peek.

Aero Peek[edit]

In previous versions of Windows, the taskbar ended with the notification area on the right-hand side. Windows 7, however, introduces a show desktop button on the far right side of the taskbar which can initiate an Aero Peek feature that makes all open windows translucent when hovered over by a mouse cursor. Clicking this button shows the desktop, and clicking it again brings all windows to focus. The new button replaces the show desktop shortcut located in the Quick Launch toolbar in previous versions of Windows.[30]

On touch-based devices, Aero Peek can be initiated by pressing and holding the show desktop button; touching the button itself shows the desktop. The button also increases in width to accommodate being pressed by a finger.[31]

Window management mouse gestures[edit]

Aero Snap[edit]

Windows can be dragged to the top of the screen to maximize them and dragged away to restore them. Dragging a window to the left or right of the screen makes it take up half the screen, allowing the user to tile two windows next to each other. Also, resizing the window to the bottom of the screen or its top will extend the window to full height but retain its width.[32] These features can be disabled via the Ease of Access Center if users do not wish the windows to automatically resize.[33]

Aero Shake[edit]

Aero Shake allows users to clear up any clutter on their screen by shaking (dragging back and forth) a window of their choice with the mouse. All other windows will minimize, while the window the user shook stays active on the screen.[34] When the window is shaken again, all previously minimized windows are restored, similar to desktop preview.

Keyboard shortcuts[edit]

A variety of new keyboard shortcuts have been introduced.[35][36][37]

Global keyboard shortcuts:

  • + operates as a keyboard shortcut for Aero Peek.
  • + maximizes the current window.
  • + if current window is maximized, restores it; otherwise minimizes current window.
  • ++ makes upper and lower edge of current window nearly touch the upper and lower edge of the Windows desktop environment, respectively.
  • ++ restores the original size of the current window.
  • + snaps the current window to the left edge of the screen.
  • + snaps the current window to the right half of the screen.
  • ++ and ++ move the current window to the left or right display.
  • + functions as zoom in command wherever applicable.
  • + functions as zoom out command wherever applicable.
  • + turn off zoom once enabled.
  • + operates as a keyboard shortcut for Aero Shake.
  • + View opened application and windows in 3D stack view.
  • + Opens Connect to a Network Projector, which has been updated from previous versions of Windows, and allows one to dictate where the desktop is displayed: on the main monitor, an external display, both; or allows one to display two independent desktops on two separate monitors.

Taskbar:

  • Shift + Click, or Middle click starts a new instance of the application, regardless of whether it's already running.
  • Ctrl + Shift + Click starts a new instance with Administrator privileges; by default, a User Account Control prompt will be displayed.
  • Shift + Right-click (or right-clicking the program's thumbnail) shows the titlebar's context menu which, by default, contains "Restore", "Move", "Size", "Maximize", "Minimize" and "Close" commands. If the icon being clicked on is a grouped icon, a specialized context menu with "Restore All", "Minimize All", and "Close All" commands is shown.
  • Ctrl + Click on a grouped icon cycles between the windows (or tabs) in the group.

Font management[edit]

The user interface for font management has been overhauled in Windows 7. As with Windows Vista, the collection of installed fonts is displayed in a Windows Explorer window, but fonts that originate from the same font family appear as icons that are represented as stacks that display font previews within the interface. Windows 7 also introduces the option to hide installed fonts; certain fonts are automatically removed from view based on a user's regional settings.[38] An option to manually hide installed fonts is also available. Hidden fonts remain installed but are not enumerated when an application asks for a list of available fonts, thus reducing the amount of fonts to scroll through within the interface and also reducing memory usage.[39] Windows 7 includes over 40 new fonts,[40] including a new "Gabriola" font.[39][41]

The dialog box for fonts in Windows 7 has also been updated to display font previews within the interface, which allows users to preview fonts before selecting them. Previous versions of windows only displayed the name of the font.[42][43]

The ClearType Text Tuner which was previously available as a Microsoft Powertoy for earlier Windows versions has been integrated into, and updated for Windows 7.

Microsoft would later backport Windows 8Emoji features to Windows 7.[44]

Devices[edit]

There are two major new user interface components for device management in Windows 7, "Devices and Printers" and "Device Stage". Both of these are integrated with Windows Explorer, and together provide a simplified view of what devices are connected to the computer, and what capabilities they support.

Devices and Printers[edit]

The new Devices and Printers Control Panel. Custom icons can be downloaded via the Internet.

Devices and Printers is a new Control Panel interface that is directly accessible from the Start menu. Unlike the Device Manager Control Panel applet, which is still present, the icons shown on the Devices and Printers screen are limited to components of the system that a non-expert user will recognize as plug-in devices. For example, an external monitor connected to the system will be displayed as a device, but the internal monitor on a laptop will not. Device-specific features are available through the context menu for each device; an external monitor's context menu, for example, provides a link to the "Display Settings" control panel.

This new Control Panel applet also replaces the "Printers" window in prior versions of Windows; common printer operations such as setting the default printer, installing or removing printers, and configuring properties such as paper size are done through this control panel.

Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 introduce print driver isolation, which improves the reliability of the print spooler by running printer drivers in a separate process to the spooler service. If a third party print driver fails while isolated, it does not impact other drivers or the print spooler service.

Device Stage[edit]

A Device Stage window showing available options for a MicrosoftWireless Comfort Keyboard4000.

Device Stage provides a centralized location for an externally connected multi-function device to present its functionality to the user. When a device such as a portable music player is connected to the system, the device appears as an icon on the task bar, as well as in Windows Explorer.

Windows 7 ships with high-resolution images of a number of popular devices, and is capable of connecting to the Internet to download images of devices it doesn't recognize. Opening the icon presents a window that displays actions relevant to that device. Screenshots of the technology presented by Microsoft suggest that a mobile phone could offer options for two-way synchronization, configuring ring-tones, copying pictures and videos, managing the device in Windows Media Player, and using Windows Explorer to navigate through the device.[45] Other device status information such as free memory and battery life can also be shown. The actual per-device functionality is defined via XML files that are downloaded when the device is first connected to the computer, or are provided by the manufacturer on an installation disc.[46][permanent dead link]

Mobility enhancements[edit]

Multi-touch support[edit]

Hilton Locke, who worked on the Tablet PC team at Microsoft, reported on December 11, 2007 that Windows 7 will have new touch features on devices supporting multi-touch. An overview and demonstration of the multi-touch capabilities, including a virtual piano program, a mapping and directions program and a touch-aware version of Microsoft Paint, was given at the All Things Digital Conference on May 27, 2008; a video of the multi-touch capabilities was made available on the web later the same day.[47]

Sensors[edit]

Windows 7 introduces native support for sensors, including accelerometer sensors, ambient light sensors, and location-based sensors;[48] the operating system also provides a unified driver model for sensor devices.[49] A notable use of this technology in Windows 7 is the operating system's adaptive display brightness feature, which automatically adjusts the brightness of a compatible computer's display based on environmental light conditions and factors.[50] Gadgets developed for Windows 7 can also display location-based information.[51] Applications for certain sensor capabilities can be developed without the requisite hardware.[52]

Because data acquired by some sensors can be considered personally identifiable information, all sensors are disabled by default in Windows 7, and an account in Windows 7 requires administrative permissions to enable a sensor. Sensors also require user consent to share location data.[49]

Power management[edit]

Battery notification messages[edit]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 7 is able to report when a laptop battery is in need of a replacement. The operating system works with design capabilities present in modern laptop batteries to report this information.[53]

Hibernation improvements[edit]

The powercfgcommand enables the customization of the hibernation file size. By default, Windows 7 automatically sets the size of the hibernation file to 75% of a computer's total physical memory. The operating system also compresses the contents of memory during the hibernate process to minimize the possibility that the contents exceeds the default size of the hibernation file.[54]

Power analysis and reporting[edit]

Windows 7 introduces a new /Energy parameter for the powercfg command, which generates an HTML report of a computer's energy efficiency and displays information related to devices or settings.[55]

USB suspension[edit]

Windows 7 can individually suspend USB hubs and supports selective suspend for all in-box USB class drivers.[56]

Graphics[edit]

DirectX[edit]

Direct3D 11, Direct2D, DirectWrite, DXGI 1.1, WARP and several other components are currently available for Windows Vista SP2 and Windows Server 2008 SP2 by installing the Platform Update for Windows Vista.[59]

Desktop Window Manager[edit]

First introduced in Windows Vista, the Desktop Window Manager (DWM) in Windows 7 has been updated to use version 10.1 of Direct3D API, and its performance has been improved significantly.[60]

The Desktop Window Manager still requires at least a Direct3D 9-capable video card (supported with new [61] device type introduced with the Direct3D 11 runtime).

With a video driver conforming to Windows Display Driver Model v1.1, DXGI kernel in Windows 7 provides 2D hardware acceleration to APIs such as GDI, Direct2D and DirectWrite (though GDI+ was not updated to use this functionality). This allows DWM to use significantly lower amounts of system memory, which do not grow regardless of how many windows are opened, like it was in Windows Vista.[62] Systems equipped with a WDDM 1.0 video card will operate in the same fashion as in Windows Vista, using software-only rendering.

The Desktop Window Manager in Windows 7 also adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors.[63]

Other changes[edit]

Support for color depths of 30 and 48 bits is included, along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3 can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB.[64][65]

Each user of Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 has individual DPI settings, rather than the machine having a single setting as in previous versions of Windows. DPI settings can be changed by logging on and off, without needing to restart.[66]

File system[edit]

Solid state drives[edit]

Over time, several technologies have been incorporated into subsequent versions of Windows to improve the performance of the operating system on traditional hard disk drives (HDD) with rotating platters. Since Solid state drives (SSD) differ from mechanical HDDs in some key areas (no moving parts, write amplification, limited number of erase cycles allowed for reliable operation), it is beneficial to disable certain optimizations and add others, specifically for SSDs.

Windows 7 incorporates many engineering changes to reduce the frequency of writes and flushes, which benefit SSDs in particular since each write operation wears the flash memory.

Windows 7 also makes use of the TRIM command. If supported by the SSD (not implemented on early devices), this optimizes when erase cycles are performed, reducing the need to erase blocks before each write and increasing write performance.

Several tools and techniques that were implemented in the past to reduce the impact of the rotational latency of traditional HDDs, most notably disk defragmentation, SuperFetch, ReadyBoost, and application launch prefetching, involve reorganizing (rewriting) the data on the platters. Since SSDs have no moving platters, this reorganization has no advantages, and may instead shorten the life of the solid state memory. Therefore, these tools are by default disabled on SSDs in Windows 7, except for some early generation SSDs that might still benefit.

Finally, partitions made with Windows 7's partition-creating tools are created with the SSD's alignment needs in mind, avoiding unwanted systematic write amplification.[67]

Virtual hard disks[edit]

The Enterprise and Ultimate editions of Windows 7 incorporate support for the Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) file format. VHD files can be mounted as drives, created, and booted from, in the same way as WIM files.[68] Furthermore, an installed version of Windows 7 can be booted and run from a VHD drive, even on non-virtual hardware, thereby providing a new way to multi boot Windows. Some features such as hibernation and BitLocker are not available when booting from VHD.

Disk partitioning[edit]

By default, a computer's disk is partitioned into two partitions: one of limited size for booting, BitLocker and running the Windows Recovery Environment and the second with the operating system and user files.[69]

Removable media[edit]

Windows 7 has also seen improvements to the Safely Remove Hardware menu, including the ability to eject just one camera card at the same time (from a single hub) and retain the ports for future use without reboot; and the labels of removable media are now also listed, rather than just the drive letter.[70] Windows Explorer now by default only shows memory card reader ports in My Computer if they contain a card.[70]

BitLocker to Go[edit]

BitLocker brings encryption support to removable disks such as USB drives. Such devices can be protected by a passphrase, a recovery key, or be automatically unlocked on a computer.[71]

Boot performance[edit]

According to data gathered from the Microsoft Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP), 35% of Vista SP1 installations boot up in 30 seconds or less. The more lengthy boot times on the remainder of the machines are mainly due to some services or programs that are loaded but are not required when the system is first started. Microsoft's Mike Fortin, a distinguished engineer on the Windows team, noted in August 2008 that Microsoft has set aside a team to work solely on the issue, and that team aims to "significantly increase the number of systems that experience very good boot times". They "focused very hard on increasing parallelism of driver initialization". Also, Microsoft aims to "dramatically reduce" the number of system services, along with their demands on processors, storage, and memory.[72]

Multimedia[edit]

Windows Media Center[edit]

Main article: Windows Media Center

Windows Media Center in Windows 7 has retained much of the design and feel of its predecessor, but with a variety of user interface shortcuts and browsing capabilities.[73] Playback of H.264 video both locally and through a Media Center Extender (including the Xbox 360) is supported.

Some notable enhancements in Windows 7 Media Center include a new mini guide, a new scrub bar, the option to color code the guide by show type, and internet content that is more tightly integrated with regular TV via the guide. All Windows 7 versions now support up to four tuners of each type (QAM, ATSC, CableCARD, NTSC, etc.).

When browsing the media library, items that don't have album art are shown in a range of foreground and background color combinations instead of using white text on a blue background. When the left or right remote control buttons are held down to browse the library quickly, a two-letter prefix of the current album name is prominently shown as a visual aid. The Picture Library includes new slideshow capabilities, and individual pictures can be rated.

Also, while browsing a media library, a new column appears at the top named "Shared." This allows users to access shared media libraries on other Media Center PCs from directly within Media Center.

For television support, the Windows Media Center "TV Pack" released by Microsoft in 2008 is incorporated into Windows Media Center. This includes support for CableCARD and North American (ATSC) clear QAM tuners, as well as creating lists of favorite stations.[74]

A gadget for Windows Media Center is also included.[13]

Format support[edit]

Windows 7 includes AVI, WAV, AAC/ADTS file media sinks to read the respective formats,[75] an MPEG-4 file source to read MP4, M4A, M4V, MP4V MOV and 3GPcontainer formats[76] and an MPEG-4 file sink to output to MP4 format.[77] Windows 7 also includes a media source to read MPEG transport stream/BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream (M2TS, MTS, M2T and AVCHD) files.[citation needed]

Transcoding (encoding) support is not exposed through any built-in Windows application but codecs are included as Media Foundation Transforms (MFTs).[75] In addition to Windows Media Audio and Windows Media Video encoders and decoders, and ASF file sink and file source introduced in Windows Vista,[75] Windows 7 includes an H.264 encoder with Baseline profile level 3 and Main profile support[78] and an AAC Low Complexity (AAC-LC) profile encoder.[79]

For playback of various media formats, Windows 7 also introduces an H.264 decoder with Baseline, Main, and High profiles support, up to level 5.1,[80]AAC-LC and HE-AAC v1 (SBR) multichannel, HE-AAC v2 (PS) stereo decoders,[81]MPEG-4 Part 2Simple Profile and Advanced Simple Profile decoders[82] which includes decoding popular codec implementations such as DivX, Xvid and Nero Digital as well as MJPEG[75] and DV[83] MFT decoders for AVI. Windows Media Player 12 uses the built-in Media Foundation codecs to play these formats by default.

Windows 7 also updates the DirectShow filters introduced in Windows Vista for playback of MPEG-2 and Dolby Digital to decode H.264, AAC, HE-AAC v1 and v2[84] and Dolby Digital Plus[85] (including downmixing to Dolby Digital).

Security[edit]

Action Center, formerly Windows Security Center, now encompasses both security and maintenance. It was called Windows Health Center and Windows Solution Center in earlier builds.[citation needed]

A new user interface for User Account Control has been introduced, which provides the ability to select four different levels of notifications, one of these notification settings, Default, is new to Windows 7.[86] Geo-tracking capabilities are also available in Windows 7. The feature will be disabled by default. When enabled the user will only have limited control as to which applications can track their location.[87]

The Encrypting File System supports Elliptic-curve cryptographic algorithms (ECC) in Windows 7. For backward compatibility with previous releases of Windows, Windows 7 supports a mixed-mode operation of ECC and RSA algorithms. EFS self-signed certificates, when using ECC, will use 256-bit key by default. EFS can be configured to use 1K/2k/4k/8k/16k-bit keys when using self-signed RSA certificates, or 256/384/512-bit keys when using ECC certificates.

In Windows Vista, the Protected User-Mode Audio (PUMA) content protection facilities are only available to applications that are running in a Protected Media Path environment. Because only the Media Foundationapplication programming interface could interact with this environment, a media player application had to be designed to use Media Foundation. In Windows 7, this restriction is lifted.[88] PUMA also incorporates stricter enforcement of "Copy Never" bits when using Serial Copy Management System (SCMS) copy protection over an S/PDIF connection, as well as with High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) over HDMI connections.

Biometrics[edit]

Windows 7 includes the new Windows Biometric Framework.[89] This framework consists of a set of components that standardizes the use of fingerprint biometric devices. In prior releases of Microsoft Windows, biometric hardware device manufacturers were required to provide a complete stack of software to support their device, including device drivers, software development kits, and support applications. Microsoft noted in a white paper on the Windows Biometric Framework that the proliferation of these proprietary stacks resulted in compatibility issues, compromised the quality and reliability of the system, and made servicing and maintenance more difficult. By incorporating the core biometric functionality into the operating system, Microsoft aims to bring biometric device support on par with other classes of devices.

A new Control Panel called Biometric Device Control Panel is included which provides an interface for deleting stored biometrics information, troubleshooting, and enabling or disabling the types of logins that are allowed using biometrics. Biometrics configuration can also be configured using Group Policy settings.

Networking[edit]

  • DirectAccess, a VPN tunnel technology based on IPv6 and IPsec. DirectAccess requires domain-joined machines, Windows Server 2008 R2 on the DirectAccess server, at least Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and a PKI to issue authentication certificates.[90]
  • BranchCache, a WAN optimization technology.[91]
  • The Bluetooth stack includes improvements introduced in the Windows Vista Feature Pack for Wireless, namely, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR support and remote wake from S3 or S4 support for self-powered Bluetooth modules.[92]
  • NDIS 6.20[93] (Network Driver Interface Specification)
  • WWAN (Mobile broadband) support (driver model based on NDIS miniport driver for CDMA and GSM device interfaces, Connection Manager support and Mobile Broadband COM and COM Interop API).
  • Wireless Hosted Network capabilities: The Windows 7 wireless LAN service supports two new functions – Virtual Wi-Fi, that allows a single wireless network adapter to act like two client devices,[94] or a software-based wireless access point (SoftAP) to act as both a wireless hotspot in infrastructure mode and a wireless client at the same time.[95] This feature is not exposed through the GUI; however the Virtual WiFi Miniport adapter can be installed and enabled for wireless adapters with drivers that support a hosted network by using the command netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow "ssid=<network SSID>" "key=<wlan security key>" keyusage=persistent temporary at an elevated command prompt.[96] The wireless SoftAP can afterwards be started using the command netsh wlan start hostednetwork. Windows 7 also supports WPA2-PSK/AES security for the hosted network, but DNS resolution for clients requires it to be used with Internet Connection Sharing or a similar feature.
  • SMB 2.1, which includes minor performance enhancements over SMB2, such as a new opportunistic locking mechanism.[97]
  • RDP 7.0[98]
  • Background Intelligent Transfer Service 4.0[99]

HomeGroup[edit]

Alongside the workgroup system used by previous versions, Windows 7 adds a new ad hochome networking system known as HomeGroup. The system uses a password to join computers into the group, and allows users' libraries, along with individual files and folders, to be shared between multiple computers. Only computers running Windows 7 to Windows 10 version 1709 can create or join a HomeGroup;[100][101] however, users can make files and printers shared in a HomeGroup accessible to Windows XP and Windows Vista through a separate account, dedicated to sharing HomeGroup content, that uses traditional Windows sharing.[102] HomeGroup support was deprecated in Windows 10[103] and has been removed from Windows 10 version 1803 and later.[104][105][106]

HomeGroup as a concept is very similar to a feature slated for Windows Vista, known as Castle, which would have made it possible to have an identification service for all members on the network, without a centralized server.

HomeGroup is created in response to the need for a simple sharing model for inexperienced users who need to share files without wrestling with user accounts, Security descriptors and share permissions.[107] To that end, Microsoft previously created Simple File Sharing mode in Windows XP that, once enabled, caused all connected computers to be authenticated as Guest. Under this model, either a certain file or folder was shared with anyone who connects to the network (even unauthorized parties who are in range of the wireless network) or was not shared at all.[108] In a HomeGroup, however:

  1. Communication between HomeGroup computers is encrypted with a pre-shared password.[107]
  2. A certain file or folder can be shared with the entire HomeGroup (anyone who joins) or a certain person only.[107]
  3. HomeGroup computers can also be a member of a Windows domain or Windows workgroup at the same time and take advantage of those file sharing mechanisms.[109]
  4. Only computers that support HomeGroup (Windows 7 to Windows 10 version 1709) can join the network.[100][109]

Windows Firewall[edit]

Windows 7 adds support for multiple firewall profiles. The Windows Firewall in Windows Vista dynamically changes which network traffic is allowed or blocked based on the location of the computer (based on which network it is connected to). This approach falls short if the computer is connected to more than one network at the same time (as for a computer with both an Ethernet and a wireless interface). In this case, Vista applies the profile that is more secure to all network connections. This is often not desirable; Windows 7 resolves this by being able to apply a separate firewall profile to each network connection.

DNSSEC[edit]

Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 introduce support for Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC),[110] a set of specifications for securing certain kinds of information provided by the Domain Name System (DNS) as used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. DNSSEC employs digital signatures to ensure the authenticity of DNS data received from a DNS server, which protect against DNS cache poisoning attacks.

Management features[edit]

Windows 7 contains Windows PowerShell 2.0 out-of-the-box, which is also available as a download to install on older platforms:[111]

  • Windows Troubleshooting Platform
  • Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment
  • PowerShell Remoting

Other new management features include:

  • AppLocker (a set of Group Policy settings that evolved from Software Restriction Policies, to restrict which applications can run on a corporate network, including the ability to restrict based on the application's version number or publisher)
  • Group Policy Preferences (also available as a download for Windows XP and Windows Vista).
  • The Windows Automation API (also available as a download for Windows XP and Windows Vista).

Upgraded components[edit]

Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer 8,[112].NET Framework 3.5 SP1,[113]Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.5,[114]Windows Installer 5.0 and a standalone XPS Viewer.[115][116]Paint, Calculator, Resource Monitor, on-screen keyboard, and WordPad have also been updated.

Paint and WordPad feature a Ribbon interface similar to the one introduced in Office 2007, with both sporting several new features. WordPad supports Office Open XML and ODFfile formats.[117]

Calculator has been rewritten, with multiline capabilities including Programmer and Statistics modes, unit conversion, and date calculations. Calculator was also given a graphical facelift, the first since Windows 95 in 1995 and Windows NT 4.0 in 1996.

Resource Monitor includes an improved RAM usage display and supports display of TCP/IPports being listened to, filtering processes using networking, filtering processes with disk activity and listing and searching process handles (e.g. files used by a process) and loaded modules (files required by an executable file, e.g. DLL files).

Microsoft Magnifier, an accessibility utility for low vision users has been dramatically improved. Magnifier now supports the full screen zoom feature, whereas previous Windows versions had the Magnifier attached to the top of the screen in a dock layout. The new full screen feature is enabled by default, however, it requires Windows Aero for the advantage of the full screen zoom feature. If Windows is set to the Windows 7 Basic, Windows Classic, or High Contrast themes, Magnifier will still function like it did in Windows Vista and earlier.

Windows Installer 5.0 supports installing and configuring Windows Services,[118] and provides developers with more control over setting permissions during software installation.[119] Neither of these features will be available for prior versions of Windows; custom actions to support these features will continue to be required for Windows Installer packages that need to implement these features.

Other features[edit]

  • Windows 7 improves the Tablet PC Input Panel to make faster corrections using new gestures, supports text prediction in the soft keyboard and introduces a new Math Input Panel for inputting math into programs that support MathML.[120] It recognizes handwritten math expressions and formulas. Additional language support for handwriting recognition can be gained by installing the respective MUI pack for that language (also called language pack).
  • Windows 7 introduces a new Problem Steps Recorder tool that enables users to record their interaction with software for analysis and support. The feature can be used to replicate a problem to show support when and where a problem occurred.[121]
  • As opposed to the blank start-up screen in Windows Vista, Windows 7's start-up screen consists of an animation featuring four colored light balls (one red, one yellow, one green, and one blue). They twirl around for a few seconds and then join together to form a glowing Windows logo. This only occurs on displays with a vertical resolution of 768 pixels or higher, as the animation is 1024x768. Any screen with a resolution below this displays the same startup screen that Vista used.
  • The Starter Edition of Windows 7 can run an unlimited number of applications, compared to only 3 in Windows Vista Starter. Microsoft had initially intended to ship Windows 7 Starter Edition with this limitation, but announced after the release of the Release Candidate that this restriction would not be imposed in the final release.[122]
  • For developers, Windows 7 includes a new networking API with support for building SOAP-based web services in native code (as opposed to .NET-based WCF web services),[123] new features to shorten application install times, reduced UAC prompts, simplified development of installation packages,[124] and improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services API.[125]
  • If an application crashes twice in a row, Windows 7 will automatically attempt to apply a shim. If an application fails to install a similar self-correcting fix, a tool that asks some questions about the application launches.[126]
  • Windows 7 includes an optional TIFFIFilter that enables indexing of TIFF documents by reading them with optical character recognition (OCR), thus making their text content searchable. TIFF iFilter supports Adobe TIFF Revision 6.0 specifications and four compression schemes: LZW, JPEG, CCITT v4, CCITT v6[127]
  • The Windows Console now adheres to the current Windows theme, instead of showing controls from the Windows Classic theme.
  • Games Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7.
  • Users can disable many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. The new components which can now be disabled include: Handwriting Recognition, Internet Explorer, Windows DVD Maker, Windows Fax and Scan, Windows Gadget PlatformWindows Media Center, Windows Media Player, Windows Search, and the XPS Viewer (with its services).[128]
  • Windows XP Mode is a fully functioning copy of 32-bit Windows XP Professional SP3 running in a virtual machine in Windows Virtual PC (as opposed to Hyper-V) running on top of Windows 7. Through the use of the RDP protocol, it allows applications incompatible with Windows 7 to be run on the underlying Windows XP virtual machine, but still to appear to be part of the Windows 7 desktop,[129] thereby sharing the native Start Menu of Windows 7 as well as participating in file type associations. It is not distributed with Windows 7 media, but is offered as a free download to users of the Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate editions from Microsoft's web site. Users of Home Premium who want Windows XP functionality on their systems can download Windows Virtual PC free of charge, but must provide their own licensed copy of Windows XP. XP Mode is intended for consumers rather than enterprises, as it offers no central management capabilities. Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (Med-V) is available for the enterprise market.
  • Native support for Hyper-V virtual machines through the inclusion of VMBus integration drivers.[130]
  • The memory manager is optimized to mitigate the problem of total memory consumption in the event of excessive cached read operations, which occurred on earlier releases of 64-bit Windows.[131]
  • AVCHD camera support and Universal Video Class 1.1
  • Protected Broadcast Driver Architecture (PBDA) for TV tuner cards, first implemented in Windows Media Center TV Pack 2008 for Windows Vista.
  • Support for up to 256 logical processors[132]
  • Fewer hardware locks and greater parallelism[133]
  • Timer coalescing: modern processors and chipsets can switch to very low power usage levels while the CPU is idle. In order to reduce the number of times the CPU enters and exits idle states, Windows 7 introduces the concept of "timer coalescing"; multiple applications or device drivers which perform actions on a regular basis can be set to occur at once, instead of each action being performed on their own schedule. This facility is available in both kernel mode, via the API (which would be used in place of ), and in user mode with the Windows API call (which replaces ).[134]
  • Multi-function devices and Device Containers: Prior to Windows 7, every device attached to the system was treated as a single functional end-point, known as a devnode, that has a set of capabilities and a "status". While this is appropriate for single-function devices (such as a keyboard or scanner), it does not accurately represent multi-function devices such as a combined printer, fax machine, and scanner, or web-cams with a built-in microphone. In Windows 7, the drivers and status information for multi-function device can be grouped together as a single "Device Container", which is presented to the user in the new "Devices and Printers" Control Panel as a single unit. This capability is provided by a new Plug and Play property, , which is a Globally Unique Identifier that is different for every instance of a physical device. The Container ID can be embedded within the device by the manufacturer, or created by Windows and associated with each devnode when it is first connected to the computer. In order to ensure the uniqueness of the generated Container ID, Windows will attempt to use information unique to the device, such as a MAC address or USB serial number. Devices connected to the computer via USB, IEEE 1394 (FireWire), eSATA, PCI Express, Bluetooth, and Windows Rally's PnP-X support can make use of Device Containers.[135]
  • User-Mode Scheduling: The 64-bit versions of Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 introduce a user-mode scheduling framework.[136] On Microsoft Windows operating systems, scheduling of threads inside a process is handled by the kernel. While for most applications this is sufficient, applications with large concurrent threading requirements, such as a database server, can benefit from having a thread scheduler in-process. This is because the kernel no longer needs to be involved in context switches between threads, and it obviates the need for a thread pool mechanism as threads can be created and destroyed much more quickly when no kernel context switches are required.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Zoom 1.3.1 crack serial keygen

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Table of Contents

1. About This Reference
1.1. Conventions Used in This Reference
1.1.1. Product Codes
1.1.2. Applicable Products
1.2. Terminology
1.3. Command Characteristics
1.3.1. Data Input
1.3.2. Free-Format Input
1.3.3. Nonrestrictive Data Input
1.3.4. Condensed Data Input
1.3.5. Units
1.3.6. Command and Argument Defaults
1.3.7. File Names
1.3.8. Star and Slash Commands
2. Command Groupings
2.1. SESSION Commands
2.2. DATABASE Commands
2.3. GRAPHICS Commands
2.4. APDL Commands
2.5. PREP7 Commands
2.6. SOLUTION Commands
2.7. POST1 Commands
2.8. POST26 Commands
2.9. AUX2 Commands
2.10. AUX3 Commands
2.11. AUX12 Commands
2.12. AUX15 Commands
2.13. Mapping Processor Commands
2.14. DISPLAY Program Commands
2.15. REDUCED Order Modeling Commands
3. Command Dictionary
I. Connection Commands
~CAT5IN - Transfers a .CATPart file into the ANSYS program.
~CATIAIN - Transfers a CATIA model into the ANSYS program.
~PARAIN - Transfers a Parasolid file into the ANSYS program.
~PROEIN - Transfers a Creo Parametric part into the ANSYS program.
~SATIN - Transfers a .SAT file into the ANSYS program.
~UGIN - Transfers an NX part into the ANSYS program.
II. A Commands
A - Defines an area by connecting keypoints.
AADD - Adds separate areas to create a single area.
AATT - Associates element attributes with the selected, unmeshed areas.
ABEXTRACT - Extracts the alpha-beta damping multipliers for Rayleigh damping.
*ABBR - Defines an abbreviation.
ABBRES - Reads abbreviations from a coded file.
ABBSAV - Writes the current abbreviation set to a coded file.
ABS - Forms the absolute value of a variable.
ACCAT - Concatenates multiple areas in preparation for mapped meshing.
ACCOPTION - Specifies GPU accelerator capability options.
ACEL - Specifies the linear acceleration of the global Cartesian reference frame for the analysis.
ACLEAR - Deletes nodes and area elements associated with selected areas.
ADAMS - Performs solutions and writes flexible body information to a modal neutral file (Jobname.MNF) for use in an ADAMS analysis.
ADD - Adds (sums) variables.
ADDAM - Specifies the acceleration spectrum computation constants for the analysis of shock resistance of shipboard structures.
ADELE - Deletes unmeshed areas.
ADGL - Lists keypoints of an area that lie on a parametric degeneracy.
ADRAG - Generates areas by dragging a line pattern along a path.
AEROCOEFF - Computes the aero-damping and stiffness coefficients and writes them to an APDL array.
AESIZE - Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas.
AFILLT - Generates a fillet at the intersection of two areas.
AFLIST - Lists the current data in the database.
AFSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the surface of existing solid elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
*AFUN - Specifies units for angular functions in parameter expressions.
AGEN - Generates additional areas from a pattern of areas.
AGLUE - Generates new areas by "gluing" areas.
AINA - Finds the intersection of areas.
AINP - Finds the pairwise intersection of areas.
AINV - Finds the intersection of an area with a volume.
AL - Generates an area bounded by previously defined lines.
ALIST - Lists the defined areas.
ALLSEL - Selects all entities with a single command.
ALPHAD - Defines the mass matrix multiplier for damping.
AMAP - Generates a 2-D mapped mesh based on specified area corners.
AMESH - Generates nodes and area elements within areas.
/AN3D - Specifies 3-D annotation functions
ANCNTR - Produces an animated sequence of a contoured deformed shape.
ANCUT - Produces an animated sequence of Q-slices.
ANCYC - Applies a traveling wave animation to graphics data in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
ANDATA - Displays animated graphics data for nonlinear problems.
ANDSCL - Produces an animated sequence of a deformed shape.
ANDYNA - Produces an animated sequence of contour values through substeps.
/ANFILE - Saves or resumes an animation sequence to or from a file.
ANFLOW - Produces an animated sequence of particle flow in a flowing fluid or a charged particle traveling in an electric or magnetic field.
/ANGLE - Rotates the display about an axis.
ANHARM - Produces an animated sequence of time-harmonic results or complex mode shapes.
ANIM - Displays animated graphics data for linear problems.
ANISOS - Produces an animated sequence of an isosurface.
ANMODE - Produces an animated sequence of a mode shape.
ANMRES - Performs animation of results over multiple results files in an explicit dynamic structural analysis or fluid flow analysis with remeshing.
/ANNOT - Activates graphics for annotating displays (GUI).
ANORM - Reorients area normals.
ANPRES - Produces an animated sequence of the time-harmonic pressure variation of an engine-order excitation in a cyclic harmonic analysis.
ANSOL - Specifies averaged nodal data to be stored from the results file in the solution coordinate system.
ANSTOAQWA - Creates an AQWA-LINE input file from the current Mechanical APDL model.
ANSTOASAS - Creates an ASAS input file from the current ANSYS model.
ANTIME - Generates a sequential contour animation over a range of time.
ANTYPE - Specifies the analysis type and restart status.
/ANUM - Specifies the annotation number, type, and hot spot (GUI).
AOFFST - Generates an area, offset from a given area.
AOVLAP - Overlaps areas.
APLOT - Displays the selected areas.
APORT - Specifies input data for plane wave and acoustic duct ports.
APPEND - Reads data from the results file and appends it to the database.
APTN - Partitions areas.
ARCLEN - Activates the arc-length method.
ARCTRM - Controls termination of the solution when the arc-length method is used.
AREAS - Specifies "Areas" as the subsequent status topic.
AREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified areas.
AREMESH - Generates an area in which to create a new mesh for rezoning.
AREVERSE - Reverses the normal of an area, regardless of its connectivity or mesh status.
AROTAT - Generates cylindrical areas by rotating a line pattern about an axis.
ARSCALE - Generates a scaled set of areas from a pattern of areas.
ARSYM - Generates areas from an area pattern by symmetry reflection.
ASBA - Subtracts areas from areas.
ASBL - Subtracts lines from areas.
ASBV - Subtracts volumes from areas.
ASBW - Subtracts the intersection of the working plane from areas (divides areas).
ASCRES - Specifies the output type for an acoustic scattering analysis.
ASEL - Selects a subset of areas.
ASIFILE - Writes or reads one-way acoustic-structural coupling data.
*ASK - Prompts the user to input a parameter value.
ASKIN - Generates an area by "skinning" a surface through guiding lines.
ASLL - Selects those areas containing the selected lines.
ASLV - Selects those areas contained in the selected volumes.
ASOL - Specifies the acoustic solver with scattered field formulation.
/ASSIGN - Reassigns a file name to an ANSYS file identifier.
ASUB - Generates an area using the shape of an existing area.
ASUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected areas.
ATAN - Forms the arctangent of a complex variable.
ATRAN - Transfers a pattern of areas to another coordinate system.
ATYPE - Specifies "Analysis types" as the subsequent status topic.
/AUTO - Resets the focus and distance specifications to "automatically calculated."
AUTOTS - Specifies whether to use automatic time stepping or load stepping.
/AUX2 - Enters the binary file dumping processor.
/AUX3 - Enters the results file editing processor.
/AUX12 - Enters the radiation processor.
/AUX15 - Enters the IGES file transfer processor.
AVPRIN - Specifies how principal and vector sums are to be calculated.
AVRES - Specifies how results data will be averaged when PowerGraphics is enabled.
AWAVE - Specifies input data for an acoustic incident wave.
/AXLAB - Labels the X and Y axes on graph displays.
*AXPY - Performs the matrix operation M2= v*M1 + w*M2.
III. B Commands
/BATCH - Sets the program mode to "batch."
BCSOPTION - Sets memory option for the sparse solver.
BETAD - Defines the stiffness matrix multiplier for damping.
BF - Defines a nodal body force load.
BFA - Defines a body force load on an area.
BFADELE - Deletes body force loads on an area.
BFALIST - Lists the body force loads on an area.
BFCUM - Specifies that nodal body force loads are to be accumulated.
BFDELE - Deletes nodal body force loads.
BFE - Defines an element body force load.
BFECUM - Specifies whether to ignore subsequent element body force loads.
BFEDELE - Deletes element body force loads.
BFELIST - Lists the element body force loads.
BFESCAL - Scales element body force loads.
BFINT - Activates the body force interpolation operation.
BFK - Defines a body force load at a keypoint.
BFKDELE - Deletes body force loads at a keypoint.
BFKLIST - Lists the body force loads at keypoints.
BFL - Defines a body force load on a line.
BFLDELE - Deletes body force loads on a line.
BFLIST - Lists the body force loads on nodes.
BFLLIST - Lists the body force loads on a line.
BFSCALE - Scales body force loads at nodes.
BFTRAN - Transfers solid model body force loads to the finite element model.
BFUNIF - Assigns a uniform body force load to all nodes.
BFV - Defines a body force load on a volume.
BFVDELE - Deletes body force loads on a volume.
BFVLIST - Lists the body force loads on a volume.
BIOOPT - Specifies "Biot-Savart options" as the subsequent status topic.
BIOT - Calculates the Biot-Savart source magnetic field intensity.
BLC4 - Creates a rectangular area or block volume by corner points.
BLC5 - Creates a rectangular area or block volume by center and corner points.
BLOCK - Creates a block volume based on working plane coordinates.
BOOL - Specifies "Booleans" as the subsequent status topic.
BOPTN - Specifies Boolean operation options.
BSAX - Specifies the axial strain and axial force relationship for beam sections.
BSMD - Specifies mass per unit length for a nonlinear general beam section.
BSM1 - Specifies the bending curvature and moment relationship in plane XZ for beam sections.
BSM2 - Specifies the bending curvature and moment relationship in plane XY for beam sections.
BSPLIN - Generates a single line from a spline fit to a series of keypoints.
BSS1 - Specifies the transverse shear strain and force relationship in plane XZ for beam sections.
BSS2 - Specifies the transverse shear strain and force relationship in plane XY for beam sections.
BSTE - Specifies a thermal expansion coefficient for a nonlinear general beam section.
BSTQ - Specifies the cross section twist and torque relationship for beam sections.
BTOL - Specifies the Boolean operation tolerances.
BUCOPT - Specifies buckling analysis options.
IV. C Commands
C*** - Places a comment in the output.
CALC - Specifies "Calculation settings" as the subsequent status topic.
CAMPBELL - Prepares the result file for a subsequent Campbell diagram of a prestressed structure.
CBDOF - Activates cut-boundary interpolation (for submodeling).
CBMD - Specifies preintegrated section mass matrix for composite-beam sections.
CBMX - Specifies preintegrated cross-section stiffness for composite beam sections.
CBTE - Specifies a thermal expansion coefficient for a composite beam section.
CBTMP - Specifies a temperature for composite-beam input.
CDOPT - Specifies format to be used for archiving geometry.
CDREAD - Reads a file of solid model and database information into the database.
CDWRITE - Writes geometry and load database items to a file.
CE - Defines a constraint equation relating degrees of freedom.
CECHECK - Check constraint equations and couplings for rigid body motions.
CECMOD - Modifies the constant term of a constraint equation during solution.
CECYC - Generates the constraint equations for a cyclic symmetry analysis
CEDELE - Deletes constraint equations.
CEINTF - Generates constraint equations at an interface.
CELIST - Lists the constraint equations.
CENTER - Defines a node at the center of curvature of 2 or 3 nodes.
CEQN - Specifies "Constraint equations" as the subsequent status topic.
CERIG - Defines a rigid region.
CESGEN - Generates a set of constraint equations from existing sets.
CFACT - Defines complex scaling factors to be used with operations.
*CFCLOS - Closes the "command" file.
*CFOPEN - Opens a "command" file.
*CFWRITE - Writes a Mechanical APDL command (or similar string) to a "command" file.
/CFORMAT - Controls the graphical display of alphanumeric character strings for parameters, components, assemblies, and tables.
CGLOC - Specifies the origin location of the acceleration coordinate system.
CGOMGA - Specifies the rotational velocity of the global origin.
CGROW - Defines crack-growth information
CHECK - Checks current database items for completeness.
CHKMSH - Checks area and volume entities for previous meshes.
CINT - Defines parameters associated with fracture parameter calculations
CIRCLE - Generates circular arc lines.
CISOL - Stores fracture parameter information in a variable.
/CLABEL - Specifies contour labeling.
/CLEAR - Clears the database.
CLOCAL - Defines a local coordinate system relative to the active coordinate system.
CLOG - Forms the common log of a variable
/CLOG - Copies the session log file to a named file.
CLRMSHLN - Clears meshed entities.
CM - Groups geometry items into a component.
CMACEL - Specifies the translational acceleration of an element component
/CMAP - Changes an existing or creates a new color mapping table.
CMATRIX - Performs electrostatic field solutions and calculates the self and mutual capacitances between multiple conductors.
CMDELE - Deletes a component or assembly definition.
CMDOMEGA - Specifies the rotational acceleration of an element component about a user-defined rotational axis.
CMEDIT - Edits an existing assembly.
CMGRP - Groups components and assemblies into an assembly.
CMLIST - Lists the contents of a component or assembly.
CMMOD - Modifies the specification of a component.
CMOMEGA - Specifies the rotational velocity of an element component about a user-defined rotational axis.
CMPLOT - Plots the entities contained in a component or assembly.
CMROTATE - Specifies the rotational velocity of an element component in a brake squeal analysis.
CMSEL - Selects a subset of components and assemblies.
CMSFILE - Specifies a list of component mode synthesis (CMS) results files for plotting results on the assembly.
CMSOPT - Specifies component mode synthesis (CMS) analysis options.
CMWRITE - Writes node and element components and assemblies to a file.
CNCHECK - Provides and/or adjusts the initial status of contact pairs.
CNKMOD - Modifies contact element key options.
CNTR - Redirects contact pair output quantities to a text file.
CNVTOL - Sets convergence values for nonlinear analyses.
/COLOR - Specifies the color mapping for various items.
/COM - Places a comment in the output.
*COMP - Compresses a matrix using a specified algorithm.
COMBINE - Combines distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) files.
COMPRESS - Deletes all specified sets.
CON4 - Creates a conical volume anywhere on the working plane.
CONE - Creates a conical volume centered about the working plane origin.
/CONFIG - Assigns values to ANSYS configuration parameters.
CONJUG - Forms the complex conjugate of a variable.
/CONTOUR - Specifies the uniform contour values on stress displays.
/COPY - Copies a file.
CORIOLIS - Applies the Coriolis effect to a rotating structure.
COUPLE - Specifies "Node coupling" as the subsequent status topic.
COVAL - Defines PSD cospectral values.
CP - Defines (or modifies) a set of coupled degrees of freedom.
CPCYC - Couples the two side faces of a cyclically symmetric model for loadings that are the same on every segment.
CPDELE - Deletes coupled degree of freedom sets.
CPINTF - Defines coupled degrees of freedom at an interface.
/CPLANE - Specifies the cutting plane for section and capped displays.
CPLGEN - Generates sets of coupled nodes from an existing set.
CPLIST - Lists the coupled degree of freedom sets.
CPMERGE - Merges different couple sets with duplicate degrees of freedom into one couple set.
CPNGEN - Defines, modifies, or adds to a set of coupled degrees of freedom.
CPSGEN - Generates sets of coupled nodes from existing sets.
CQC - Specifies the complete quadratic mode combination method.
*CREATE - Opens (creates) a macro file.
CRPLIM - Specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping.
CS - Defines a local coordinate system by three node locations.
CSCIR - Locates the singularity for non-Cartesian local coordinate systems.
CSDELE - Deletes local coordinate systems.
CSKP - Defines a local coordinate system by three keypoint locations.
CSLIST - Lists coordinate systems.
CSWPLA - Defines a local coordinate system at the origin of the working plane.
CSYS - Activates a previously defined coordinate system.
/CTYPE - Specifies the type of contour display.
CURR2D - Calculates current flow in a 2-D conductor.
CUTCONTROL - Controls time-step cutback during a nonlinear solution.
/CVAL - Specifies nonuniform contour values on stress displays.
CVAR - Computes covariance between two quantities.
/CWD - Changes the current working directory.
CYCCALC - Calculates results from a cyclic harmonic mode-superposition analysis using the specifications defined by CYCSPEC.
/CYCEXPAND - Graphically expands displacements, stresses and strains of a cyclically symmetric model.
CYCFILES - Specifies the data files where results are to be found for a cyclic symmetry mode-superposition harmonic analysis.
CYCFREQ - Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry mode-superposition harmonic analysis.
*CYCLE - Bypasses commands within a do-loop.
CYCLIC - Specifies a cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCOPT - Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCPHASE - Provides tools for determining minimum and maximum possible result values from frequency couplets produced in a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
CYCSPEC - Defines the set of result items for a subsequent CYCCALC command in postprocessing a cyclic harmonic mode-superposition analysis.
CYL4 - Creates a circular area or cylindrical volume anywhere on the working plane.
CYL5 - Creates a circular area or cylindrical volume by end points.
CYLIND - Creates a cylindrical volume centered about the working plane origin.
CZDEL - Edits or clears cohesive zone sections.
CZMESH - Create and mesh an interface area composed of cohesive zone elements.
V. D Commands
D - Defines degree-of-freedom constraints at nodes.
DA - Defines degree-of-freedom constraints on areas.
DADELE - Deletes degree-of-freedom constraints on an area.
DALIST - Lists the DOF constraints on an area.
DAMORPH - Move nodes in selected areas to conform to structural displacements.
DATA - Reads data records from a file into a variable.
DATADEF - Specifies "Directly defined data status" as the subsequent status topic.
DCGOMG - Specifies the rotational acceleration of the global origin.
DCUM - Specifies that DOF constraint values are to be accumulated.
DCVSWP - Performs a DC voltage sweep on a ROM element.
DDASPEC - Specifies the shock spectrum computation constants for DDAM analysis.
DDELE - Deletes degree-of-freedom constraints.
DDOPTION - Sets domain decomposer option for Distributed ANSYS.
DEACT - Specifies "Element birth and death" as the subsequent status topic.
DEFINE - Specifies "Data definition settings" as the subsequent status topic.
*DEL - Deletes a parameter or parameters (GUI).
DELETE - Specifies sets in the results file to be deleted before postprocessing.
/DELETE - Deletes a file.
DELTIM - Specifies the time step sizes to be used for the current load step.
DEMORPH - Move nodes in selected elements to conform to structural displacements.
DERIV - Differentiates a variable.
DESIZE - Controls default element sizes.
DESOL - Defines or modifies solution results at a node of an element.
DETAB - Modifies element table results in the database.
/DEVDISP - Controls graphics device options.
/DEVICE - Controls graphics device options.
/DFLAB - Changes degree-of-freedom labels for user custom elements.
DFLX - Imposes a uniform magnetic flux B on an edge-element electromagnetic model.
DFSWAVE - Specifies the incident planar waves with random phases for a diffuse sound field.
DIG - Digitizes nodes to a surface.
DIGIT - Specifies "Node digitizing" as the subsequent status topic.
*DIM - Defines an array parameter and its dimensions.
/DIRECTORY - Put the file names in the current directory into a string parameter array.
DISPLAY - Specifies "Display settings" as the subsequent status topic.
/DIST - Specifies the viewing distance for magnifications and perspective.
DJ - Specifies boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a joint element.
DJDELE - Deletes boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a joint element.
DJLIST - Lists boundary conditions applied to joint elements.
DK - Defines DOF constraints at keypoints.
DKDELE - Deletes DOF constraints at a keypoint.
DKLIST - Lists the DOF constraints at keypoints.
DL - Defines DOF constraints on lines.
DLDELE - Deletes DOF constraints on a line.
DLIST - Lists DOF constraints.
DLLIST - Lists DOF constraints on a line.
*DMAT - Creates a dense matrix.
DMOVE - Digitizes nodes on surfaces and along intersections.
DMPEXT - Extracts modal damping coefficients in a specified frequency range.
DMPOPTION - Specifies distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) file combination options.
DMPRAT - Sets a constant modal damping ratio.
DMPSTR - Sets a constant structural damping coefficient.
DNSOL - Defines or modifies solution results at a node.
*DO - Defines the beginning of a do-loop.
DOF - Adds degrees of freedom to the current DOF set.
DOFSEL - Selects a DOF label set for reference by other commands.
DOMEGA - Specifies the rotational acceleration of the structure.
*DOT - Computes the dot (or inner) product of two vectors.
*DOWHILE - Loops repeatedly through the next *ENDDO command.
DSCALE - Scales DOF constraint values.
/DSCALE - Sets the displacement multiplier for displacement displays.
DSET - Sets the scale and drawing plane orientation for a digitizing tablet.
DSPOPTION - Sets memory option for the distributed sparse solver.
DSUM - Specifies the double sum mode combination method.
DSURF - Defines the surface upon which digitized nodes lie.
DSYM - Specifies symmetry or antisymmetry degree-of-freedom constraints on nodes.
DSYS - Activates a display coordinate system for geometry listings and plots.
DTRAN - Transfers solid model DOF constraints to the finite element model.
DUMP - Dumps the contents of a binary file.
/DV3D - Sets 3-D device option modes.
DVAL - Defines values at enforced motion base.
DVMORPH - Move nodes in selected volumes to conform to structural displacements.
DYNOPT - Specifies "Dynamic analysis options" as the subsequent status topic.
VI. E Commands
E - Defines an element by node connectivity.
EALIVE - Reactivates an element (for the birth and death capability).
ECPCHG - Optimizes degree-of-freedom usage in a coupled acoustic model.
EDADAPT - Activates adaptive meshing in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDALE - Assigns mesh smoothing to explicit dynamic elements that use the ALE formulation.
EDASMP - Creates a part assembly to be used in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDBOUND - Defines a boundary plane for sliding or cyclic symmetry.
EDBX - Creates a box shaped volume to be used in a contact definition for explicit dynamics.
EDBVIS - Specifies global bulk viscosity coefficients for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCADAPT - Specifies adaptive meshing controls for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCGEN - Specifies contact parameters for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCLIST - Lists contact entity specifications in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCMORE - Specifies additional contact parameters for a given contact definition in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCNSTR - Defines various types of constraints for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDCONTACT - Specifies contact surface controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCPU - Specifies CPU time limit for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCRB - Constrains two rigid bodies to act as one in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCSC - Specifies whether to use subcycling in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCTS - Specifies mass scaling and scale factor of computed time step for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDCURVE - Specifies data curves for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDDAMP - Defines mass weighted (Alpha) or stiffness weighted (Beta) damping for an explicit dynamics model.
EDDBL - Selects a numerical precision type of the explicit dynamics analysis.
EDDC - Deletes or deactivates/reactivates contact surface specifications in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDDRELAX - Activates initialization to a prescribed geometry or dynamic relaxation for the explicit analysis.
EDDUMP - Specifies output frequency for the explicit dynamic restart file (d3dump).
EDELE - Deletes selected elements from the model.
EDENERGY - Specifies energy dissipation controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDFPLOT - Allows plotting of explicit dynamics forces and other load symbols.
EDGCALE - Defines global ALE controls for an explicit dynamic analysis.
/EDGE - Displays only the common lines (“edges”) of an object.
EDHGLS - Specifies the hourglass coefficient for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDHIST - Specifies time-history output for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDHTIME - Specifies the time-history output interval for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDINT - Specifies number of integration points for explicit shell and beam output.
EDIPART - Defines inertia for rigid parts in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDIS - Specifies stress initialization in an explicit dynamic full restart analysis.
EDLCS - Defines a local coordinate system for use in explicit dynamics analysis.
EDLOAD - Specifies loads for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDMP - Defines material properties for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDNB - Defines a nonreflecting boundary in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDNDTSD - Allows smoothing of noisy data for explicit dynamics analyses and provides a graphical representation of the data.
EDNROT - Applies a rotated coordinate nodal constraint in an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDOPT - Specifies the type of output for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDOUT - Specifies time-history output (ASCII format) for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDPART - Configures parts for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDPC - Selects and plots explicit dynamic contact entities.
EDPL - Plots a time dependent load curve in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDPVEL - Applies initial velocities to parts or part assemblies in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRC - Specifies rigid/deformable switch controls in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRD - Switches a part from deformable to rigid or from rigid to deformable in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDREAD - Reads explicit dynamics output into variables for time-history postprocessing.
EDRI - Defines inertia properties for a new rigid body that is created when a deformable part is switched to rigid in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRST - Specifies the output interval for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDRUN - Specify LS-DYNA serial or parallel processing.
EDSHELL - Specifies shell computation controls for an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDSOLV - Specifies "explicit dynamics solution" as the subsequent status topic.
EDSP - Specifies small penetration checking for contact entities in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDSTART - Specifies status (new or restart) of an explicit dynamics analysis.
EDTERM - Specifies termination criteria for an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDTP - Plots explicit elements based on their time step size.
EDVEL - Applies initial velocities to nodes or node components in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDWELD - Defines a massless spotweld or generalized weld for use in an explicit dynamic analysis.
EDWRITE - Writes explicit dynamics input to an LS-DYNA input file.
EEXTRUDE - Extrudes 2-D plane elements into 3-D solids during a 2-D to 3-D analysis.
/EFACET - Specifies the number of facets per element edge for PowerGraphics displays.
EGEN - Generates elements from an existing pattern.
*EIGEN - Performs a modal solution with unsymmetric or damping matrices.
EINFIN - Generates structural infinite elements from selected nodes.
EINTF - Defines two-node elements between coincident or offset nodes.
EKILL - Deactivates an element (for the birth and death capability).
ELBOW - Specifies degrees of freedom to be coupled for end release and applies section constraints to elbow elements.
ELEM - Specifies "Elements" as the subsequent status topic.
ELIST - Lists the elements and their attributes.
*ELSE - Separates the final if-then-else block.
*ELSEIF - Separates an intermediate if-then-else block.
EMAGERR - Calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
EMATWRITE - Forces the writing of all the element matrices to File.EMAT.
EMF - Calculates the electromotive force (emf), or voltage drop along a predefined path.
EMFT - Summarizes electromagnetic forces and torques.
EMID - Adds or removes midside nodes.
EMIS - Specifies emissivity as a material property for the Radiation Matrix method.
EMODIF - Modifies a previously defined element.
EMORE - Adds more nodes to the just-defined element.
EMSYM - Specifies circular symmetry for electromagnetic sources.
EMTGEN - Generates a set of TRANS126 elements.
EMUNIT - Specifies the system of units for magnetic field problems.
EN - Defines an element by its number and node connectivity.
*END - Closes a macro file.
*ENDDO - Ends a do-loop and starts the looping action.
*ENDIF - Ends an if-then-else.
ENDRELEASE - Specifies degrees of freedom to be decoupled for end release.
ENERSOL - Specifies the total energies to be stored.
ENGEN - Generates elements from an existing pattern.
ENORM - Reorients shell element normals or line element node connectivity.
ENSYM - Generates elements by symmetry reflection.
/EOF - Exits the file being read.
EORIENT - Reorients solid element normals.
EPLOT - Produces an element display.
EQSLV - Specifies the type of equation solver.
ERASE - Explicitly erases the current display.
/ERASE - Specifies that the screen is to be erased before each display.
EREAD - Reads elements from a file.
EREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified elements.
EREINF - Generates reinforcing elements from selected existing (base) elements.
ERESX - Specifies extrapolation of integration point results.
ERNORM - Controls error estimation calculations.
ERRANG - Specifies the element range to be read from a file.
ESCHECK - Perform element shape checking for a selected element set.
ESEL - Selects a subset of elements.
/ESHAPE - Displays elements with shapes determined from the real constants, section definition, or other inputs.
ESIZE - Specifies the default number of line divisions.
ESLA - Selects those elements associated with the selected areas.
ESLL - Selects those elements associated with the selected lines.
ESLN - Selects those elements attached to the selected nodes.
ESLV - Selects elements associated with the selected volumes.
ESOL - Specifies element data to be stored from the results file.
ESORT - Sorts the element table.
ESSOLV - Performs a coupled electrostatic-structural analysis.
ESTIF - Specifies the matrix multiplier for deactivated elements.
ESURF - Generates elements overlaid on the free faces of selected nodes.
ESYM - Generates elements from a pattern by a symmetry reflection.
ESYS - Sets the element coordinate system attribute pointer.
ET - Defines a local element type from the element library.
ETABLE - Fills a table of element values for further processing.
ETCHG - Changes element types to their corresponding types.
ETCONTROL - Control the element technologies used in element formulation (for applicable elements).
ETDELE - Deletes element types.
ETLIST - Lists currently defined element types.
ETYPE - Specifies "Element types" as the subsequent status topic.
EUSORT - Restores original order of the element table.
EWRITE - Writes elements to a file.
EXBOPT - Specifies file output options in a CMS generation pass.
*EXIT - Exits a do-loop.
/EXIT - Stops the run and returns control to the system.
EXOPTION - Specifies the EXPROFILE options for the Mechanical APDL to ANSYS CFX profile file transfer.
EXP - Forms the exponential of a variable.
EXPAND - Displays the results of a modal cyclic symmetry analysis.
/EXPAND - Allows the creation of a larger graphic display than represented by the actual finite element analysis model.
EXPASS - Specifies an expansion pass of an analysis.
*EXPORT - Exports a matrix to a file in the specified format.
EXPROFILE - Exports Mechanical APDL interface data on selected nodes to an ANSYS CFX Profile file.
EXPSOL - Specifies the solution to be expanded for mode-superposition analyses or substructure analyses.
EXTOPT - Controls options relating to the generation of volume elements from area elements.
EXTREM - Lists the extreme values for variables.
EXUNIT - Specifies the interface data unit labels to be written to the profile file from Mechanical APDL to ANSYS CFX transfer.
VII. F Commands
F - Specifies force loads at nodes.
/FACET - Specifies the facet representation used to form solid model displays.
FC - Provides failure criteria information and activates a data table to input temperature-dependent stress and strain limits.
FCCHECK - Checks both the strain and stress input criteria for all materials.
FCDELE - Deletes previously defined failure criterion data for the given material.
FCLIST - To list what the failure criteria is that you have input.
/FCOMP - Specifies file compression level.
FCUM - Specifies that force loads are to be accumulated.
FCTYP - Activates or removes failure-criteria types for postprocessing.
FDELE - Deletes force loads on nodes.
/FDELE - Deletes a binary file after it is used.
FEBODY - Specifies "Body loads on elements" as the subsequent status topic.
FECONS - Specifies "Constraints on nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
FEFOR - Specifies "Forces on nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
FESURF - Specifies "Surface loads on elements" as the subsequent status topic.
*FFT - Computes the fast Fourier transformation of a specified matrix or vector.
FILE - Specifies the data file where results are to be found.
FILEAUX2 - Specifies the binary file to be dumped.
FILEAUX3 - Specifies the results file to be edited.
FILEDISP - Specifies the file containing the graphics data.
FILL - Generates a line of nodes between two existing nodes.
FILLDATA - Fills a variable by a ramp function.
/FILNAME - Changes the Jobname for the analysis.
FINISH - Exits normally from a processor.
FITEM - Identifies items chosen by a picking operation (GUI).
FJ - Specify forces or moments on the components of the relative motion of a joint element.
FJDELE - Deletes forces (or moments) on the components of the relative motion of a joint element.
FJLIST - Lists forces and moments applied on joint elements.
FK - Defines force loads at keypoints.
FKDELE - Deletes force loads at a keypoint.
FKLIST - Lists the forces at keypoints.
FLIST - Lists force loads on the nodes.
FLST - Specifies data required for a picking operation (GUI).
FLUXV - Calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
FLUREAD - Reads one-way Fluent-to-Mechanical APDL coupling data via a .cgns file with one-side fast Fourier transformation complex pressure peak value.
/FOCUS - Specifies the focus point (center of the window).
FORCE - Selects the element nodal force type for output.
FORM - Specifies the format of the file dump.
/FORMAT - Specifies format controls for tables.
*FREE - Deletes a matrix or a solver object and frees its memory allocation.
FREQ - Defines the frequency points for the SV vs. FREQ tables.
FRQSCL - Turns on automatic scaling of the entire mass matrix and frequency range for modal analyses.
FSCALE - Scales force load values in the database.
FSSECT - Calculates and stores total linearized stress components.
FSSPARM - Calculates reflection and transmission properties of a frequency selective surface.
FSUM - Sums the nodal force and moment contributions of elements.
FTRAN - Transfers solid model forces to the finite element model.
FTYPE - Specifies the file type and pressure type for the subsequent import of source points and pressures.
FVMESH - Generates nodes and tetrahedral volume elements from detached exterior area elements (facets).
VIII. G Commands
GAP - Specifies "mode-superposition transient gap conditions" as the subsequent status topic.
GAPF - Defines the gap force data to be stored in a variable.
GAUGE - Gauges the problem domain for a magnetic edge-element formulation.
GCDEF - Defines interface interactions between general contact surfaces.
GCGEN - Creates contact elements for general contact.
/GCMD - Controls the type of element or graph display used for the GPLOT command.
/GCOLUMN - Allows the user to apply a label to a specified curve.
GENOPT - Specifies "General options" as the subsequent status topic.
GEOM - Defines the geometry specifications for the radiation matrix calculation.
GEOMETRY - Specifies "Geometry" as the subsequent status topic.
*GET - Retrieves a value and stores it as a scalar parameter or part of an array parameter.
/GFILE - Specifies the pixel resolution on Z-buffered graphics files.
/GFORMAT - Specifies the format for the graphical display of numbers.
/GLINE - Specifies the element outline style.
/GMARKER - Specifies the curve marking style.
GMATRIX - Performs electric field solutions and calculates the self and mutual conductance between multiple conductors.
GMFACE - Specifies the facet representation used to form solid models.
*GO - Causes a specified line on the input file to be read next.
/GO - Reactivates suppressed printout.
/GOLIST - Reactivates the suppressed data input listing.
/GOPR - Reactivates suppressed printout.
GP - Defines a gap condition for transient analyses.
GPDELE - Deletes gap conditions.
GPLIST - Lists the gap conditions.
GPLOT - Controls general plotting.
/GRAPHICS - Defines the type of graphics display.
/GRESUME - Sets graphics settings to the settings on a file.
/GRID - Selects the type of grid on graph displays.
/GROPT - Sets various line graph display options.
GRP - Specifies the grouping mode combination method.
/GRTYP - Selects single or multiple Y-axes graph displays.
/GSAVE - Saves graphics settings to a file for later use.
GSBDATA - Specifies the constraints or applies the load at the ending point for generalized plane strain option.
GSGDATA - Specifies the reference point and defines the geometry in the fiber direction for the generalized plane strain element option.
GSLIST - When using generalized plane strain, lists the input data or solutions.
GSSOL - Specifies which results to store from the results file when using generalized plane strain.
/GST - Turns Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) on or off.
GSUM - Calculates and prints geometry items.
/GTHK - Sets line thicknesses for graph lines.
/GTYPE - Controls the entities that the GPLOT command displays.
IX. H Commands
HARFRQ - Defines the frequency range in a harmonic analysis.
/HBC - Determines how boundary condition symbols are displayed in a display window.
HBMAT - Writes an assembled global matrix in Harwell-Boeing format.
/HEADER - Sets page and table heading print controls.
HELP - Displays help information on ANSYS commands and element types.
HELPDISP - Displays help information on DISPLAY program commands.
HEMIOPT - Specifies options for Hemicube view factor calculation.
HFANG - Defines or displays spatial angles of a spherical radiation surface for sound radiation parameter calculations.
HFSYM - Indicates the presence of symmetry planes for the computation of acoustic fields in the near and far field domains (beyond the finite element region).
HPGL - Specifies various HP options.
HPTCREATE - Defines a hard point.
HPTDELETE - Deletes selected hardpoints.
HRCPLX - Computes and stores in the database the time-harmonic solution at a prescribed phase angle.
HREXP - Specifies the phase angle for the harmonic analysis expansion pass.
HROPT - Specifies harmonic analysis options.
HROCEAN - Perform the harmonic ocean wave procedure (HOWP).
HROUT - Specifies the harmonic analysis output options.
X. I Commands
IC - Specifies initial conditions at nodes.
ICDELE - Deletes initial conditions at nodes.
ICLIST - Lists the initial conditions.
/ICLWID - Scales the line width of circuit builder icons.
ICROTATE - Specifies initial velocity at nodes as a sum of rotation about an axis and translation.
/ICSCALE - Scales the icon size for elements supported in the circuit builder.
*IF - Conditionally causes commands to be read.
IGESIN - Transfers IGES data from a file into ANSYS.
IGESOUT - Writes solid model data to a file in IGES Version 5.1 format.
/IMAGE - Allows graphics data to be captured and saved.
IMAGIN - Forms an imaginary variable from a complex variable.
IMESH - Generates nodes and interface elements along lines or areas.
IMMED - Allows immediate display of a model as it is generated.
INISTATE - Defines initial state data and parameters.
*INIT - Initializes a vector or matrix.
/INPUT - Switches the input file for the commands that follow.
/INQUIRE - Returns system information to a parameter.
INRES - Identifies the data to be retrieved from the results file.
INRTIA - Specifies "Inertial loads" as the subsequent status topic.
INT1 - Integrates a variable.
INTSRF - Integrates nodal results on an exterior surface.
IOPTN - Controls options relating to importing a model.
IRLF - Specifies that inertia relief calculations are to be performed.
IRLIST - Prints inertia relief summary table.
*ITENGINE - Performs a solution using an iterative solver.
XI. J Commands
JPEG - Provides JPEG file export for ANSYS displays.
JSOL - Specifies result items to be stored for the joint element.
XII. K Commands
K - Defines a keypoint.
KATT - Associates attributes with the selected, unmeshed keypoints.
KBC - Specifies ramped or stepped loading within a load step.
KBETW - Creates a keypoint between two existing keypoints.
KCALC - Calculates stress intensity factors in fracture mechanics analyses.
KCENTER - Creates a keypoint at the center of a circular arc defined by three locations.
KCLEAR - Deletes nodes and point elements associated with selected keypoints.
KDELE - Deletes unmeshed keypoints.
KDIST - Calculates and lists the distance between two keypoints.
KEEP - Stores POST26 definitions and data during active session.
KESIZE - Specifies the edge lengths of the elements nearest a keypoint.
KEYOPT - Sets element key options.
KEYPTS - Specifies "Keypoints" as the subsequent status topic.
KEYW - Sets a keyword used by the GUI for context filtering (GUI).
KFILL - Generates keypoints between two keypoints.
KGEN - Generates additional keypoints from a pattern of keypoints.
KL - Generates a keypoint at a specified location on an existing line.
KLIST - Lists the defined keypoints or hard points.
KMESH - Generates nodes and point elements at keypoints.
KMODIF - Modifies an existing keypoint.
KMOVE - Calculates and moves a keypoint to an intersection.
KNODE - Defines a keypoint at an existing node location.
KPLOT - Displays the selected keypoints.
KPSCALE - Generates a scaled set of (meshed) keypoints from a pattern of keypoints.
KREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified keypoints.
KSCALE - Generates a scaled pattern of keypoints from a given keypoint pattern.
KSCON - Specifies a keypoint about which an area mesh will be skewed.
KSEL - Selects a subset of keypoints or hard points.
KSLL - Selects those keypoints contained in the selected lines.
KSLN - Selects those keypoints associated with the selected nodes.
KSUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected keypoints.
KSYMM - Generates a reflected set of keypoints.
KTRAN - Transfers a pattern of keypoints to another coordinate system.
KUSE - Specifies whether or not to reuse the factorized matrix.
KWPAVE - Moves the working plane origin to the average location of keypoints.
KWPLAN - Defines the working plane using three keypoints.
XIII. L Commands
L - Defines a line between two keypoints.
L2ANG - Generates a line at an angle with two existing lines.
L2TAN - Generates a line tangent to two lines.
LANBOPTION - Specifies Block Lanczos eigensolver options.
LANG - Generates a straight line at an angle with a line.
LARC - Defines a circular arc.
/LARC - Creates annotation arcs (GUI).
LAREA - Generates the shortest line between two keypoints on an area.
LARGE - Finds the largest (the envelope) of three variables.
LATT - Associates element attributes with the selected, unmeshed lines.
LAYER - Specifies the element layer for which data are to be processed.
LAYERP26 - Specifies the element layer for which data are to be stored.
LAYLIST - Lists real constants material properties for layered elements.
LAYPLOT - Displays the layer stacking sequence for layered elements.
LCABS - Specifies absolute values for load case operations.
LCASE - Reads a load case into the database.
LCCALC - Specifies "Load case settings" as the subsequent status topic.
LCCAT - Concatenates multiple lines into one line for mapped meshing.
LCDEF - Creates a load case from a set of results on a results file.
LCFACT - Defines scale factors for load case operations.
LCFILE - Creates a load case from an existing load case file.
LCLEAR - Deletes nodes and line elements associated with selected lines.
LCOMB - Combines adjacent lines into one line.
LCOPER - Performs load case operations.
LCSEL - Selects a subset of load cases.
LCSL - Divides intersecting lines at their point(s) of intersection.
LCSUM - Specifies whether to process non-summable items in load case operations.
LCWRITE - Creates a load case by writing results to a load case file.
LCZERO - Zeroes the results portion of the database.
LDELE - Deletes unmeshed lines.
LDIV - Divides a single line into two or more lines.
LDRAG - Generates lines by sweeping a keypoint pattern along path.
LDREAD - Reads results from the results file and applies them as loads.
LESIZE - Specifies the divisions and spacing ratio on unmeshed lines.
LEXTND - Extends a line at one end by using its slope.
LFILLT - Generates a fillet line between two intersecting lines.
LFSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the edge of existing solid elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
LGEN - Generates additional lines from a pattern of lines.
LGLUE - Generates new lines by "gluing" lines.
LGWRITE - Writes the database command log to a file.
/LIGHT - Specifies the light direction for the display window.
LINA - Finds the intersection of a line with an area.
LINE - Specifies "Lines" as the subsequent status topic.
/LINE - Creates annotation lines (GUI).
LINES - Specifies the length of a printed page.
LINL - Finds the common intersection of lines.
LINP - Finds the pairwise intersection of lines.
LINV - Finds the intersection of a line with a volume.
LIST - Lists out the sets in the results file.
*LIST - Displays the contents of an external, coded file.
LLIST - Lists the defined lines.
LMESH - Generates nodes and line elements along lines.
LNSRCH - Activates a line search to be used with Newton-Raphson.
LOCAL - Defines a local coordinate system by a location and orientation.
LOVLAP - Overlaps lines.
LPLOT - Displays the selected lines.
LPTN - Partitions lines.
LREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified lines.
LREVERSE - Reverses the normal of a line, regardless of its connectivity or mesh status.
LROTAT - Generates circular lines by rotating a keypoint pattern about an axis.
LSBA - Subtracts areas from lines.
*LSBAC - Performs the solve (forward/backward substitution) of a factorized linear system.
LSBL - Subtracts lines from lines.
LSBV - Subtracts volumes from lines.
LSBW - Subtracts the intersection of the working plane from lines (divides lines).
LSCLEAR - Clears loads and load step options from the database.
LSDELE - Deletes load step files.
*LSDUMP - Dumps a linear solver engine to a binary File.
LSEL - Selects a subset of lines.
*LSENGINE - Creates a linear solver engine.
*LSFACTOR - Performs the numerical factorization of a linear solver system.
LSLA - Selects those lines contained in the selected areas.
LSLK - Selects those lines containing the selected keypoints.
LSOPER - Specifies "Load step operations" as the subsequent status topic.
/LSPEC - Specifies annotation line attributes (GUI).
LSREAD - Reads load and load step option data into the database.
*LSRESTORE - Restores a linear solver engine from a binary file.
LSSCALE - Generates a scaled set of lines from a pattern of lines.
LSSOLVE - Reads and solves multiple load steps.
LSTR - Defines a straight line irrespective of the active coordinate system.
LSUM - Calculates and prints geometry statistics of the selected lines.
LSWRITE - Writes load and load step option data to a file.
/LSYMBOL - Creates annotation symbols (GUI).
LSYMM - Generates lines from a line pattern by symmetry reflection.
LTAN - Generates a line at the end of, and tangent to, an existing line.
LTRAN - Transfers a pattern of lines to another coordinate system.
LUMPM - Specifies a lumped mass matrix formulation.
LVSCALE - Scales the load vector for mode-superposition analyses.
LWPLAN - Defines the working plane normal to a location on a line.
XIV. M Commands
M - Defines master degrees of freedom for superelement generation analyses.
MAGOPT - Specifies options for a 3-D magnetostatic field analysis.
MAGSOLV - Specifies magnetic solution options and initiates the solution.
/MAIL - Mails file to the specified address.
MAP - Maps pressures from source points to target surface elements.
/MAP - Enters the mapping processor.
MAP2DTO3D - Initiates a 2-D to 3-D analysis and maps variables.
MAPSOLVE - Maps solved node and element solutions from an original mesh to a new mesh.
MAPVAR - Defines tensors and vectors in user-defined state variables for rezoning and in 2-D to 3-D analyses.
MASCALE - Activates scaling of the entire system matrix.
MASTER - Specifies "Master DOF" as the subsequent status topic.
MAT - Sets the element material attribute pointer.
MATER - Specifies "Material properties" as the subsequent status topic.
MCHECK - Checks mesh connectivity.
MDAMP - Defines the damping ratios as a function of mode.
MDELE - Deletes master degrees of freedom.
MDPLOT - Plots frequency-dependent modal damping coefficients calculated by DMPEXT.
MEMM - Allows the current session to keep allocated memory
/MENU - Activates the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
*MERGE - Merges two dense matrices or vectors into one.
MESHING - Specifies "Meshing" as the subsequent status topic.
MFANALYSIS - Activates or deactivates an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFBUCKET - Turns a bucket search on or off.
MFCALC - Specifies a calculation frequency for a field in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFCI - Sets the control parameters used by the conservative (CPP) interpolation scheme.
MFCLEAR - Deletes ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis settings.
MFCMMAND - Captures field solution options in a command file.
MFCONV - Sets convergence values for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFDTIME - Sets time step sizes for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFELEM - Defines a field by grouping element types.
MFEM - Add more element types to a previously defined field number.
MFEXTER - Defines external fields for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFFNAME - Specifies a file name for a field in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFFR - Setup Multi-Field relaxation factors for field solutions.
MFIMPORT - Imports a new field into a current ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFINTER - Specifies the interface load transfer interpolation option for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFITER - Sets the number of stagger iterations for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFLCOMM - Defines a load transfer for code coupling analyses.
MFLIST - Lists the settings for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFMAP - Calculates, saves, resumes, or deletes mapping data in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFORDER - Specifies field solution order for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFOUTPUT - Specifies results file output frequency for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
*MFOURI - Calculates the coefficients for, or evaluates, a Fourier series.
MFPSIMUL - Sets up a field solver group to simultaneously process with code coupling analyses.
MFRC - Controls file writing for multiframe restarts for the ANSYS Multi-field solver.
MFRELAX - Sets relaxation values for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFRSTART - Specifies restart status for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFSORDER - Sets up the solution sequence of simultaneous field solver groups for code coupling analyses.
MFSURFACE - Defines a surface load transfer for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFTIME - Sets end time for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFTOL - Activates or deactivates normal distance checking for surface mapping in an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
*MFUN - Copies or transposes an array parameter matrix.
MFVOLUME - Defines a volume load transfer for an ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis.
MFWRITE - Writes an ANSYS master input file for MFX multiple code coupling.
MGEN - Generates additional MDOF from a previously defined set.
MIDTOL - Sets midstep residual criterion values for structural transient analyses.
/MKDIR - Creates a directory.
MLIST - Lists the MDOF of freedom.
MMASS - Specifies the missing mass response calculation.
MMF - Calculates the magnetomotive force along a path.
MODCONT - Specify additional modal analysis options.
MODDIR - Activates the remote read-only modal files usage.
MODE - Specifies the harmonic loading term for this load step.
MODIFY - Changes the listed values of the data in a set.
MODMSH - Controls the relationship of the solid model and the FE model.
MODSELOPTION - Specifies the criteria for selecting the modes to be expanded.
MODOPT - Specifies modal analysis options.
MONITOR - Controls contents of three variable fields in nonlinear solution monitor file.
*MOPER - Performs matrix operations on array parameter matrices.
MOPT - Specifies meshing options.
MORPH - Specifies morphing and remeshing controls.
MOVE - Calculates and moves a node to an intersection.
MP - Defines a linear material property as a constant or a function of temperature.
MPAMOD - Modifies temperature-dependent secant coefficients of thermal expansion.
MPCHG - Changes the material number attribute of an element.
MPCOPY - Copies linear material model data from one material reference number to another.
MPDATA - Defines property data to be associated with the temperature table.
MPDELE - Deletes linear material properties.
MPDRES - Reassembles existing material data with the temperature table.
/MPLIB - Sets the default material library read and write paths.
MPLIST - Lists linear material properties.
MPPLOT - Plots linear material properties as a function of temperature.
MPREAD - Reads a file containing material properties.
MPRINT - Specifies that radiation matrices are to be printed.
MPTEMP - Defines a temperature table for material properties.
MPTGEN - Adds temperatures to the temperature table by generation.
MPTRES - Restores a temperature table previously defined.
MPWRITE - Writes linear material properties in the database to a file (if the LIB option is not specified) or writes both linear and nonlinear material properties (if LIB is specified) from the database to a file.
/MREP - Enables you to reissue the graphics command macro "name" during a replot or zoom operation.
MRPM - Defines the revolutions per minute (RPM) for a machine rotation.
MSAVE - Sets the solver memory saving option. This option only applies to the PCG solver (including PCG Lanczos).
*MSG - Writes an output message via the ANSYS message subroutine.
MSHAPE - For elements that support multiple shapes, specifies the element shape to be used for meshing.
MSHCOPY - Simplifies the generation of meshes that have matching node element patterns on two different line groups (in 2-D) or area groups (3-D).
MSHKEY - Specifies whether free meshing or mapped meshing should be used to mesh a model.
MSHMID - Specifies placement of midside nodes.
MSHPATTERN - Specifies pattern to be used for mapped triangle meshing.
MSOLVE - Starts multiple solutions for an acoustic analysis.
/MSTART - Controls the initial GUI components.
MSTOLE - Adds two extra nodes from FLUID116 elements to SURF151 or SURF152 elements for convection analyses.
*MULT - Performs the matrix multiplication M3 = M1(T1)*M2(T2).
*MWRITE - Writes a matrix to a file in a formatted sequence.
MXPAND - Specifies the number of modes to expand and write for a modal or buckling analysis.
XV. N Commands
N - Defines a node.
NANG - Rotates a nodal coordinate system by direction cosines.
NAXIS - Generates nodes for general axisymmetric element sections.
NCNV - Sets the key to terminate an analysis.
NDELE - Deletes nodes.
NDIST - Calculates and lists the distance between two nodes.
NDSURF - Generates surface elements overlaid on the edge of existing elements and assigns the extra node as the closest fluid element node.
NEQIT - Specifies the maximum number of equilibrium iterations for nonlinear analyses.
/NERR - Limits the number of warning and error messages displayed.
NFORCE - Sums the nodal forces and moments of elements attached to nodes.
NGEN - Generates additional nodes from a pattern of nodes.
NKPT - Defines a node at an existing keypoint location.
NLADAPTIVE - Defines the criteria under which the mesh is refined or modified during a nonlinear solution.
NLDIAG - Sets nonlinear diagnostics functionality.
NLDPOST - Gets element component information from nonlinear diagnostic files.
NLGEOM - Includes large-deflection effects in a static or full transient analysis.
NLHIST - Specify result items to track during solution.
NLIST - Lists nodes.
NLMESH - Controls remeshing in nonlinear adaptivity.
NLOG - Forms the natural log of a variable.
NLOPT - Specifies "Nonlinear analysis options" as the subsequent status topic.
NMODIF - Modifies an existing node.
NOCOLOR - Removes color from graphics displays.
NODES - Specifies "Nodes" as the subsequent status topic.
/NOERASE - Prevents the screen erase between displays.
/NOLIST - Suppresses the data input listing.
NOOFFSET - Prevents the CDREAD command from offsetting specified data items
/NOPR - Suppresses the expanded interpreted input data listing.
NORA - Rotates nodal coordinate systems to surface normal
NORL - Rotates nodal coordinate systems perpendicular to line normal
/NORMAL - Allows displaying area elements by top or bottom faces.
NPLOT - Displays nodes.
NPRINT - Defines which time points stored are to be listed.
NREAD - Reads nodes from a file.
NREFINE - Refines the mesh around specified nodes.
NRLSUM - Specifies the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sum mode combination method.
*NRM - Computes the norm of the specified matrix or vector.
NROPT - Specifies the Newton-Raphson options in a static or full transient analysis.
NROTAT - Rotates nodal coordinate systems into the active system.
NRRANG - Specifies the range of nodes to be read from the node file.
NSCALE - Generates a scaled set of nodes from a pattern of nodes.
NSEL - Selects a subset of nodes.
NSLA - Selects those nodes associated with the selected areas.
NSLE - Selects those nodes attached to the selected elements.
NSLK - Selects those nodes associated with the selected keypoints.
NSLL - Selects those nodes associated with the selected lines.
NSLV - Selects those nodes associated with the selected volumes.
NSMOOTH - Smooths selected nodes among selected elements.
NSOL - Specifies nodal data to be stored from the results file.
NSORT - Sorts nodal data.
NSTORE - Defines which time points are to be stored.
NSUBST - Specifies the number of substeps to be taken this load step.
NSVR - Defines the number of variables for user-programmable element options.
NSYM - Generates a reflected set of nodes.
/NUMBER - Specifies whether numbers, colors, or both are used for displays.
NUMCMP - Compresses the numbering of defined items.
NUMEXP - Specifies solutions to be expanded from mode-superposition analyses or substructure analyses.
NUMMRG - Merges coincident or equivalently defined items.
NUMOFF - Adds a number offset to defined items.
NUMSTR - Establishes starting numbers for automatically numbered items.
NUMVAR - Specifies the number of variables allowed in POST26.
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चाहे आप कर रहे हैं नियमित रूप से काम कर रहे छोटे फोंट के साथ या कर रहे हैं की कोशिश कर कुछ संपादित करने के लिए छोटे भागों में एक ग्राफिक परियोजना है, तो आप कर रहे हैं शायद के बारे में पता है कि तथ्य यह अंततः पर एक टोल ले लो अपनी आँखें.

के रूप में नाम का सुझाव है, ज़ूम एक साधारण और हल्के आवेदन में कार्य करता है कि एक ताल के रूप में अपने डेस्कटॉप के लिए और इसलिए, सक्षम बनाता है आप का विश्लेषण करने के लिए छोटे विवरण बेहतर है ।

सेटअप त्वरित और ऊंचा नीचा है, खासकर के बाद से यह जरूरत पर जोर देता decompressing संग्रह है । शुरू करने पर, आप आने का सामना करने के लिए चेहरे के साथ एक छोटी सी खिड़की है कि है भी इंटरफ़ेस का कार्यक्रम है । आप कर सकते हैं, में और बाहर ज़ूम करने के लिए किसी भी स्थान पर अपने डेस्कटॉप के लिए माउस पहिया का उपयोग करके, जबकि क्षेत्र का चयन करने के लिए बढ़ाना है एक साधारण बात रखने के लिए कर्सर का उपयोग करें ।

आवेदन की अनुमति देता है आप को बदलने के लिए ज़ूम अनुपात, और आप भी कर सकते हैं वृद्धि देखने के क्षेत्र खींचकर कोनों में से एक है । के निचले खंड में इंटरफेस आप कर सकते हैं पूर्वावलोकन सूचक के निर्देशांक के रूप में अच्छी तरह के आकार के रूप में देखने के क्षेत्र.

के प्रकार के आधार पर परियोजना तुम पर काम कर रहे हैं, आप कर सकते हैं के लिए कार्यक्रम निर्धारित करने के लिए हमेशा शीर्ष पर होना है । इस सुविधा के काम में आ सकता है जब आप पर काम कर रहे हैं एक ग्राफिक तत्व, अभी तक आप चाहते हैं की बड़ी तस्वीर देखने के लिए निर्धारित करने के लिए अगर यह यह मिश्रणों, उदाहरण के लिए.

यह आवश्यक है कि उल्लेख करने के लिए उपयोगिता के साथ आता है विभिन्न ज़ूम अनुपात से लेकर 0.5 करने के लिए 65. इसलिए, यदि आप में असमर्थ रहे हैं की पहचान करने के लिए संभावित दोष नहीं कर रहे हैं कि नग्न आंखों को दिखाई है, आप कर सकते हैं स्विच करने के लिए एक बड़ा अनुपात और की पुष्टि करें या कमजोर अपने सिद्धांत है.

छोटे ज़ूम अनुपात, दूसरे हाथ पर, उपयोगी हो सकता है जब आप की कोशिश कर रहे हैं पढ़ने के लिए विभिन्न ग्रंथों लेखन छोटे फोंट के साथ उदाहरण के लिए.

यदि आप कर रहे हैं आमतौर पर काम के साथ छोटे विवरण और आप की जरूरत है सक्षम बनाता है एक उपकरण को देखने के लिए आप के विवरण और अधिक स्पष्ट रूप से है, तो ज़ूम हो सकता है इस कार्यक्रम के लिए बाहर की कोशिश करो.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Affinity Photo

Photo editing app

Violet lens diaphragm shaped like the letter A
Affinity Photo.png

Affinity Photo 1.8 on macOS Catalina

Developer(s)Serif
Initial release9 July 2015; 6 years ago (2015-07-09)
Stable release

1.10 / 5 August 2021; 3 months ago (2021-08-05)[1]

Operating systemiOS, macOS, Windows
Size994 MB (iOS)
2.81 GB (macOS)
866 MB (Windows)
Available inEnglish, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, Russian[2]
TypeRaster graphics editor
LicenseTrialware
Websiteaffinity.serif.com/photo/

Affinity Photo is a raster graphics editorSerif Ltd. has developed for iOS,[3][4]macOS,[5] and Windows,[6][7] alongside Affinity Designer and Affinity Publisher.

Development of Affinity Photo started on 2009, as a raster graphics editor for macOS. Its first version reached general availability in 2015. Serif launched the Windows version of the app a year later. Features of this app includes RAW processing, color space options, live previews as effects are applied, as well as image stitching, alpha compositing, black point compensation, and optical aberration corrections.[2]

Functionality[edit]

Affinity Photo serves as a successor to PhotoPlus, which Serif discontinued in 2017 in order to focus on the Affinity product range.[8] It has been described as an Adobe Photoshop alternative, and is compatible with common file formats such as Adobe's PSD (including Photoshop Smart Objects).[9][10][11]

Functionality includes RAW processing, color space options, live previews as effects are applied, as well as image stitching, alpha compositing, black point compensation, and optical aberration corrections.[2] Working in Affinity Photo is always live, with pan and zoom at 60fps and non-destructive editing. It supports unlimited layers and a dedicated workspace for developing RAW photos; as well as RGB, CMYK, LAB, Greyscale color spaces with ICC color management and 16-bit per channel editing.[12][2]

Affinity Photo is not an image organizer like Apple Aperture or Adobe Lightroom.[13]

Development[edit]

Affinity Photo began as a raster graphics editor solely for macOS. It was Serif's second macOS app, and (like Affinity Designer) was built from the ground up to leverage core native technologies, including Grand Central Dispatch, Core Graphics, OpenGL[14] and Metal 2[15] hardware acceleration.[16]

Serif established an R&D team for Affinity Photo in 2009, headed by lead designer Andy Somerfield. A free beta test version of the Affinity Photo app was released to the public on 9 February 2015.[17]

The initial stable release of Affinity Photo, version 1.3.1, launched on the Mac App Store 9 July 2015 for macOS 10.7 and later.[5] At that time, Serif's raster graphics application for Windows was PhotoPlus; however, following the release of Affinity Photo for Windows, this product has now been discontinued.[18] Version 1.3.5 of Affinity Photo, released in August, provided numerous bug fixes and improvements.[19]

Serif announced its first major update to Affinity Photo in December 2015. Version 1.4 added panorama photo stitching as well as support for macOS 10.11 El Capitan, including six Affinity extensions for Apple Photos.[20] Updates to both Affinity apps (Designer and Photo) provided language support for Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Japanese and Chinese (Simplified). These augmented the four languages in previous versions: English (US and UK), German, French and Spanish. Stability and bug fixes were released with Affinity Photo 1.4.1 and 1.4.2, in January and June 2016. Version 1.4.3 in September 2016 optimized Affinity Photo for macOS 10.12 Sierra.[19]

In December, 2016, Serif launched Affinity Photo for Windows, and released an update to the macOS version at the same time,[21] Affinity Photo 1.5.1 added a 32-bit RGB editing mode with support for 32-bit file formats and more than 70 new camera RAW file formats, as well as the ability to develop RAW files directly into a 32-bit document. Version 1.5.1 also added support for the new MacBook Pro with Touchbar.[22]

Serif launched Affinity Photo for iPad during the keynote at Apple's WWDC in San Jose on 5 June 2017.[3] In September 2017, the iPad version was updated for compatibility with Apple's new iOS 11.[4]

Serif released major updates to Affinity Photo, as well as Affinity Designer, in November 2017. Affinity Photo 1.6.6 was optimized for macOS 10.13 High Sierra (and Metal 2 acceleration), better integration with Apple Photos, improved Photoshop Plugins support and added an option to switch between a dark or light user interface.[23]

In February 2020, version 1.8 of Photo added support for Photoshop smart objects in PSD files, and expanded plug-in compatibility, with focus on DxO's Nik Collection of plug-ins.[11]

Reception[edit]

The macOS version of Affinity Photo was received favorably by professional photographers, and Apple named it as the best Mac app of 2015.[24][25] In 2016, Affinity Photo was awarded the prize for Best Imaging Software by the Technical Image Press Association (TIPA) at Photokina.[26][27][25] In November 2017, the iOS app was named by Apple as its best iPad app of the year,[28][29] and Tom's Guide selected Affinity Photo for their first list of Best Tech Values.[30][31] In February 2019, Affinity Photo received Amateur Photographer'sSoftware of the Year award,[32] followed by Photography News' Best Software award in March 2019.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Superpower your creativity with the new Affinity v1.10". Affinity Newsroom. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  2. ^ abcd"Affinity Photo Full Feature List". Affinity.serif.com. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  3. ^ abBenjamin, Jeff (23 June 2017). "Friday 5: Affinity Photo – a must-have photo editing app for iPad Pro owners". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  4. ^ abCarlson, Jeff (13 November 2017). "Affinity Photo for iPad Review". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  5. ^ abLane, Terry (19 August 2015). "Affinity emerges as Photoshop alternative but only for Macs". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  6. ^Hillen, Brittany (9 December 2016). "Affinity Photo for Windows now available, Mac version updated to 1.5". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  7. ^Ellis, Cat (14 December 2016). "Serif Affinity Photo comes to Windows". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  8. ^Ogunjobi, Anino (2017-08-10). "Digital Craft: Serif discontinues its Pageplus, Drawplus and Photoplus designing software to focus on its(Serif) new Affinity range of Professional graphic design software". ANINO. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  9. ^Zhang, Michael (9 February 2015). "Affinity Photo is a New Pro Photoshop Alternative for Mac Users: Get It for Free". PetaPixel. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
  10. ^Hillen, Brittany (10 February 2015). "Serif launches Affinity Photo, a Photoshop alternative for Mac". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  11. ^ abBenjamin, Jeff (2020-02-26). "Affinity Photo, Publisher, and Designer updated to version 1.8". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 2020-03-07.
  12. ^Banks, Adam (5 September 2015). "Photoshop for 40 quid: Affinity Photo pushes pixels further than most". The Register. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  13. ^Dyer, Alan (15 December 2017). "I Tested 10+ Photoshop Alternatives to See How They Stack Up". PetaPixel. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  14. ^Clover, Juli (9 July 2015). "Serif's Image Editing App 'Affinity Photo' Launches for Mac". MacRumors. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  15. ^Demolder, Damien (3 November 2017). "Affinity Photo 1.6 released: faster processing, new features, and free stuff". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  16. ^Burgett, Gannon (2 November 2017). "Serif boosts its Photoshop competitor, Affinity Photo, with new update". Digital Trends. Designtechnica. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  17. ^Schneider, Jaron (2 July 2015). "The Finished Version of Affinity Photo is Coming & Yes, You Should Be Excited for this Photoshop Competitor". Resource. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  18. ^"Digital Craft: Serif discontinues its Pageplus, Drawplus and Photoplus designing software to focus on its(Serif) new Affinity range of Professional graphic design software - ANINO". ANINO. 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  19. ^ ab"Affinity Photo". macbed.com. AppKed. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  20. ^Lawton, Rod (9 December 2015). "Serif's Adobe Photoshop rival Affinity Photo gets a major update". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  21. ^Rogers, Graham K. (10 August 2016). "A visit to Affinity apps developers". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  22. ^Schneider, Jaron (8 December 2016). "Affinity Photo 1.5 Launches with Overhauled RAW Processor, Touch Bar Support, 32-Bit Editing & More". Resource. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  23. ^Benjamin, Jeff (2 November 2017). "Affinity Designer and Photo for Mac receive big 1.6 update including free limited-time content bundles". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  24. ^"Affinity Photo is App of the Year!". Affinity Blog. Serif (Europe) Ltd. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  25. ^ abWarren, Tom (10 November 2016). "Apple's 'best Mac App' of 2015 is now available on Windows". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  26. ^"XXVI TIPA AWARDS (2016)". TIPA.com. Technical Image Press Association. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  27. ^Zipper, Bernd (9 November 2016). "Serif: are Affinity products set to challenge the dominance of top dog Adobe in the print industry?". beyond-print.de. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  28. ^Cade, D.L. (8 December 2017). "Affinity Photo named Best iPad App of 2017, celebrates with 50% off sale". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  29. ^Watson, Fay (8 December 2017). "Affinity Photo: 'Apple's best iPad app of 2017' is half price". Amateur Photographer. Time Inc. (UK) Ltd. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  30. ^"Best Tech Value Awards: Top Bargains of 2017". Tom's Guide. Purch. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  31. ^Grotta, Sally Wiener (16 March 2017). "Affinity Photo 1.5 Review: Best Budget Editor for Pros". Tom's Guide. Purch. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  32. ^"AP Awards 2019: Accessories of the Year". Amateur Photographer. 2019-02-24. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  33. ^Cheung, Will (2019-03-12). "Photography News Awards 2018 winners announced". Photography News. Retrieved 2019-03-13.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Features new to Windows 7

Overview of the features newly introduced in the Microsoft Windows 7 operating system

Some of the new features included in Windows 7 are advancements in touch, speech[1] and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, support for additional file formats, improved performance on multi-core processors,[2] improved boot performance, and kernel improvements.

Shell and user interface[edit]

Windows 7 retains the Windows Aerographical user interface and visual style introduced in its predecessor, Windows Vista, but many areas have seen enhancements. Unlike Windows Vista, window borders and the taskbar do not turn opaque when a window is maximized while Windows Aero is active; instead, they remain translucent.

Desktop[edit]

The Desktop Slideshow feature in Windows 7.

Themes[edit]

Support for themes has been extended in Windows 7.[3] In addition to providing options to customize colors of window chrome and other aspects of the interface including the desktop background, icons, mouse cursors, and sound schemes, the operating system also includes a native desktop slideshow feature. A new theme pack extension has been introduced, , which is essentially a collection of cabinet files that consist of theme resources including background images, color preferences, desktop icons, mouse cursors, and sound schemes.[4] The new theme extension simplifies sharing of themes and can also display desktop wallpapers via RSS feeds provided by the Windows RSS Platform.[4] Microsoft provides additional themes for free through its website.[3]

The default theme in Windows 7 consists of a single desktop wallpaper named "Harmony" and the default desktop icons, mouse cursors, and sound scheme introduced in Windows Vista; however, none of the desktop backgrounds included with Windows Vista are present in Windows 7. New themes include Architecture, Characters, Landscapes, Nature, and Scenes, and an additional country-specific theme that is determined based on the defined locale when the operating system is installed; although only the theme for a user's home country is displayed within the user interface, the files for all of these other country-specific themes are included in the operating system.[5] All themes included in Windows 7—excluding the default theme—include six wallpaper images.[3] A number of new sound schemes (each associated with an included theme) have also been introduced: Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters, Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savana, and Sonata.[6][7] Themes may introduce their own custom sounds, which can be used with others themes as well.[8]

Desktop Slideshow[edit]

Windows 7 introduces a desktop slideshow feature that periodically changes the desktop wallpaper based on a user-defined interval; the change is accompanied by a smooth fade transition with a duration that can be customized via the Windows Registry.[9] The desktop slideshow feature supports local images and images obtained via RSS.[10][11]

Gadgets[edit]

With Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced gadgets to display information such as image slideshows and RSS feeds on the user's desktop; the gadgets could optionally be displayed on a sidebar docked to a side of the screen.[13] In Windows 7, the sidebar has been removed, but gadgets can still be placed on the desktop.[13] Gadgets can be brought to the foreground on top of active applications by pressing +.[13] Several new features for gadgets are introduced, including new desktop context menu options to access gadgets and hide all active gadgets; high DPI support; and a feature that can automatically rearrange a gadget based on the position of other gadgets.[13][14] Additional new features include cached gadget content; optimizations for touch-based devices; and a gadget for Windows Media Center.[13]

Gadgets are more closely integrated with Windows Explorer, but the gadgets themselves continue to operate in a single process, unlike in Windows Vista where gadgets could operate in multiple processes. Active gadgets can also be hidden via a new desktop menu option; Microsoft has stated that this option can result in power-saving benefits.[14]

Branding and customization[edit]

For original equipment manufacturers and enterprises, Windows 7 natively supports the ability to customize the wallpaper that is displayed during user login. Because the settings to change the wallpaper are available via the Windows Registry, users can also customize this wallpaper.[15] Options to customize the appearance of interface lighting and shadows are also available.[16]

Windows Explorer[edit]

Libraries[edit]

Windows Explorer in Windows 7 supports file libraries that aggregate content from various locations – including shared folders on networked systems if the shared folder has been indexed by the host system – and present them in a unified view. The libraries hide the actual location the file is stored in. Searching in a library automatically federates the query to the remote systems, in addition to searching on the local system, so that files on the remote systems are also searched. Unlike search folders, Libraries are backed by a physical location which allows files to be saved in the Libraries. Such files are transparently saved in the backing physical folder. The default save location for a library may be configured by the user, as can the default view layout for each library. Libraries are generally stored in the Libraries special folder, which allows them to be displayed on the navigation pane.

By default, a new user account in Windows 7 contains four libraries for different file types: Documents, Music, Pictures, and Videos. They are configured to include the user's profile folders for these respective file types, as well as the computer's corresponding Public folders. The Public folder also contains a hidden Recorded TV library that appears in the Windows Explorer sidepane when TV is set up in Media Center for the first time.

In addition to aggregating multiple storage locations, Libraries enable Arrangement Views and Search Filter Suggestions. Arrangement Views allow you to pivot your view of the library's contents based on metadata. For example, selecting the "By Month" view in the Pictures library will display photos in stacks, where each stack represents a month of photos based on the date they were taken. In the Music library, the "By Artist" view will display stacks of albums from the artists in your collection, and browsing into an artist stack will then display the relevant albums.

Search Filter Suggestions are a new feature of the Windows 7 Explorer's search box. When the user clicks in the search box, a menu shows up below it showing recent searches as well as suggested Advanced Query Syntax filters that the user can type. When one is selected (or typed in manually), the menu will update to show the possible values to filter by for that property, and this list is based on the current location and other parts of the query already typed. For example, selecting the "tags" filter or typing "tags:" into the search box will display the list of possible tag values which will return search results.

Arrangement Views and Search Filter Suggestions are database-backed features which require that all locations in the Library be indexed by the Windows Search service. Local disk locations must be indexed by the local indexer, and Windows Explorer will automatically add locations to the indexing scope when they are included in a library. Remote locations can be indexed by the indexer on another Windows 7 machine, on a Windows machine running Windows Search 4 (such as Windows Vista or Windows Home Server), or on another device that implements the MS-WSP remote query protocol.[17]

Federated search[edit]

Windows Explorer also supports federating search to external data sources, such as custom databases or web services, that are exposed over the web and described via an OpenSearch definition. The federated location description (called a Search Connector) is provided as an file. Once installed, the data source becomes queryable directly from Windows Explorer. Windows Explorer features, such as previews and thumbnails, work with the results of a federated search as well.

Miscellaneous shell enhancements[edit]

Windows Explorer has received numerous minor enhancements that improve its overall functionality. The Explorer's search box and the address bar can be resized. Folders such as those on the desktop or user profile folders can be hidden in the navigation pane to reduce clutter. A new Content view is added, which shows thumbnails and metadata together. A new button to toggle the Preview Pane has been added to the toolbar. The button to create a new folder has been moved from the Organize menu and onto the toolbar. List view provides more space between items than in Windows Vista. Finally, storage space consumption bars that were only present for hard disks in Windows Vista are now shown for removable storage devices.

Other areas of the shell have also received similar fine-tunings: Progress bars and overlay icons may now appear on an application's button on the taskbar to better alert the user of the status of the application or the work in progress. File types for which property handlers or iFilters are installed are re-indexed by default. Previously, adding submenus to shell context menus or customizing the context menu's behavior for a certain folder was only possible by installing a form of plug-in known as shell extensions. In Windows 7 however, computer-savvy users can do so by editing Windows Registry and/or desktop.ini files.[18][19] Additionally, a new shell API was introduced designed to simplify the writing of context menushell extensions by software developers.[20][21]

Windows 7 includes native support for burning ISO files. The functionality is available when a user selects the Burn disc image option within the context menu of an ISO file. Support for disc image verification is also included. In previous versions of Windows, users were required to install-third-party software to burn ISO images.[22]

[edit]

The start orb now has a fade-in highlight effect when the user hovers the mouse cursor over it. The Start Menu's right column is now the Aero glass color. In Windows Vista, it was always black.

The search results pane in Windows 7, demonstrating a search for the word "wireless".

Windows 7's Start menu retains the two-column layout of its predecessors, with several functional changes:

  • The "Documents", "Pictures" and "Music" buttons now link to the Libraries of the same name.
  • A "Devices and Printers" option has been added that displays a new device manager.
  • The "shut down" icon in Windows Vista has been replaced with a text link indicating what action will be taken when the icon is clicked. The default action (switch user, log off, lock, restart, sleep, hibernate or shut down) to take is now configurable through the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties window.
  • Taskbar Jump Lists are presented in the Start Menu via a guillemet; when the user moves the mouse cursor over the guillemet, or presses the right-arrow key, the right-hand side of the Start menu is widened and replaced with the application's Jump List.
  • Links to the "Videos", "Downloads", and "Recorded TV", the Connect To menu, the Homegroup and Network menus, the Favorites and Recent Items folders and menus can now be added to the Start menu, and the Administrative Tools folder can be added to the All Programs menu.

The Start Search field, introduced in Windows Vista, has been extended to support searching for keywords of Control Panel items. For example, clicking the Start button then typing "wireless" will show Control Panel options related to configuring and connecting to wireless network, adding Bluetooth devices, and troubleshooting. Group Policy settings for Windows Explorer provide the ability for administrators of an Active Directory domain, or an expert user to add up to five Internet web sites and five additional "search connectors" to the Search Results view in the Start menu. The links, which appear at the bottom of the pane, allow the search to be executed again on the selected web site or search connector. Microsoft suggests that network administrators could use this feature to enable searching of corporate Intranets or an internal SharePoint server.[23]

Taskbar[edit]

The Windows Taskbar has seen its most significant revision since its introduction in Windows 95 and combines the previous Quick Launch functionality with open application window icons. The taskbar is now rendered as an Aero glass element whose color can be changed via the Personalization Control Panel. It is 10 pixels taller than in Windows Vista to accommodate touch screen input and a new larger default icon size (although a smaller taskbar size is available), as well as maintain proportion to newer high resolution monitor modes.[24] Running applications are denoted by a border frame around the icon. Within this border, a color effect (dependent on the predominant color of the icon) that follows the mouse cursor also indicates the opened status of the application. The glass taskbar is more translucent than in Windows Vista. Taskbar buttons show icons by default, not application titles, unless they are set to 'not combine', or 'combine when taskbar is full.' In this case, only icons are shown when the application is not running. Programs running or pinned on the taskbar can be rearranged. Items in the notification area can also be rearranged.

The default taskbar of Windows 7.

Pinned applications[edit]

The Quick Launch toolbar has been removed from the default configuration, but may be easily added.[25] The Windows 7 taskbar is more application-oriented than window-oriented, and therefore doesn't show window titles (these are shown when an application icon is clicked or hovered over). Applications can now be pinned to the taskbar allowing the user instant access to the applications they commonly use. There are a few ways to pin applications to the taskbar. Icons can be dragged and dropped onto the taskbar, or the application's icon can be right-clicked to pin it to the taskbar.

The Windows 7 taskbar shows a preview of the window.

Thumbnail previews[edit]

Thumbnail previews which were introduced in Windows Vista have been expanded to not only preview the windows opened by the application in a small-sized thumbnail view, but to also interact with them. The user can close any window opened by clicking the X on the corresponding thumbnail preview. The name of the window is also shown in the thumbnail preview. A "peek" at the window is obtained by hovering over the thumbnail preview. Peeking brings up only the window of the thumbnail preview over which the mouse cursor hovers, and turns any other windows on the desktop transparent. This also works for tabs in Internet Explorer: individual tabs may be peeked at in the thumbnail previews. Thumbnail previews integrate Thumbnail Toolbars[26] which can control the application from the thumbnail previews themselves. For example, if Windows Media Player is opened and the mouse cursor is hovering on the application icon, the thumbnail preview will allow the user the ability to Play, Stop, and Play Next/Previous track without having to switch to the Windows Media Player window.

Jump lists[edit]

Jump lists are menu options available by right-clicking a taskbar icon or holding the left mouse button and sliding towards the center of the desktop on an icon. Each application has a jump list corresponding to its features, Microsoft Word's displaying recently opened documents; Windows Media Player's recent tracks and playlists; frequently opened directories in Windows Explorer; Internet Explorer's recent browsing history and options for opening new tabs or starting InPrivate Browsing; Windows Live Messenger's common tasks such as instant messaging, signing off, and changing online status. Third-party software can add custom actions through a dedicated API. Up to 10 menu items may appear on a list, partially customizable by user. Frequently used files and folders can be pinned by the user as to not get usurped from the list if others are opened more frequently.[27][28]

The redesigned notification area with balloon notification showing Action Centermessages
Action Center displaying notification of security threats

Task progress[edit]

Progress bar in taskbar's tasks allows users to know the progress of a task without switching to the pending window.[29] Task progress is used in Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer and third-party software.

A testing program using Task progress

Notification area[edit]

The notification area has been redesigned; the standard Volume, Network, Power and Action Center status icons are present, but no other application icons are shown unless the user has chosen them to be shown. A new "Notification Area Icons" control panel has been added which replaces the "Customize Notification Icons" dialog box in the "Taskbar and Start Menu Properties" window first introduced in Windows XP. In addition to being able to configure whether the application icons are shown, the ability to hide each application's notification balloons has been added. The user can then view the notifications at a later time.

A triangle to the left of the visible notification icons displays the hidden notification icons. Unlike Windows Vista and Windows XP, the hidden icons are displayed in a window above the taskbar, instead of on the taskbar. Icons can be dragged between this window and the notification area.

Windows 7 desktop displayed through Peek.

Aero Peek[edit]

In previous versions of Windows, the taskbar ended with the notification area on the right-hand side. Windows 7, however, introduces a show desktop button on the far right side of the taskbar which can initiate an Aero Peek feature that makes all open windows translucent when hovered over by a mouse cursor. Clicking this button shows the desktop, and clicking it again brings all windows to focus. The new button replaces the show desktop shortcut located in the Quick Launch toolbar in previous versions of Windows.[30]

On touch-based devices, Aero Peek can be initiated by pressing and holding the show desktop button; touching the button itself shows the desktop. The button also increases in width to accommodate being pressed by a finger.[31]

Window management mouse gestures[edit]

Aero Snap[edit]

Windows can be dragged to the top of the screen to maximize them and dragged away to restore them. Dragging a window to the left or right of the screen makes it take up half the screen, allowing the user to tile two windows next to each other. Also, resizing the window to the bottom of the screen or its top will extend the window to full height but retain its width.[32] These features can be disabled via the Ease of Access Center if users do not wish the windows to automatically resize.[33]

Aero Shake[edit]

Aero Shake allows users to clear up any clutter on their screen by shaking (dragging back and forth) a window of their choice with the mouse. All other windows will minimize, while the window the user shook stays active on the screen.[34] When the window is shaken again, all previously minimized windows are restored, similar to desktop preview.

Keyboard shortcuts[edit]

A variety of new keyboard shortcuts have been introduced.[35][36][37]

Global keyboard shortcuts:

  • + operates as a keyboard shortcut for Aero Peek.
  • + maximizes the current window.
  • + if current window is maximized, restores it; otherwise minimizes current window.
  • ++ makes upper and lower edge of current window nearly touch the upper and lower edge of the Windows desktop environment, respectively.
  • ++ restores the original size of the current window.
  • + snaps the current window to the left edge of the screen.
  • + snaps the current window to the right half of the screen.
  • ++ and ++ move the current window to the left or right display.
  • + functions as zoom in command wherever applicable.
  • + functions as zoom out command wherever applicable.
  • + turn off zoom once enabled.
  • + operates as a keyboard shortcut for Aero Shake.
  • + View opened application and windows in 3D stack view.
  • + Opens Connect to a Network Projector, which has been updated from previous versions of Windows, and allows one to dictate where the desktop is displayed: on the main monitor, an external display, both; or allows one to display two independent desktops on two separate monitors.

Taskbar:

  • Shift + Click, or Middle click starts a new instance of the application, regardless of whether it's already running.
  • Ctrl + Shift + Click starts a new instance with Administrator privileges; by default, a User Account Control prompt will be displayed.
  • Shift + Right-click (or right-clicking the program's thumbnail) shows the titlebar's context menu which, by default, contains "Restore", "Move", "Size", "Maximize", "Minimize" and "Close" commands. If the icon being clicked on is a grouped icon, a specialized context menu with "Restore All", "Minimize All", and "Close All" commands is shown.
  • Ctrl + Click on a grouped icon cycles between the windows (or tabs) in the group.

Font management[edit]

The user interface for font management has been overhauled in Windows 7. As with Windows Vista, the collection of installed fonts is displayed in a Windows Explorer window, but fonts that originate from the same font family appear as icons that are represented as stacks that display font previews within the interface. Windows 7 also introduces the option to hide installed fonts; certain fonts are automatically removed from view based on a user's regional settings.[38] An option to manually hide installed fonts is also available. Hidden fonts remain installed but are not enumerated when an application asks for a list of available fonts, thus reducing the amount of fonts to scroll through within the interface and also reducing memory usage.[39] Windows 7 includes over 40 new fonts,[40] including a new "Gabriola" font.[39][41]

The dialog box for fonts in Windows 7 has also been updated to display font previews within the interface, which allows users to preview fonts before selecting them. Previous versions of windows only displayed the name of the font.[42][43]

The ClearType Text Tuner which was previously available as a Microsoft Powertoy for earlier Windows versions has been integrated into, and updated for Windows 7.

Microsoft would later backport Windows 8Emoji features to Windows 7.[44]

Devices[edit]

There are two major new user interface components for device management in Windows 7, "Devices and Printers" and "Device Stage". Both of these are integrated with Windows Explorer, and together provide a simplified view of what devices are connected to the computer, and what capabilities they support.

Devices and Printers[edit]

The new Devices and Printers Control Panel. Custom icons can be downloaded via the Internet.

Devices and Printers is a new Control Panel interface that is directly accessible from the Start menu. Unlike the Device Manager Control Panel applet, which is still present, the icons shown on the Devices and Printers screen are limited to components of the system that a non-expert user will recognize as plug-in devices. For example, an external monitor connected to the system will be displayed as a device, but the internal monitor on a laptop will not. Device-specific features are available through the context menu for each device; an external monitor's context menu, for example, provides a link to the "Display Settings" control panel.

This new Control Panel applet also replaces the "Printers" window in prior versions of Windows; common printer operations such as setting the default printer, installing or removing printers, and configuring properties such as paper size are done through this control panel.

Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 introduce print driver isolation, which improves the reliability of the print spooler by running printer drivers in a separate process to the spooler service. If a third party print driver fails while isolated, it does not impact other drivers or the print spooler service.

Device Stage[edit]

A Device Stage window showing available options for a MicrosoftWireless Comfort Keyboard4000.

Device Stage provides a centralized location for an externally connected multi-function device to present its functionality to the user. When a device such as a portable music player is connected to the system, the device appears as an icon on the task bar, as well as in Windows Explorer.

Windows 7 ships with high-resolution images of a number of popular devices, and is capable of connecting to the Internet to download images of devices it doesn't recognize. Opening the icon presents a window that displays actions relevant to that device. Screenshots of the technology presented by Microsoft suggest that a mobile phone could offer options for two-way synchronization, configuring ring-tones, copying pictures and videos, managing the device in Windows Media Player, and using Windows Explorer to navigate through the device.[45] Other device status information such as free memory and battery life can also be shown. The actual per-device functionality is defined via XML files that are downloaded when the device is first connected to the computer, or are provided by the manufacturer on an installation disc.[46][permanent dead link]

Mobility enhancements[edit]

Multi-touch support[edit]

Hilton Locke, who worked on the Tablet PC team at Microsoft, reported on December 11, 2007 that Windows 7 will have new touch features on devices supporting multi-touch. An overview and demonstration of the multi-touch capabilities, including a virtual piano program, a mapping and directions program and a touch-aware version of Microsoft Paint, was given at the All Things Digital Conference on May 27, 2008; a video of the multi-touch capabilities was made available on the web later the same day.[47]

Sensors[edit]

Windows 7 introduces native support for sensors, including accelerometer sensors, ambient light sensors, and location-based sensors;[48] the operating system also provides a unified driver model for sensor devices.[49] A notable use of this technology in Windows 7 is the operating system's adaptive display brightness feature, which automatically adjusts the brightness of a compatible computer's display based on environmental light conditions and factors.[50] Gadgets developed for Windows 7 can also display location-based information.[51] Applications for certain sensor capabilities can be developed without the requisite hardware.[52]

Because data acquired by some sensors can be considered personally identifiable information, all sensors are disabled by default in Windows 7, and an account in Windows 7 requires administrative permissions to enable a sensor. Sensors also require user consent to share location data.[49]

Power management[edit]

Battery notification messages[edit]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 7 is able to report when a laptop battery is in need of a replacement. The operating system works with design capabilities present in modern laptop batteries to report this information.[53]

Hibernation improvements[edit]

The powercfgcommand enables the customization of the hibernation file size. By default, Windows 7 automatically sets the size of the hibernation file to 75% of a computer's total physical memory. The operating system also compresses the contents of memory during the hibernate process to minimize the possibility that the contents exceeds the default size of the hibernation file.[54]

Power analysis and reporting[edit]

Windows 7 introduces a new /Energy parameter for the powercfg command, which generates an HTML report of a computer's energy efficiency and displays information related to devices or settings.[55]

USB suspension[edit]

Windows 7 can individually suspend USB hubs and supports selective suspend for all in-box USB class drivers.[56]

Graphics[edit]

DirectX[edit]

Direct3D 11, Direct2D, DirectWrite, DXGI 1.1, WARP and several other components are currently available for Windows Vista SP2 and Windows Server 2008 SP2 by installing the Platform Update for Windows Vista.[59]

Desktop Window Manager[edit]

First introduced in Windows Vista, the Desktop Window Manager (DWM) in Windows 7 has been updated to use version 10.1 of Direct3D API, and its performance has been improved significantly.[60]

The Desktop Window Manager still requires at least a Direct3D 9-capable video card (supported with new [61] device type introduced with the Direct3D 11 runtime).

With a video driver conforming to Windows Display Driver Model v1.1, DXGI kernel in Windows 7 provides 2D hardware acceleration to APIs such as GDI, Direct2D and DirectWrite (though GDI+ was not updated to use this functionality). This allows DWM to use significantly lower amounts of system memory, which do not grow regardless of how many windows are opened, like it was in Windows Vista.[62] Systems equipped with a WDDM 1.0 video card will operate in the same fashion as in Windows Vista, using software-only rendering.

The Desktop Window Manager in Windows 7 also adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors.[63]

Other changes[edit]

Support for color depths of 30 and 48 bits is included, along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3 can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB.[64][65]

Each user of Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 has individual DPI settings, rather than the machine having a single setting as in previous versions of Windows. DPI settings can be changed by logging on and off, without needing to restart.[66]

File system[edit]

Solid state drives[edit]

Over time, several technologies have been incorporated into subsequent versions of Windows to improve the performance of the operating system on traditional hard disk drives (HDD) with rotating platters. Since Solid state drives (SSD) differ from mechanical HDDs in some key areas (no moving parts, write amplification, limited number of erase cycles allowed for reliable operation), it is beneficial to disable certain optimizations and add others, specifically for SSDs.

Windows 7 incorporates many engineering changes to reduce the frequency of writes and flushes, which benefit SSDs in particular since each write operation wears the flash memory.

Windows 7 also makes use of the TRIM command. If supported by the SSD (not implemented on early devices), this optimizes when erase cycles are performed, reducing the need to erase blocks before each write and increasing write performance.

Several tools and techniques that were implemented in the past to reduce the impact of the rotational latency of traditional HDDs, most notably disk defragmentation, SuperFetch, ReadyBoost, and application launch prefetching, involve reorganizing (rewriting) the data on the platters. Since SSDs have no moving platters, this reorganization has no advantages, and may instead shorten the life of the solid state memory. Therefore, these tools are by default disabled on SSDs in Windows 7, except for some early generation SSDs that might still benefit.

Finally, partitions made with Windows 7's partition-creating tools are created with the SSD's alignment needs in mind, avoiding unwanted systematic write amplification.[67]

Virtual hard disks[edit]

The Enterprise and Ultimate editions of Windows 7 incorporate support for the Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) file format. VHD files can be mounted as drives, created, and booted from, in the same way as WIM files.[68] Furthermore, an installed version of Windows 7 can be booted and run from a VHD drive, even on non-virtual hardware, thereby providing a new way to multi boot Windows. Some features such as hibernation and BitLocker are not available when booting from VHD.

Disk partitioning[edit]

By default, a computer's disk is partitioned into two partitions: one of limited size for booting, BitLocker and running the Windows Recovery Environment and the second with the operating system and user files.[69]

Removable media[edit]

Windows 7 has also seen improvements to the Safely Remove Hardware menu, including the ability to eject just one camera card at the same time (from a single hub) and retain the ports for future use without reboot; and the labels of removable media are now also listed, rather than just the drive letter.[70] Windows Explorer now by default only shows memory card reader ports in My Computer if they contain a card.[70]

BitLocker to Go[edit]

BitLocker brings encryption support to removable disks such as USB drives. Such devices can be protected by a passphrase, a recovery key, or be automatically unlocked on a computer.[71]

Boot performance[edit]

According to data gathered from the Microsoft Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP), 35% of Vista SP1 installations boot up in 30 seconds or less. The more lengthy boot times on the remainder of the machines are mainly due to some services or programs that are loaded but are not required when the system is first started. Microsoft's Mike Fortin, a distinguished engineer on the Windows team, noted in August 2008 that Microsoft has set aside a team to work solely on the issue, and that team aims to "significantly increase the number of systems that experience very good boot times". They "focused very hard on increasing parallelism of driver initialization". Also, Microsoft aims to "dramatically reduce" the number of system services, along with their demands on processors, storage, and memory.[72]

Multimedia[edit]

Windows Media Center[edit]

Main article: Windows Media Center

Windows Media Center in Windows 7 has retained much of the design and feel of its predecessor, but with a variety of user interface shortcuts and browsing capabilities.[73] Playback of H.264 video both locally and through a Media Center Extender (including the Xbox 360) is supported.

Some notable enhancements in Windows 7 Media Center include a new mini guide, a new scrub bar, the option to color code the guide by show type, and internet content that is more tightly integrated with regular TV via the guide. All Windows 7 versions now support up to four tuners of each type (QAM, ATSC, CableCARD, NTSC, etc.).

When browsing the media library, items that don't have album art are shown in a range of foreground and background color combinations instead of using white text on a blue background. When the left or right remote control buttons are held down to browse the library quickly, a two-letter prefix of the current album name is prominently shown as a visual aid. The Picture Library includes new slideshow capabilities, and individual pictures can be rated.

Also, while browsing a media library, a new column appears at the top named "Shared." This allows users to access shared media libraries on other Media Center PCs from directly within Media Center.

For television support, the Windows Media Center "TV Pack" released by Microsoft in 2008 is incorporated into Windows Media Center. This includes support for CableCARD and North American (ATSC) clear QAM tuners, as well as creating lists of favorite stations.[74]

A gadget for Windows Media Center is also included.[13]

Format support[edit]

Windows 7 includes AVI, WAV, AAC/ADTS file media sinks to read the respective formats,[75] an MPEG-4 file source to read MP4, M4A, M4V, MP4V MOV and 3GPcontainer formats[76] and an MPEG-4 file sink to output to MP4 format.[77] Windows 7 also includes a media source to read MPEG transport stream/BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream (M2TS, MTS, M2T and AVCHD) files.[citation needed]

Transcoding (encoding) support is not exposed through any built-in Windows application but codecs are included as Media Foundation Transforms (MFTs).[75] In addition to Windows Media Audio and Windows Media Video encoders and decoders, and ASF file sink and file source introduced in Windows Vista,[75] Windows 7 includes an H.264 encoder with Baseline profile level 3 and Main profile support[78] and an AAC Low Complexity (AAC-LC) profile encoder.[79]

For playback of various media formats, Windows 7 also introduces an H.264 decoder with Baseline, Main, and High profiles support, up to level 5.1,[80]AAC-LC and HE-AAC v1 (SBR) multichannel, HE-AAC v2 (PS) stereo decoders,[81]MPEG-4 Part 2Simple Profile and Advanced Simple Profile decoders[82] which includes decoding popular codec implementations such as DivX, Xvid and Nero Digital as well as MJPEG[75] and DV[83] MFT decoders for AVI. Windows Media Player 12 uses the built-in Media Foundation codecs to play these formats by default.

Windows 7 also updates the DirectShow filters introduced in Windows Vista for playback of MPEG-2 and Dolby Digital to decode H.264, AAC, HE-AAC v1 and v2[84] and Dolby Digital Plus[85] (including downmixing to Dolby Digital).

Security[edit]

Action Center, formerly Windows Security Center, now encompasses both security and maintenance. It was called Windows Health Center and Windows Solution Center in earlier builds.[citation needed]

A new user interface for User Account Control has been introduced, which provides the ability to select four different levels of notifications, one of these notification settings, Default, is new to Windows 7.[86] Geo-tracking capabilities are also available in Windows 7. The feature will be disabled by default. When enabled the user will only have limited control as to which applications can track their location.[87]

The Encrypting File System supports Elliptic-curve cryptographic algorithms (ECC) in Windows 7. For backward compatibility with previous releases of Windows, Windows 7 supports a mixed-mode operation of ECC and RSA algorithms. EFS self-signed certificates, when using ECC, will use 256-bit key by default. EFS can be configured to use 1K/2k/4k/8k/16k-bit keys when using self-signed RSA certificates, or 256/384/512-bit keys when using ECC certificates.

In Windows Vista, the Protected User-Mode Audio (PUMA) content protection facilities are only available to applications that are running in a Protected Media Path environment. Because only the Media Foundationapplication programming interface could interact with this environment, a media player application had to be designed to use Media Foundation. In Windows 7, this restriction is lifted.[88] PUMA also incorporates stricter enforcement of "Copy Never" bits when using Serial Copy Management System (SCMS) copy protection over an S/PDIF connection, as well as with High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) over HDMI connections.

Biometrics[edit]

Windows 7 includes the new Windows Biometric Framework.[89] This framework consists of a set of components that standardizes the use of fingerprint biometric devices. In prior releases of Microsoft Windows, biometric hardware device manufacturers were required to provide a complete stack of software to support their device, including device drivers, software development kits, and support applications. Microsoft noted in a white paper on the Windows Biometric Framework that the proliferation of these proprietary stacks resulted in compatibility issues, compromised the quality and reliability of the system, and made servicing and maintenance more difficult. By incorporating the core biometric functionality into the operating system, Microsoft aims to bring biometric device support on par with other classes of devices.

A new Control Panel called Biometric Device Control Panel is included which provides an interface for deleting stored biometrics information, troubleshooting, and enabling or disabling the types of logins that are allowed using biometrics. Biometrics configuration can also be configured using Group Policy settings.

Networking[edit]

  • DirectAccess, a VPN tunnel technology based on IPv6 and IPsec. DirectAccess requires domain-joined machines, Windows Server 2008 R2 on the DirectAccess server, at least Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and a PKI to issue authentication certificates.[90]
  • BranchCache, a WAN optimization technology.[91]
  • The Bluetooth stack includes improvements introduced in the Windows Vista Feature Pack for Wireless, namely, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR support and remote wake from S3 or S4 support for self-powered Bluetooth modules.[92]
  • NDIS 6.20[93] (Network Driver Interface Specification)
  • WWAN (Mobile broadband) support (driver model based on NDIS miniport driver for CDMA and GSM device interfaces, Connection Manager support and Mobile Broadband COM and COM Interop API).
  • Wireless Hosted Network capabilities: The Windows 7 wireless LAN service supports two new functions – Virtual Wi-Fi, that allows a single wireless network adapter to act like two client devices,[94] or a software-based wireless access point (SoftAP) to act as both a wireless hotspot in infrastructure mode and a wireless client at the same time.[95] This feature is not exposed through the GUI; however the Virtual WiFi Miniport adapter can be installed and enabled for wireless adapters with drivers that support a hosted network by using the command netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow "ssid=<network SSID>" "key=<wlan security key>" keyusage=persistent

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