Audio Visual Archives Marriott Library

Multimedia Archives s

Multimedia Archives s

A set S ⊆ A set-attacks an argument b∈ A, iff there exists a supported attack or an indirect attack for b from an element of S. A set S ⊆ A set-supports. PDF | In distributed computing systems, it is unwise to move data to the point of program code, but instead process data at the point of storage. This. In [10] for instance, a multimedia mediator is designed to provide a well-structured and controlled gateway to multimedia systems, focusing on schemas for semi-.

Multimedia Archives s - very talented

Objective



The field of application for the EUROMEDIA project represents the fusion of digital multimedia technology with broadcasting technology. A basic prerequisite for emerging broadcasting services such as Video on Demand (VoD) is the design of digital archives and the provision of suitable means for access them. Since digitised material intended for broadcasting, including relevant descriptive and administrative data, is multimedia in nature, the digital archives also need to be multimedia.

The project addresses both the design of the archives and the development of suitable means for accessing them. It is developing a digital multimedia archive in the broadcasting domain. The project is characterised by:

- Use of available technology.
- Design and installation of multimedia archives with common access by the users involved in the consortium.
- Application of suitable and advanced (semi)automated multimedia indexing and retrieval methods using image processing.
- Interconnection of and data exchange between local components installed at the individual users' sites using available communications infrastructure.
- Provision of interfaces to administration and production at the broadcasting sites involved.
- Integration into the broadcasting workflow.
- Analysis of service provision by applying the pilot system to the distribution of programmes among the users involved.

The system will also provide mechanisms for the management of rights and remuneration. For coping with mass storage problems, most of the material will be kept in preview quality.

The users involved are broadcasters who are participating in the EUROMEDIA consortium and other potential users of the archives.

In addition to the broadcasting scenario described above, the generality of the system being developed will be validated by analysing transfer applications for multimedia publishers (e.g. CD-ROM or CD-I-production). Access to archives is of particular relevance for multimedia publishers, since reuse of multimedia material is essential for maintaining competitiveness.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

Participants (4)

Источник: [alloverlimo.us]
    th Plenary Meeting of General Assembly: 14th Session

    English

    17 Sep - The General Assembly at the th plenary meeting of the 14th session.

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    United Nations Dateline

    English

    1 Sep - The UN is a vast centre of information about politics and technology, human rights and peace-keeping, hunger and plenty. The words "United Nations, NY” appear almost daily in thousands of newspapers around the world. This progmmme takes the viewer into a vital, but rarely--seen part of the UN -- the realm of the "newsmakers". It is a backstage tour with the men and women who get the news, write it, film it speak it, and televise it.

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    Ravi Shankar and Yehudi Menuhin in Concert

    Original

    1 Nov - The highlight of this memorable musical program is a rehearsal and performance by these two famous musicians of a new "raga" specially composed by Shankar.

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    The Most Beautiful Place on Earth

    English

    1 Dec - "The most beautiful place on earth" that's Laurence Gould's description of Antarctica, a continent, he first saw in when he was second-in-command to Admiral Byrd in the flight across the South Pole.

    Learn More

    A City with a Future

    English

    1 Oct - Man Builds, Man Destroys: A major UN series of 30 films dealing with our global environment and what man is doing to it.

    Learn More

    Previous slideNext slide

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    UN Secretary-General Visits Nigeria

    Silent21 Feb

    UN Secretary-General Visits Nigeria

    Press Briefing by Permanent Representative of Jordan

    English14 Mar

    Press Briefing by Permanent Representative of Jordan

    Press Briefing by Chairman of Special Committee on Apartheid

    English23 Mar

    Press Briefing by Chairman of Special Committee on Apartheid

    th Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

    English23 Mar

    th Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

    nd Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

    Original22 Mar

    nd Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

    Address by UN Secretary-General to Organization of American States

    Original22 Mar

    Address by UN Secretary-General to Organization of American States

    th, st Meetings of Special Committee on Apartheid

    Original21 Mar

    th, st Meetings of Special Committee on Apartheid

    UN Secretary-General Meets Turkish Prime Minister, Rings Peace Bell, and Opens UN Art Show

    Silent20 Mar

    UN Secretary-General Meets Turkish Prime Minister, Rings Peace Bell, and Opens UN Art Show

    UN World Food Conference - Part 5

    Original

    UN World Food Conference - Part 5

    See All

    UN / DETAINED STAFF UPDATE

    English19 Nov

    UN / DETAINED STAFF UPDATE

    UN / SPOTLIGHT INITIATIVE REPORT

    English19 Nov

    UN / SPOTLIGHT INITIATIVE REPORT

    GENEVA / COVID MANDATORY VACCINATION

    English19 Nov

    GENEVA / COVID MANDATORY VACCINATION

    OHCHR / RUSSIA HUMAN RIGHTS

    English19 Nov

    OHCHR / RUSSIA HUMAN RIGHTS

    AFGHANISTAN / CHILD MALNUTRITION

    Original19 Nov

    AFGHANISTAN / CHILD MALNUTRITION

    AFGHANISTAN / FAO AGRICULTURAL ASSISTANCE

    English19 Nov

    AFGHANISTAN / FAO AGRICULTURAL ASSISTANCE

    IMF /INFLATION CRYPTO ARGENTINA

    English18 Nov

    IMF /INFLATION CRYPTO ARGENTINA

    GENEVA / YOUNG ACTIVISTS SUMMIT

    Various18 Nov

    GENEVA / YOUNG ACTIVISTS SUMMIT

    UN / SUDAN UPDATE

    English18 Nov

    UN / SUDAN UPDATE

    Statistics

    • The AV Library has over 6, hours of historical content in 35,16 and 8mm film and 49, hours of video stored in its off-site archives.
    • To find out more about digitizing this historic UN footage, please contact us.
    • Over 18, hours of audio in a wide variety of formats are available in our off-site archives.
    • Currently, of the 1, available historic UN Radio Classics are now available for download on this website.
    • In , an independent producer helped to digitize over UN Concerts.
    • To find out more about digitizing these historic UN recordings, please contact us
    Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

    Multimedia Archives and Mediators

    • Manolis Wallace
    • Yannis Avrithis
    • Stefanos Kollias
    Reference work entry

    DOI: alloverlimo.us

    How to cite

    Definition:The integration of multimedia archives through a common, unified access point for end users, always considering their particular copyright and access policies, emerges as a necessary step for the preservation of their content and their financial viability.

    During the last decade, the cost of storage and wide area communication services has decreased, while their capacity increased dramatically. This fact, along with the increasing penetration of e-commerce applications, has made digital storage, annotation and access of multimedia information a mature and viable choice for content holding organizations and individuals. Numerous multimedia archives have, either totally or incrementally, turned to the utilization of digitized archive technologies. The content of these archives can be made accessible, depending upon copyright, policy and security decisions, over the Internet in a cost efficient, time efficient, anyplace, anytime fashion.

    However, one of the main problems of

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    References

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      I. Kompatsiaris, Y. Avrithis, P. Hobson, and M.G. Strinzis, “Integrating Knowledge, Semantics and Content for User-Centred Intelligent Media Services: the aceMedia Project,” Proceedings of Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services (WIAMIS), Lisboa, Portugal, April Google Scholar

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    11. C. Altenschmidt, J. Biskup, U. Flegel, and Y. Karabulut, “Secure mediation: requirements, design, and architecture,” Journal of Computer Security, Vol. 11, No. 3, March , pp. –Google Scholar

    12. A. Brink, S. Marcus, and V. Subrahmanian, “Heterogeneous Multimedia Reasoning,” IEEE Computer, Vol. 28, No. 9, September , pp. 33–Google Scholar

    13. I. Glöockner and A. Knoll, “Natural Language Navigation in Multimedia Archives: An Integrated Approach,” Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, Orlando, FL, pp. –Google Scholar

    14. I. Cruz and K. James, “A user-centered interface for querying distributed multimedia databases,” Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, Philadelphia, PA, , pp. –Google Scholar

    15. B.R. Rao, “Making the Most of Middleware,” Data Communications International, Vol. 24, No. 12, September , pp. 89–Google Scholar

    16. S. Steinke, “Middleware Meets the Network,” LAN: The Network Solutions Magazine, Vol. 10, December , pp. Google Scholar

    17. M. Wallace, T. Athanasiadis, Y. Avrithis, A. Delopoulos, and S. Kollias, “Integrating Multimedia Archives: The Architecture and the Content Layer,” Systems Man and Cybernetics, Google Scholar

    18. Y. Avrithis, G. Stamou, M. Wallace, F. Marques, P. Salembier, X. Giro, W. Haas, H. Vallant, and M. Zufferey, “Unified Access to Heterogeneous Audiovisual Archives,” Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. –, Google Scholar

    19. M. Wallace and G. Stamou, “Towards a Context Aware Mining of User Interests for Consumption of Multimedia Documents,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia (ICME), Lausanne, Switzerland, August Google Scholar

    20. M. Wallace, G. Akrivas, G. Stamou, and S. Kollias, “Representation of user preferences and adaptation to context in multimedia content — based retrieval,” Proceedings of the Workshop on Multimedia Semantics, SOFSEM Theory and Practice of Informatics, Milovy, Czech Republic, November Google Scholar

    21. S. Bloehdorn, N. Simou, V. Tzouvaras, K. Petridis, S. Handschuh, Y. Avrithis, I. Kompatsiaris, S. Staab, and M. G. Strintzis, “Knowledge Representation for Semantic Multimedia Content Analysis and Reasoning,” Proceedings of European Workshop on the Integration of Knowledge, Semantics and Digital Media Technology (EWIMT 04), London, U.K., November Google Scholar

    Copyright information

    © Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 

    Authors and Affiliations

    • Manolis Wallace
    • Yannis Avrithis
    • Stefanos Kollias
    1. alloverlimo.usal Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

    How to cite

    Cite this entry as:
    Wallace M., Avrithis Y., Kollias S. () Multimedia Archives and Mediators. In: Furht B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Multimedia. Springer, Boston, MA. alloverlimo.us

    About this entry

    Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

    National Archives Frequently Asked Questions

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    Digitizing Projects at the National Archives

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    Finding People

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    The National Archives does not have information to help you locate living individuals. The records in the custody of NARA are usually at least years old. Information on living individuals is protected by the Privacy Act. NARA records, therefore, are not helpful in providing current information about individuals.

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    NARA has close to forms, and some forms change regularly.

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    If there is a particular form that you have used but can no longer locate, you may contact us for assistance in determining the form's status.

    Genealogy

    How can NARA help me with genealogy research?

    The National Archives is a treasure trove of materials that can be used to trace your family lineage. More information is available on Beginning Your Genealogical Research.

    How do I get started with genealogy?

    Experts often suggest beginning with your oldest living relatives. Find out more on Beginning Your Genealogical Research.

    How do I find ancestors of Native American descent?

    NARA holds a great deal of information useful in tracing Native American descent.

    Where can I get a copy of my ancestor's passport?

    Passport applications can be an excellent source of genealogical information, especially about foreign-born individuals. NARA has passport applications from October through March ; the U.S. Department of State has passport applications from April to the present. More on Passport Applications.

    What is Soundex, and how does it work?

    The Soundex is a coded surname (last name) index based on the way a surname sounds rather than the way it is spelled. Surnames that sound the same, but are spelled differently, like SMITH and SMYTH, have the same code and are filed together. The Soundex coding system was developed so that you can find a surname even though it may have been recorded under various spellings. More information on Soundex.

    How do I research my family name?

    NARA is not able to help you with broad research on a family name. However, you can hire an independent researcher.

    How do I research when my family entered the country?

    You can find out about NARA's immigration records holdings in the genealogy section's Immigration Records or Naturalization Records. When researching in this area, working backward from the present should provide you with a manageable time frame in which to conduct research.

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    NARA has some ship passenger arrival records.

    There are many other sources for these records, including an online guide at the Library of Congress. Your local library, historical society, or genealogical society can be helpful. For online research, simply begin by choosing a search engine and entering the words "ship passenger lists."

    Can I see Ellis Island or other immigration records online?

    NARA does not hold those records, but some Ellis Island records are available online from the Ellis Island Foundation.

    How do I get a copy of a Homestead application?

    The publication Research in the Land Entry Files of the General Land Office describes NARA's holdings on this topic.

    Reproductions of land entry files (such as credit, cash, homestead, and mineral) or surrendered military bounty-land warrants files (Acts of , , , , and ) can now be ordered online, as well as through the NATF Form

    How can NARA help me trace my Canadian lineage?

    The Fall issue of NARA's Prologue magazine describes the materials available for this topic. Please see the information on NARA's holdings related to Canadian border crossings.

    How can NARA help me trace my Latin American lineage?

    Please see the information on NARA's holdings related to Mexican border crossings.

    How do I find information about a lighthouse or a lighthouse keeper?

    The document Basic Search Path for Records Relating to Lighthouses describes NARA's holdings on this topic.

    How do I find information about a postmaster?

    Information on Postmaster Appointments can be found in the genealogy section's Post Office Records..

    Which military records should I use for genealogical research?

    NARA has many military records that can be used for this purpose. More detailed information is available on the Military Records FAQ.

    Where can I find other help with my genealogical research?

    Get help with your research and find answers to your genealogy questions from National Archives staff as well as other genealogists at History Hub.

    Government Employment Records

    I worked for the Federal government at one time. How can I get a copy of my personnel file?

    Information on this topic is available at the National Personnel Records Center.

    History Hub

    What is History Hub?

    History Hub is the National Archives' free crowdsourced history and genealogy research platform.  Anyone can ask questions and get help from National Archives staff and other experts, history enthusiasts, and citizen archivists.

    Learn more about History Hub and how to ask questions on History Hub.

    Laws

    Where can I find Federal Laws?

    The general and permanent laws of the United States can be found in the U.S. Code.

    The Office of the Federal Register's Public Laws is a good place to research, or sign up for email notification of, recently enacted laws.

    New laws can be further researched at the Library of Congress. It has the complete text of laws from the most recent Congress back to the st Congress (). You can find summary and status information, but not the full text, back to the 93rd Congress. (). GPO Access' Legislative Information website provides additional information.

    The first 42 Congresses () are available online in the Library of Congress' American Memory Project.

    Federal laws are codified in the United States Code, the most recent edition of which is available to search or browse.

    Laws that are not online are available in the printed Statutes at Large, which is available in the Federal Depository Libraries.

    Where can I research State laws?

    State laws are generally available in larger public and academic libraries. In addition, most state codes are available on line at each state's website. State websites can be searched on the alloverlimo.us website.

    Missing or Stolen Federal Documents

    I have a document that may be a Federal government record. I wonder if it should be in the National Archives. What should I do?

    Occasionally, a document in private hands actually belongs in a government archives. If it is a Federal, congressional, or presidential record, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) may be interested in recovering the document. Learn more about missing or stolen documents. NARA also has tips online for identifying historical U.S. government documents.

    If you know of a document that you believe is a Federal record and belongs to the National Archives you can also contact us via e-mail at MissingDocuments@alloverlimo.us

    Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Recordings

    Does NARA have motion picture, sound, and video recordings?

    NARA holds materials in a wide variety of formats including:

    Online Records

    Why aren't all the records online?

    NARA tries to make as many records as possible available via the Internet. This is a daunting task, even with records that were created in electronic format. More information on this effort is available at Digitization at the National Archives.

    The volume of records in NARA's possession that pre-date electronic formats is so vast, that costs and resource availabilities will most likely preclude the conversion of all of them to electronic formats. However, as resources permit, NARA will continue to select records to be digitized and made available electronically.

    Panama Canal

    Do you have records from the construction of the Panama Canal?

    Yes. Please contact us with a question about the specific records or information you are looking for.

    Photocopies

    Is photocopying allowed at NARA?

    Self-service copying by researchers is permitted under specified conditions in most research rooms, using:

    • National Archives in-house equipment such as a coin or card-operated electrostatic copiers and microfilm printers, and, less frequently, snapshot copiers, dubbing devices, and others;
       
    • Researchers' own equipment ranging from cameras to scanners, that has been specifically approved by the National Archives for work with the records in question. See also our information on using scanners.
       

    More details are available on the reproductions overview page.

    Presidential Materials

    I'm interested in Presidential materials such as speeches, proclamations, Executive Orders, etc. Where can I find them?

    Presidential materials are first published in the daily Federal Register. They are then issued by the Office of the Federal Register in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. The Weekly Compilation is published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Register, and contains statements, messages, and other Presidential materials released by the White House during the preceding week. The White House website is also a useful source for current Presidential documents.

    Presidential materials are codified as Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The publication is available in both electronic and print formats and can be found in Federal Depository Libraries. The online Weekly Compilation is full-text beginning with the Clinton Administration.

    Executive Orders (EOs) can be difficult to research. The full text of EOs is available online beginning with the Clinton Administration. Bear in mind, however, that they are not static documents. They often change over time. In addition, they can be repealed or superseded by subsequent Executive Orders. The Executive Orders disposition tables on this site can be very helpful in locating an Executive Order and in determining its current status.

    Executive Orders published between April 13, , and January 20, can be found in the publication Codification of Presidential Proclamations and Executive Orders. This document is out of print, but in addition to the online version, it can be found in most Federal Depository Libraries.

    Find a Federal Depository Library near you.

    Executive Orders and Presidential Proclamations have also been commercially indexed and filmed on microfiche by the Congressional Information Service (CIS index to presidential Executive Orders & proclamations. Washington, DC: Congressional Information Service, ). These indexes and/or microfiche may be available in a local library.

    Or visit a Presidential Library and learn more about their holdings and educational programs.

    Sales Catalog

    Does NARA have a sales catalog?

    Where can I get copies (reproductions) of items displayed in one of your exhibits (online or not)?

    NARA sells reproductions of some of the materials it exhibits. The Publications section describes the items available and provides ordering instructions.

    Do you sell exhibit catalogs?

    Yes. NARA does sell catalogs for many of its exhibits.

    Treaties

    Where can I find the text of a treaty?

    The printed series U.S . Treaties and Other International Agreements is the best source. It is not online, but should be available in most Federal Depository Libraries.

    Until , treaties passed by the U.S. Senate appeared in the Statutes at Large, which should also be available in a depository library.

    Various other compilations and sources also exist. These may be available in a local library. Other single treaties may be available online and can be found using your favorite search engine.

    United States Code

    What is the U.S. Code?

    The U.S. Code is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States.

    How do I get to an online copy of the U.S. Code?

    A searchable version can be found on the Office of the Law Revision Counsel website at the U.S. House of Representatives. The Code is also available for sale by the U.S. Government Publishing Office in a variety of formats.

    Using the Website

    How can I find something specific on your website?

    We have tried to organize the website to make our most often accessed offerings easily findable via browsing. 

    In addition, we have made many improvements to our search engine to make it an effective and efficient means of locating information. Search the site.

    If you have any problems with our website, please contact us so that we can make any necessary improvements.

    Visiting and Using the National Archives

    Where is the National Archives located?

    The headquarters of the National Archives is located in Washington DC. In addition, a system of Regional Records Services facilities and Presidential libraries spans the entire country. Information on locations and hours can be found at NARA Facilities.

    National Archives Building in Washington, DC

    National Archives at College Park, MD

    How can I best use the National Archives for research?

    Often research can be conducted in local libraries or historical societies. Our Getting Started document can explain differences and similarities between NARA and libraries.

    How can I best prepare to conduct research in the National Archives?

    To best use your time at NARA, please review our tips for planning your visit.

    Who can use the National Archives?

    Anyone can use the National Archives. You do not need to be an American citizen or to present credentials or a letter of recommendation. Please refer to the synopsis of the Regulations for Using the National Archives or to the complete NARA regulations as published in the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Can I bring and use cameras, scanners, and laptops?

    In the Washington area, you may bring equipment. All bags and carrying cases must be left in lockers outside of the research room.

    Cameras may be used only with natural light.

    Flatbed scanners without sheet feeders are allowed. When you are using a scanner, you must show it to the research room staff and receive special instructions. More information on using scanners.

    Contact each facility directly for their policies on equipment.

    Can I use my pen and notebook?

    Because of the fragility and irreplaceability of many archival materials, restrictions for their protection are in place. We will provide blank paper and pencils.

    When can I do research?

    Contact Regional Archives Facilities and Presidential Libraries directly for their hours of operation.

    Vital Records

    What are vital records?

    "Vital records" most commonly refers to records such as birth and death certificates, marriage licenses and divorce decrees, wills, and the like. These records are created by local authorities and with possible exceptions for events overseas, in the military, or the District of Columbia. They are not considered Federal records; therefore they are not held by NARA. For more information:

    What are  essential records?

    In a Federal records management context, the term "essential records" refers to records essential to an agency's continued operations during a national emergency. NARA provides Essential Records Information to assist agencies with developing and implementing an essential records program.

    Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

    Internet Archive

    For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

    For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

    "alloverlimo.us" redirects here. It is not to be confused with alloverlimo.us

    American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since

    Coordinates: 37°46′56″N°28′18″W / °N °W / ;

    The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of November , the Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, million movies, videos and TV shows, , software programs, 13,, audio files, 4 million images, and billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

    The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

    History[edit]

    Headquarters in Building of the Presidio of San Francisco in

    Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In October , the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May [4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public in , when it developed the Wayback Machine.

    In late , the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

    According to its website:[notes 8]

    Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

    In August , the Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6, , the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $, in damage.[12]

    An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in November , and the legacy layout was removed in March [13][14]

    In November , Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as saying:

    On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

    Beginning in , OCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

    Since , the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

    In , its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

    The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78&#;rpm discs from Boston Public Library in ,[22] a donation of , books from Trent University in ,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

    Operations[edit]

    Ambox current red alloverlimo.us

    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May )

    The Archive is a (c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also manages periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December campaign had a goal of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

    The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From to , its headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since , its headquarters have been at Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church. At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of , scanning is performed by paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[28]

    The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in [notes 13][30]

    Web archiving[edit]

    Main article: Web archiving

    Wayback Machine[edit]

    Main article: Wayback Machine

    Wayback Machine logo, used since

    The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet (owned by alloverlimo.us) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[32]

    A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
    Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Francisco

    A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October ,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address alloverlimo.us,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the alloverlimo.us official website.

    May 12, , is the date of the oldest archived pages on the alloverlimo.us WayBack Machine, such as alloverlimo.us[35]

    In October , it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

    In September , the Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

    Archive-It[edit]

    Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

    Created in early , Archive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

    In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

    As of March&#;[update], Archive-It had more than partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than billion URLs for more than 2, public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

    Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

    In September Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

    General Index[edit]

    In , the Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of million academic journal articles.[45][46]

    Book collections[edit]

    Text collection[edit]

    The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1, books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July&#;[update], the collection included million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November&#;[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about and , Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than , books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, , Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

    An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

    Around October , Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November&#;[update], there were more than , Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by [51]

    The Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[52][53]

    Number of texts for each language[edit]

    Number of all texts
    (December 9, )
    22,,[54]
    Language Number of texts
    (November 27, )
    English6,,[notes 32]
    French,[notes 33]
    German,[notes 34]
    Spanish,[notes 35]
    Chinese84,[notes 36]
    Arabic66,[notes 37]
    Dutch30,[notes 38]
    Portuguese25,[notes 39]
    Russian22,[notes 40]
    Urdu14,[notes 41]
    Japanese14,[notes 42]

    Number of texts for each decade[edit]

    Decade Number of texts
    (July 5, )
    s 82,[notes 43]
    s ,[notes 44]
    s ,[notes 45]
    s ,[notes 46]
    s ,[notes 47]
    s ,[notes 48]
    s ,[notes 49]
    s ,[notes 50]
    s ,[notes 51]
    s ,[notes 52]
    Decade Number of texts
    (July 5, )
    s ,[notes 53]
    s ,[notes 54]
    s ,[notes 55]
    s ,[notes 56]
    s ,[notes 57]
    s ,[notes 58]
    s ,[notes 59]
    s 2,,[notes 60]
    s 1,,[notes 61]
    s 1,,[notes 62]

    Open Library[edit]

    Main article: Open Library

    The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,, public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully readable, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for over , books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1, library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

    The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June to stop the Open Library project.[61]

    [edit]

    Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, and many others.[63]

    In , the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

    The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Archive and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[70]

    Media collections[edit]

    Microfilms at the Internet Archive

    In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

    Audio[edit]

    Audio Archive[edit]

    The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than , free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

    Next to the stock HTML5 audio player, Winamp-resembling Webamp is available.

    Live Music Archive[edit]

    Main article: Live Music Archive

    The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than , concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from to and contains concerts including 1, songs.[72]

    The Great 78 Project[edit]

    Main article: The Great 78 Project

    The Great 78 Project aims to digitize , 78 rpm singles (, songs) from the period between and , donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

    Netlabels[edit]

    Not to be confused with Netlabel.

    The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

    Images collection[edit]

    This collection contains more than million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

    Cover Art Archive[edit]

    Logo of Cover Art Archive

    The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April&#;,[update] this collection contains more than 1,, items.[notes 68]

    Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

    The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than , items.[notes 69]

    NASA Images[edit]

    The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The alloverlimo.us site launched in July and had more than , items online at the end of its hosting in

    Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

    This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15, items.[notes 70]

    USGS Maps[edit]

    This collection contains more than 59, items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

    Mathematical images[edit]

    This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

    Machinima Archive[edit]

    One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and alloverlimo.us as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and alloverlimo.us[notes 73]

    Microfilm collection[edit]

    This collection contains approximately , microfilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 74][notes 75]

    Moving image collection[edit]

    See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

    The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3, feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

    Subcategories of this collection include:

    • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
    • IA's Election collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the United States presidential election.
    • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS between the National Technical Information Service and alloverlimo.us that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
    • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from , in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating Indian Ocean earthquake.
    • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, , as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

    Open Educational Resources[edit]

    Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at alloverlimo.us This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 79]

    TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

    TV tuners at the Internet Archive

    In September , the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained ", news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[76] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. In , the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40, well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

    Miscellaneous collections[edit]

    Brooklyn Museum[edit]

    This collection contains approximately 3, items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

    Michelson library[edit]

    In December , the film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

    Other services and endeavors[edit]

    Physical media[edit]

    A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

    Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in [80]

    Software[edit]

    The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[81] The exemption was renewed in , and in was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in [83] In , the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23, , the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In November , the Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

    Table Top Scribe System[edit]

    A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

    Credit Union[edit]

    From to November , the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of members and was worth $ million.[92][93]

    Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

    See also: Wayback Machine §&#;In legal evidence

    The main hall of the current headquarters

    Grateful Dead[edit]

    In November , free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, , posting to his personal web site:

    It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from alloverlimo.us right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[95]

    A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

    National security letters[edit]

    On May 8, , it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

    On November 28, , it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

    Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

    The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, , in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

    Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

    The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[]

    Nintendo Power magazine[edit]

    In February , Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from to The first issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[]

    Government of India[edit]

    In August , the Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[]

    Turkey[edit]

    See also: Censorship in Turkey

    On October 9, , the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[][]

    National Emergency Library[edit]

    In the midst of the COVID pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after the lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[] At launch, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[][][]

    The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[][]

    However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library §&#;Copyright violation accusations).[][][][] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[]

    Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

    The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in June , challenging the copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16, , rather than the planned June 30, , due to the lawsuit.[][] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[] In August the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November []

    As part of its response to the publishers' lawsuit, in late the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[]

    In December , Publishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of ".[]

    In a preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, but separate questions related to the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal practice of digital lending, and second, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role to enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[]

    Wayforward Machine[edit]

    Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

    In September 30, as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information. The site was intended to depict a potential timeline of events leading to such a future, such as the repeal of Section of the United States Code.[][] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

    Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

    Ceramicfigures of Internet Archive employees

    The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[]

    [edit]

    The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[]

    Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

    Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

    Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

    See also[edit]

    Similar projects[edit]

    Other[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved March 13,
    2. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13,
    3. ^"Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved April 13,
    4. ^"Internet Archive: Projects". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved March 6,
    5. ^"Brewster Kahle . In Scientific American". Internet Archive. November 4, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved April 1,
    6. ^"Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved March 15,
    7. ^"Daisy Books for the Print Disabled"Archived January 4, , at the Wayback Machine, February 25, Internet Archive.
    8. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". alloverlimo.us. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved July 7,
    9. ^"Welcome to Archive torrents"Archived January 19, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
    10. ^"Used Paired Space". alloverlimo.us. March 8, Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved March 8,
    11. ^"How do I make a physical donation to the Internet Archive?". Internet Archive Help Center. Retrieved December 4, See also: "Tag Archives: donations". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved December 4,
    12. ^"Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt"Archived January 25, , at the Wayback Machine; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, Bibliotheca AlexandrinaArchived September 2, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
    13. ^"Internet Archive officially a library"Archived February 4, , at the Wayback Machine, May 2, Internet Archive
    14. ^"Internet Archive. (). Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13,
    15. ^"Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, Retrieved December 30,
    16. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
    17. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
    18. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
    19. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved March 2,
    20. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved March 2,
    21. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved March 2,
    22. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved March 2,
    23. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved March 2,
    24. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
    25. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved December 9,
    26. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved December 9,
    27. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved December 9,
    28. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved December 9,
    29. ^Kahle, Brewster (May 23, ). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"Archived September 24, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Forums.
    30. ^"Google Books at Internet Archive"Archived October 11, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
    31. ^"List of Google scans"Archived January 26, , at the Wayback Machine (search). Internet Archive.
    32. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved November 27,
    33. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved November 27,
    34. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved November 27,
    35. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
    36. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
    37. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved November 27,
    38. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
    39. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
    40. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved November 27,
    41. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
    42. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
    43. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
    44. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
    45. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
    46. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
    47. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
    48. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved July 5,
    49. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved July 5,
    50. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
    51. ^
    Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

    Multimedia Archives: New Digital Filters to Correct Equalization Errors on Digitized Audio Tapes

    Multimedia archives face the problem of obsolescing and degrading analogue media (e.g., speech and music recordings and video art). In response, researchers in the field have recently begun studying ad hoc tools for the preservation and access of historical analogue documents. This paper investigates the active preservation process of audio tape recordings, specifically focusing on possible means for compensating equalization errors introduced in the digitization process. If the accuracy of corrective equalization filters is validated, an archivist or musicologist would be able to experience the audio as a historically authentic document such that their listening experience would not require the recovery of the original analogue audio document or the redigitization of the audio. Thus, we conducted a MUSHRA-inspired perception test (n = 14) containing 6 excerpts of electronic music (3 stimuli recorded NAB and 3 recorded CCIR). Participants listened to 6 different equalization filters for each stimulus and rated them in terms of similarity. Filters included a correctly digitized “Reference,” an intentionally incorrect “Foil” filter, and a subsequent digital correction of the Foil filter that was produced with a MATLAB script. When stimuli were collapsed according to their filter type (NAB or CCIR), no significant differences were observed between the Reference and MATLAB correction filters. As such, the digital correction appears to be a promising method for compensation of equalization errors although future study is recommended, specifically containing an increased sample size and additional correction filters for comparison.

    1. Introduction

    The transition required for the information age brings with it the need to transfer preexisting (analogue) multimedia materials into a digital form in order to withstand the wear and tear of time and the progression of technology, such as search and recovery functions through increasingly powerful digital tools. Archiving has become an increasingly important goal both in terms of historical documentation and also for ease of location and availability. The implications of these needs are particularly complex when it comes to historical music recordings. In this context, research on the preservation and restoration of sound documents has been developed in the information engineering area and, in particular, in the multimedia field, augmenting the innovations introduced for storage and retrieval technologies [1]. These developments have additional implications for the definition of digitization protocols to help ensure maintenance and longevity.

    This paper presents the problem of equalization in the active preservation process of audio documents. If the goal of the active preservation and re-recording process is to pursue historical faithfulness, the audio signal must be precisely filtered to take into consideration recording equalization that is part of the original source audio document [2]. Choosing the correct equalization curve is essential to avoid the proliferation of additional, incorrect versions of the audio documents (referred to in philology as a “false witnesses” [3]). The choice is usually made on the basis of both historical information (which is rarely complete and exhaustive) and the experience of the technicians [4], introducing a certain margin of interpretation. We therefore present tools to compensate for errors (in choosing the equalization curve) introduced by the re-recording technicians. In this way, if an archivist or musicologist notices that a preservation master has been produced using the wrong equalization curve, it can be changed without having to recover the original analogue audio document (which may have deteriorated in the meantime).

    In Section 2, we present an overview of analogue equalization, illustrating the problems concerned with the user choice. Next, we focus on a case study of the analogue audio tape and explain two equalization standards from a mathematical point of view. In Section 3, these equalizations will be transformed into the digital domain, and in Section 4, we report an experiment assessing the perception of these equalization methods. Based on the results, we propose that a digital correction filter provides a reliable means to compensate for errors made in the digitization process.

    2. Analogue Equalizations

    The “Equalization Problem”

    The term “equalization” can be used to indicate any procedure that involves altering or adjusting of the overall frequency spectrum characteristics of the audio signal. The concept of filtering audio frequencies dates back at least to the s. It was first applied in harmonic telegraphs and then later adopted in analogue audio recordings [5]. In analogue audio recordings, a preemphasis curve is applied to the signal which is contained in the analogue carrier, and an inverse postemphasis curve is applied during the reproducing phase. Thus, the resulting output signal maintains nearly the flat frequency response of the original input [6], but at the same time, it is characterized by an extension of the dynamic range [7] and an improvement of the SNR [8]. This technique is adopted from several analogue audio technologies due to the limited dynamic range of audio systems [7].

    Historically, the adoption of these techniques was not uniform, and several different standards were applied by record manufacturers. To faithfully reproduce recordings, it is necessary to tackle what is referred to as the “equalization problem [9].” This problem specifically arises when analyzing magnetic tape technology. Several standards exist [4], and during playback and digitization, this must be considered to help obtain an “authentic” listening experience, that is, postemphasis filtering (equalization) that corresponds to that of the machines upon which the playback was originally intended. The differences between the equalization curves are subtle, and during the digitization process, it may be difficult to determine the “correct” one, and without reliable documentation or test tones, operators involved in the digitization process are forced to choose the equalization aurally [4, 9], which may lead to errors. Therefore, there is a possibility that an “incorrect” equalization will be selected in the process of digitizing audio tapes. These issues could be resolved through innovative automatic analysis tools, as recently presented in [10], or through an accurate historical investigation of the recording studio, aiming to individuate the original equipment and the relative setup used at the time [11].

    The musicological study of sound recording is often performed directly on the digital copy. If, at this stage, the musicologist has doubts about the type of equalization used during the analogue-digital transfer, it is beneficial to provide her/him with corrective tools, which enable comparisons between the existing, possibly inauthentic versions and corrected versions. It is not feasible to redigitize audio tapes with the correct equalization on a large scale due to excessive economic cost of the operation. Furthermore, a number of these heritage items may now be unreadable due to physical degradation [2], making the matter of corrective equalization an urgent one. The solution proposed in this paper is to create a set of precise digital filters to subtract the “incorrect” equalization curve applied in the digitization process and to add a corrective measure. It is important to specify that these filters must only be used to alter access copies or with access tools such as those presented in [12, 13] that filter the signal without performing irreversible changes to the file. That is, they must not alter the preservation copy for any reason.

    Case Study

    Equalization standards are usually referred to with the acronyms of the organization that proposed the standard itself. Historically, different standards were most widespread in Europe and the United States. The most prevalent European standard was IEC1 from the International Electrotechnical Commission, alternatively called CCIR by the acronym of the Comité Consultatif International pour la Radio. In the United States, the most prevalent standard was IEC2, also referred to as NAB from the American National Association of Broadcasters. We henceforth refer to these as CCIR and NAB, being the two standards that this paper focuses on. The equalization standards are strictly connected to another parameter that must be correctly configured before the equalization setting: the playback speed. There are 6 standard speeds, but the most common are 15 ips ( cm/s) and  ips ( cm/s) [4]. The latter speed will be used in our work. As can be seen in [14], digitization problems derived by different speed (and therefore equalization) standards in the same open-reel tape are quite widespread. Nevertheless, in this preliminary study, the authors decided to not involve a second variable. Further study will be necessary for correcting both speed and equalization errors.

    The first step of this work consists of the analysis of the pre- and postemphasis curves for any standard. A postemphasis curve could be expressed as a combination of two curves described with the following formula:where is the frequency in Hz and and are the time constants in microseconds [15]. An alternative mathematical representation of the formula iswhere , and is the frequency [16]. The two time constants describe the equalization curve, but in some cases, is . For the  ips audio tape recording, and are, respectively, and 70  for CCIR but   and 50  for NAB (see Table 1). The characteristics of these equalization standards will be analyzed in this paper. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) present the frequency response of pre- and postemphasis curves, respectively, for NAB and CCIR equalization. An incorrect juxtaposition of the pre- and postemphasis significantly alters the spectrum and therefore requires compensation to avoid the loss of accuracy for digitized audio documents. Starting from these analytic formulas, the paper will describe how to create digital filters of the pre- and postemphasis curves to digitally compensate equalization errors in digitized  ips audio tape recordings.


    Equalization standard

    CCIR70
    NAB50

    3. Digital Equalizations

    Signals and a Chain of Filters

    Given an analogue signal , it passes through two steps before digitization: a recording phase and a reproducing phase. An equalization for each step is defined, followed by the convolutions of the signals with the impulse responses of the recording and reproducing filters and , denoted, respectively, with and . The resulting filter is defined as .

    Considering the transfer functions of our filters, in this context, a correct equalization of a signal has to be a flat equalization, which means that its transfer function is the identity operator, i.e., , where is the transfer function of . Denoting, respectively, with and the transfer functions of the recording and reproducing filters and , we should have . In this project, however, we are dealing with a nonflat equalization , where its transfer function since the reproducing curve is wrongly set. It is necessary to apply a filter in order to obtain a flat equalization: , where is the transfer function of .

    Taking advantage of the structure of , it is possible to express the desired transfer function as

    This last equality is a solution in terms of the transfer functions obtained from the standard NAB and CCIR equalizations defined in [15, 16].

    Standard NAB and CCIR Transfer Functions

    From the standard references, the reproducing characteristic curves are given by magnitude function (2). By definition, (2) is derived from the transfer function of the reproducing analogue filter. Since the standards consider only first-order low-pass and high-pass filters, it is possible to show thatwhere is the transfer function needed. Computing the squared norm of (4) on an imaginary line , where , the result iswhich is the squared argument in (2).

    The transfer function is a rational complex polynomial given by the inverse of :where .

    Since, in our case, we can infer that the parameters of are incorrect, equation (3) becomeswhere , are the parameters of the recording transfer function , and are the parameters of the wrongly reproduced transfer function .

    Filter Stability

    Now that the general structure of the corrective filters has been described, it is necessary to verify that, with all possible combinations of the four parameters , and , stable filters are obtained. From the reference tables for standard NAB and CCIR equalizations [15, 16], coefficients and can assume finite values or can be . This means that, considering (7) as a function with parameters and , there are four cases:(i): no change in the formal structure of (7)(ii): (7) becomes (iii) and : (7) becomes (iv) and : similarly,

    Also, all these filters except the last are stable as they have poles when or , which are both strictly negative. The fourth case gives an unstable filter with the pole in .

    Clearly, the real case which corresponds to the unstable filter is relevant in applications as it is the inverse of the chain (i.e., ), where and are, respectively, the transfer functions of CCIR and NAB equalizations (see Table 2 as a summary of all cases).


    Time constantStable Unstable

    5070
    7050

    We need to approximate the unstable filter with a stable one, which is sufficiently “close” (clarified in the following section) to the first, to produce a similar equalization. Formally, we digitize this filter via bilinear transform and digitally approximate it by solving a minimum least square problem, as explained in the following.

    Digital Approximation of the Unstable Filter

    After the digitization of the transfer function , the MATLAB function “freqz” was used to study the behavior of the unstable filter. Examining its output, it was observed that the frequency vector reaches in its first cell, near 0 Hz as expected. Using a pragmatic approach, this value has been overridden with 0. Since this is anextreme modification of the frequency response vector, it has been studied if it is possible to find an approximated stable transfer function starting from the modified frequency response vector such that its frequency response is close to the analogue transfer function, at the very least in audible frequencies.

    The transfer function we are dealing with is a rational function of the formwhere and are complex polynomials of finite degrees , with coefficient vectors and , respectively. Given a vector of frequency points , where

    Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

    Audio Visual Archives

    The AV Department of Special Collections is dedicated to preserving and making available unique media documenting the history of Utah, the Mormons, and the West. Audio-visual materials are of special concern to archivists not only because they present a dynamic glimpse into history and culture but also because they are in danger of being lost forever due to format obsolescence and deterioration.

    Donations of audio-visual materials are encouraged. The University of Utah conducts physical preservation measures and has begun the systematic digitization of audio-visual collections for digital preservation and access. Because the digital preservation process is extremely resource intensive, materials are prioritized for digitization based on a variety of factors, including content, format condition and stability, and donor and user requests. Although it is the archive's goal to digitize and make available all of its audio-visual holdings, digitization of donated materials cannot be guaranteed within any specific time-frame, and scan-and-return donations are not possible at this time.

    If you require immediate access to your audio-visual content, it is recommended that you pursue digitization before donating your collection. Even if your materials have already been digitized, please consider donating the original items to Special Collections, where they will be preserved and made accessible to future generations as valuable components of our region's historical record.

    For a donation consultation or for information about donating born-digital or digitized items, please contact the Moving Image and Sound Archivists by e-mail or phone.

    Links:

    Источник: [alloverlimo.us]
      th Plenary Meeting of General Assembly: 14th Session

      English

      17 Sep - The General Assembly at the th plenary meeting of the 14th session.

      Learn More Multimedia Archives s src="alloverlimo.us%alloverlimo.us" width="" height="" alt="United Nations Dateline">

      English

      1 Sep - The UN is a vast centre of information about politics and technology, Multimedia Archives s, human rights and peace-keeping, hunger and plenty. The words "United Nations, NY” appear Multimedia Archives s daily in thousands of newspapers around Multimedia Archives s world. This progmmme takes the viewer into a vital, but rarely--seen part of the UN -- the realm of the "newsmakers". It is a backstage tour with the men and women who get the news, write it, film it speak it, and televise it.

      Learn More

      Ravi Shankar and Yehudi Menuhin in Concert

      Original

      1 Nov - The highlight of this memorable musical program is a rehearsal and performance by these two famous musicians of a new Multimedia Archives s specially composed by Shankar.

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      The Most Beautiful Place on Earth

      English

      1 Dec - Multimedia Archives s most beautiful place on earth" that's Laurence Gould's description of Antarctica, a continent, he first saw in when he was second-in-command to Admiral Byrd in the flight across the South Pole.

      Learn More

      A City with a Future

      English

      1 Oct - Man Builds, Man Destroys: A major UN series of 30 films dealing with our global environment and what man is doing to it.

      Learn More

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      UN Secretary-General Visits Nigeria

      Silent21 Feb

      UN Secretary-General Visits Nigeria

      Press Briefing by Permanent Representative of Jordan

      English14 Mar

      Press Briefing by Permanent Representative of Jordan

      Press Briefing by Chairman of Special Committee on Apartheid

      English23 Mar

      Press Briefing by Chairman of Special Committee on Apartheid

      th Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

      English23 Mar

      th Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

      nd Meeting of Special Committee <i>Multimedia Archives s</i> Apartheid

      Original22 Mar

      nd Meeting of Special Committee on Apartheid

      Address by UN Secretary-General to Organization of American States

      Original22 Mar

      Address by UN Secretary-General to Organization of American States

      th, st Meetings of Special Committee on Apartheid

      Original21 Mar

      th, Multimedia Archives s, st Meetings of Special Committee on Apartheid

      UN Secretary-General Meets Turkish Prime <b>Multimedia Archives s,</b> Rings Peace Bell, and Opens UN Art Show

      Silent20 Mar

      UN Secretary-General Meets Turkish Prime Minister, Rings Peace Bell, and Opens UN Art Show

      UN World Food Conference - Part 5

      Original

      UN World Food Conference Multimedia Archives s Part 5

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      UN / DETAINED STAFF UPDATE

      English19 Nov

      UN / DETAINED STAFF UPDATE

      UN / SPOTLIGHT INITIATIVE REPORT

      English19 Nov

      UN / SPOTLIGHT INITIATIVE REPORT

      GENEVA / COVID MANDATORY VACCINATION

      English19 Nov

      GENEVA / COVID MANDATORY VACCINATION

      OHCHR / RUSSIA HUMAN RIGHTS

      English19 Nov

      OHCHR / RUSSIA HUMAN RIGHTS

      AFGHANISTAN / CHILD MALNUTRITION

      Original19 Nov

      AFGHANISTAN / CHILD MALNUTRITION

      AFGHANISTAN / FAO AGRICULTURAL ASSISTANCE

      English19 Nov

      AFGHANISTAN / FAO AGRICULTURAL ASSISTANCE

      IMF /INFLATION CRYPTO ARGENTINA

      English18 Nov

      IMF /INFLATION CRYPTO ARGENTINA

      GENEVA / YOUNG ACTIVISTS SUMMIT

      Various18 Nov

      GENEVA / YOUNG ACTIVISTS Scanner Archives - Windows Activator

      UN / SUDAN UPDATE

      English18 Nov

      UN / SUDAN UPDATE

      Statistics

      • The AV Library has over 6, hours of historical content in 35,16 and 8mm film and 49, hours of video stored in its off-site archives.
      • To find out more about digitizing this historic UN footage, please contact us.
      • Over 18, hours of audio in a wide variety of formats are available in our off-site archives.
      • Currently, of the 1, available historic UN Radio Classics are now available for download on this website.
      • Inan independent producer helped to digitize over UN Concerts.
      • To find out more about digitizing these historic UN recordings, Multimedia Archives s, please contact us
      Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

      Objective



      The field of application for the EUROMEDIA project represents the fusion of digital multimedia technology with broadcasting technology. A basic prerequisite for emerging broadcasting services such as Video on Demand (VoD) is the design of digital archives and the provision of suitable means for access them. Since digitised material intended for broadcasting, including relevant descriptive and administrative data, is multimedia in nature, the digital archives also need to be multimedia.

      The project addresses both the design of the archives and the development of suitable means for accessing them. It is developing a digital multimedia archive in the broadcasting domain. The project is characterised by:

      - Use of available technology.
      - Design and installation of multimedia archives with common Multimedia Archives s by the users involved in the consortium.
      - Application of suitable and advanced (semi)automated multimedia indexing and retrieval methods using image processing.
      - Interconnection of and data exchange between local components installed at the individual users' sites using available communications infrastructure.
      - Provision of interfaces to administration and production at the broadcasting sites involved.
      - Integration into the broadcasting workflow.
      - Analysis of service provision by applying the pilot system to the distribution of programmes among Multimedia Archives s users involved.

      The system will also provide mechanisms for the management of rights and remuneration, Multimedia Archives s. For coping with mass storage problems, most of the material will be kept in preview quality.

      The users involved are broadcasters who are participating in the EUROMEDIA consortium and other potential users of the archives.

      In addition to the broadcasting scenario described above, the generality of the system being developed will be validated by analysing transfer applications for multimedia publishers (e.g. CD-ROM or CD-I-production). Access to archives is of particular relevance for multimedia publishers, since reuse of multimedia material is essential for maintaining competitiveness.

      Funding Scheme

      CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

      Coordinator

      Participants (4)

      Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

      Multimedia Archives: New Digital Filters to Correct Equalization Errors on Digitized Audio Tapes

      Multimedia archives face the problem of obsolescing and degrading analogue media (e.g., speech and music recordings and video art). In response, researchers in the field have recently begun studying ad hoc tools for the preservation and access of historical analogue documents. This paper investigates the active preservation process of audio tape recordings, specifically focusing on possible means for compensating equalization errors introduced in the digitization process. If the accuracy of corrective equalization filters is validated, an archivist or musicologist would be able to experience the audio as a historically authentic document such that their listening experience would not require the recovery of the original analogue audio document or the redigitization of the audio. Thus, we Multimedia Archives s a MUSHRA-inspired perception test (n = 14) containing 6 excerpts of electronic music (3 stimuli recorded NAB and 3 recorded CCIR). Participants listened to 6 different equalization filters for each stimulus and rated them in terms of similarity. Filters included a correctly digitized “Reference,” an intentionally incorrect “Foil” filter, and a subsequent digital correction of the Foil filter that was produced with a MATLAB script, Multimedia Archives s. When stimuli were collapsed according to their filter type (NAB or CCIR), no significant differences were observed between the Reference and MATLAB correction filters. As such, the digital correction appears to be a promising method for compensation of equalization errors although future study is recommended, specifically containing an increased sample size and additional correction filters for comparison.

      1. Introduction

      The transition required for the information age brings with it the need to transfer preexisting (analogue) multimedia materials into a digital form in order to withstand the wear and tear of time and the progression of technology, such as search and recovery functions through increasingly powerful digital tools. Archiving has become an increasingly important goal both in terms of historical documentation and also for ease of location and availability. The implications of these needs are particularly complex when it comes to historical music recordings. In this context, research on the preservation and restoration of sound documents has been developed in the information engineering area and, in particular, in the multimedia field, augmenting the innovations introduced for storage and retrieval technologies [1]. These developments have additional Multimedia Archives s for the definition of digitization protocols to help ensure maintenance and longevity.

      This paper presents the problem of equalization in the active preservation process of audio documents. Multimedia Archives s the goal of the active preservation and re-recording process is to pursue historical faithfulness, the audio signal must be precisely filtered to take into consideration recording equalization that is part of the original source audio document [2]. Choosing the correct equalization curve is essential to avoid the proliferation of additional, incorrect versions of the audio documents (referred to in philology as a “false witnesses” [3]). The choice is usually made on the basis of both historical information (which is rarely complete and exhaustive) and the experience of the technicians [4], introducing a certain margin of interpretation. We therefore present tools to compensate for errors (in choosing the equalization curve) introduced by the re-recording technicians, Multimedia Archives s. In this way, if an archivist or musicologist notices that a preservation master has been produced using the wrong equalization curve, it can be changed without having to recover the original analogue audio document (which may have deteriorated in the meantime).

      In Section 2, Multimedia Archives s, we present an overview of analogue equalization, illustrating the problems concerned with the user choice. Next, we focus on a case study of the analogue audio tape and explain two equalization standards from a mathematical point of view. In Section 3, Multimedia Archives s, these equalizations will be transformed into the digital domain, and in Section 4, we report an experiment assessing the perception of these equalization methods. Based on the results, we propose that a digital correction filter provides a reliable means to compensate for errors made in the digitization process.

      2. Analogue Equalizations

      The “Equalization Problem”

      The term “equalization” Multimedia Archives s be used to indicate any procedure that involves altering or adjusting of the overall frequency spectrum characteristics of the audio signal. The concept of filtering audio frequencies dates back at least to the s. It was first Multimedia Archives s in harmonic telegraphs and then later adopted in analogue audio recordings [5]. In analogue audio recordings, a preemphasis curve is applied to the signal which is contained in the analogue carrier, and an inverse postemphasis curve is applied during the reproducing phase, Multimedia Archives s. Thus, the resulting output signal maintains nearly the flat frequency response of the original input [6], but at the same time, it is characterized by an extension of the dynamic range [7] and an improvement of the SNR [8]. This technique is adopted from several analogue audio technologies due to the limited dynamic range of audio systems [7].

      Historically, the adoption of these techniques was not uniform, and several different standards were applied by record manufacturers. To faithfully reproduce recordings, it is necessary to tackle what is referred to as the “equalization problem [9].” This problem specifically arises when analyzing magnetic tape technology, Multimedia Archives s. Several standards exist [4], and during playback and digitization, this must be considered to help obtain an “authentic” listening experience, that is, postemphasis filtering (equalization) that corresponds to that of the machines upon which the playback was originally intended. The differences Multimedia Archives s the equalization curves are subtle, and during the digitization process, it may be difficult to determine the “correct” one, and without reliable documentation or test tones, operators involved in the digitization process are forced to choose the equalization aurally [4, 9], which may lead to errors. Therefore, there is a possibility that an “incorrect” equalization will be selected in the process of digitizing audio tapes. These issues could be resolved through innovative automatic analysis tools, as recently presented in [10], or through an accurate historical investigation of the recording studio, aiming to individuate the original equipment and the relative setup used at the time [11].

      The musicological study of sound recording is often performed directly on the digital copy. If, at this stage, the musicologist has doubts about the type of equalization used during the analogue-digital transfer, it is beneficial to provide her/him with corrective tools, Multimedia Archives s, which enable comparisons between the existing, possibly inauthentic versions and corrected versions. It is not feasible to redigitize audio tapes with the correct equalization on a large scale due to excessive economic cost of the operation. Furthermore, a number of these heritage items may now be unreadable Multimedia Archives s to physical degradation [2], making the matter of corrective equalization an urgent one. The solution proposed in this paper is to create a set of precise digital filters to subtract the “incorrect” equalization curve applied in the digitization process and to add a corrective measure. It is important to specify that these filters must only be used to alter access copies or with access tools such as those presented in Multimedia Archives s, 13] that filter the signal without performing irreversible changes to the file. That is, they must not alter the preservation copy for any reason.

      Case Study

      Equalization standards are usually referred to with the acronyms of the organization that proposed the standard itself. Historically, different standards were most widespread in Europe and the United States. The most prevalent European standard was IEC1 from the International Electrotechnical Commission, alternatively called CCIR by the acronym of the Comité Consultatif International pour la Radio. Multimedia Archives s the Multimedia Archives s States, the most prevalent standard was IEC2, also referred to as NAB from the American National Association of Broadcasters. We henceforth refer to these as CCIR and NAB, being the two standards that this paper focuses on. The equalization standards are strictly connected to another parameter that must be correctly configured before the equalization setting: the playback speed. There are 6 standard speeds, but the most common are 15 ips ( cm/s) and  ips ( cm/s) [4]. The latter speed will be used in our work. As can be seen in [14], digitization problems derived by different speed (and therefore equalization) standards in the same open-reel tape are quite widespread. Nevertheless, in this preliminary study, the authors decided to not involve a second variable, Multimedia Archives s. Further study will be necessary for correcting both speed and equalization errors.

      The first step of this work consists of the analysis of the pre- and postemphasis curves for any standard. A postemphasis curve could be Multimedia Archives s as a combination of two curves described with the following formula:where is the frequency in Hz and and are the time constants in microseconds [15]. An alternative mathematical representation of the formula iswhereand is the frequency [16]. The two time constants describe the equalization curve, but in some cases, is. For the  ips audio tape recording, and are, respectively, and 70  for CCIR but   and 50  for NAB (see Table 1). The characteristics of these equalization standards will be analyzed in this paper. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) present the frequency response of pre- and postemphasis curves, respectively, for NAB and CCIR equalization. An incorrect juxtaposition of the pre- and postemphasis significantly alters the spectrum and therefore requires compensation to avoid the loss of accuracy for digitized audio documents. Starting from these analytic formulas, the paper will describe how to create digital filters of the pre- and postemphasis curves to digitally compensate equalization errors in digitized  ips audio Multimedia Archives s recordings.


      Equalization standard

      CCIR70
      NAB50

      3, Multimedia Archives s. Digital Equalizations

      Signals and a Chain of Filters

      Given an analogue signalit passes through two steps before digitization: a recording phase and a reproducing phase, Multimedia Archives s. An equalization for each step is defined, followed by the convolutions of the signals with the impulse responses of the recording and reproducing filters anddenoted, respectively, with and. The resulting filter is defined as .

      Considering the transfer functions of our filters, in this context, a correct equalization Plagiarism Archives - Patch Cracks a signal has to be a flat equalization, which means that its transfer function is the identity operator, Multimedia Archives s,Multimedia Archives s, where is the transfer function of. Denoting, respectively, with and the transfer functions of the recording and Multimedia Archives s filters andwe should have. In this project, however, we are dealing with a nonflat equalizationwhere its transfer function since the reproducing curve is wrongly set, Multimedia Archives s. It is necessary to apply a filter in order to obtain a flat equalization:where is the transfer function of .

      Taking advantage of the structure ofMultimedia Archives s, it is possible to express the desired transfer function as

      This last equality is a solution in terms of the transfer functions obtained from the standard NAB and CCIR equalizations defined in [15, 16].

      Standard NAB and CCIR Transfer Functions

      From the standard references, the reproducing characteristic Multimedia Archives s are given by magnitude function (2). By definition, (2) is derived from the transfer function of the reproducing analogue filter. Since the standards consider only first-order low-pass and high-pass filters, it is possible to show thatwhere is the transfer function needed. Computing the squared norm of (4) on an imaginary linewherethe result iswhich is the squared argument in (2).

      The transfer function is a rational complex polynomial given by the inverse of :where .

      Since, in our case, we can infer that the parameters of are incorrect, equation (3) becomeswhereare the parameters of the recording transfer functionand are the parameters of the wrongly reproduced transfer function .

      Filter Stability

      Now that the general structure of the corrective filters has been described, it is necessary to verify that, with all possible combinations of the four parametersandstable filters are obtained. From the reference tables for standard NAB and CCIR equalizations [15, 16], coefficients and can assume finite values or can be. This means that, considering (7) as a function with parameters andthere are four cases:(i): no change in the formal structure of (7)(ii): (7) becomes (iii) and : (7) becomes (iv) and : similarly,

      Also, all these filters except the last are stable as they have poles when orwhich are both strictly negative. The fourth Multimedia Archives s gives an unstable filter with the pole in .

      Clearly, Multimedia Archives s, the real case which corresponds to the unstable filter is relevant in applications as it is the inverse of the chain (i.e., ), where and are, respectively, the transfer functions of CCIR and NAB Multimedia Archives s (see Table 2 as a summary of all cases).


      Time constantStable Unstable

      5070
      7050

      We need to approximate the unstable filter with a stable one, which is Multimedia Archives s “close” (clarified in the following section) to the first, to produce a similar equalization. Formally, we digitize this filter via bilinear transform and digitally approximate it by solving a minimum least square problem, as explained in the following.

      Digital Approximation of the Unstable Filter

      After the digitization of the transfer functionthe MATLAB function “freqz” was used to study the behavior of the unstable filter. Examining its output, it was observed that the frequency vector reaches in its first cell, near 0 Hz as expected, Multimedia Archives s. Using a pragmatic approach, Multimedia Archives s, this value has been overridden with 0. Since this is anextreme modification of the frequency response vector, it has been studied if it is possible to find an approximated stable transfer function Multimedia Archives s from the modified frequency response vector such that its frequency response is close to the analogue transfer function, at the very least in audible frequencies.

      The transfer function we are dealing with is a rational function of the formwhere and are complex polynomials of finite degreeswith coefficient vectors andrespectively. Given a vector of frequency Multimedia Archives swhere

      Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

      National Archives Frequently Asked Questions

      These are introductory answers to frequently asked questions about the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and our holdings and services.

      • Select a Multimedia Archives s from the menu on the left to view questions and answers relating to your selection.
      • Links will guide you to further information on our website or to other sources.

      About the National Archives

      What is the National Archives ?

      The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the Multimedia Archives s record keeper. Of all documents and materials created in the course of business conducted by the United States Federal government, only 1%-3% are so important for legal or historical reasons that they are kept by us forever.

      Those valuable records are preserved and are available to you, whether you want to see if they contain clues about your family's history, need to prove a veteran's military service, or are researching a historical topic that interests you.

      Visiting the National Archives

      Doing Research

      How do I do research at the Archives?

      Learn more about how to do research at the National Archives. 

      Borrowing NARA Materials

      Does NARA lend original documents for research?

      NARA does not lend original documents for research use.

      Originating Federal agencies or successors in function; courts; and the President, Vice President, former Presidents or Vice Presidents or donors, or their designated representative may request loans of their own original holdings for the conduct of official business. Loans to originating agencies are limited to instances of demonstrated need when copies will not suffice and are subject to conditions that exempt from loan any holdings of high intrinsic value or in need of preservation action.

      Does NARA lend original documents for exhibition use?

      Yes, original documents or artifacts may be loaned to qualified institutions for exhibition when the purpose of the loan is to inform and educate the public about NARA, Multimedia Archives s, its holdings, or the national experience while ensuring their continued availability for Multimedia Archives s future. Exhibitions must be accessible to the public and may not be primarily political or commercial.

      Borrowers should submit a written request days prior to the loan date and include an American Alliance of Museums or equivalent. NARA's security, fire protection, environmental, and transport requirements are intended to preserve and protect NARA's holdings and borrowers are expected to comply with them.

      Captured German Records and the Berlin Document Center

      What is the Berlin Document Center?

      The records of the Berlin Document Center consist of personnel and related records of the Nazi party (NSDAP) and its affiliated organizations and activities from the founding of the Party in until

      NARA holds more than 70, rolls of microfilm reproducing captured German and related records. Reference copies of the microfilm may be viewed free of charge in the Microfilm Research Room, National Archives at College Park, Adelphi Road, College Park, MD
      Self-service copies from microfilm can also be made in the research room.

      How do I get the records for someone who was in the SS or a member of the Nazi party?

      This information can be located in the captured German and related records.

      Census Records

      How do I get census records?

      Federal population census records,are available for research at the National Archives Building in Washington, DC, and in Regional Facilities throughout the country. The National Archives at College Park does not have census records.

      Please note that the census is the most recent one available for research. You can also access information about the census.

      Some libraries and other research institutions have purchased copies of Federal censuses, Multimedia Archives s. Check with your local library or genealogical society to see if the census may be available in your area.

      Can I order copies Multimedia Archives s census materials by mail?

      NARA will only copy exactly identified pages of the Federal census. To use this service, you must provide the following:

      • census year
      • name of the individual listed
      • exact page number
      • state
      • county
      • enumeration district ( only)

      Copies of the exact census page can now be ordered online, as well as through the NATF Form 82 (National Archives Order for Copies of Census Records).

      What if I don't know the exact page of the census?

      You might be able to find census indexes near you. Check with your local librarian or genealogical society. Private firms have produced indexes to census records for specific years, generally These are widely available throughout the country in libraries that have genealogical collections. In addition to these printed indexes, there are microfilm indexes to the and census and partial indexes to the and census.

      From these indexes, you can determine the exact page on which a family was enumerated. With that information, you can use the NATF Form 82 to order a copy of the page. Use the online Inquire form to request NATF Form

      For more information, please visit How to Use NARA's Census Microfilm Catalogs.

      Charters of Freedom

      What are the Charters of Multimedia Archives s Charters of Freedom are the founding documents of the United States. They are the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.

      Where can I get copies (reproductions) of the Charters of Freedom?

      Posters and reproductions are available for purchase. You may also download copies from this website.

      Congressional Records

      How do I get U.S. House of Representatives or U.S. Senate committee records?

      Records of Congress in NARA are held by the Center for Legislative Archives in Multimedia Archives s National Archives Building in Washington, DC.

      How do I get U.S. House or U.S. Senate hearing testimony?

      Some hearing testimony is available via the Internet at the Library of Congress. In addition, published hearing testimony is generally available through the Federal Depository Library system. There are approximately 1, Multimedia Archives s, Federal depository libraries throughout the United States and its territories, at least one in almost every Congressional District. All provide free public access to a wide variety of Federal Government information in both print and electronic formats and have expert staff Multimedia Archives s to assist users. You can find more information about this system on the Government Publishing Office website.

      Do you have footage of Congressional hearings and speeches from C-SPAN?

      C-SPAN is a private organization not affiliated with the government. You may contact C-SPAN directly.

      How long do Congressional records stay closed?

      Congressional records remain closed for varying lengths of time depending upon several factors. More information is available in the Records of Congress section of our website.

      Copyright

      May I reproduce images from your website?

      The vast majority of the digital images in the National Archives Catalog are in the public domain. Therefore, no written permission is required to use them. We would appreciate your crediting the National Archives and Records Administration as the original source. For the few images that remain copyrighted, Multimedia Archives s, please read the instructions noted in the "Use Multimedia Archives s field of each catalog record.

      Please note that a few images on other Multimedia Archives s of our website have been obtained from other organizations and that these are always credited. Permission to use these photographs should be obtained directly from those organizations.

      May I reproduce other NARA records?

      In general, all government records are in the public domain and may be Multimedia Archives s used. We do have some donated or other materials that might be copyrighted. If you have questions about the records you are interested in, speak to the archivist or reference staff that handles those records.

      Can I get a signed permission form from NARA to use materials?

      NARA as a policy does not sign documents stating that particular records are not copyrighted because government records are in the public domain. For other materials, it is the user's responsibility to determine copyright.

      Court Records

      What court records does NARA have?

      NARA only has records of Federal Multimedia Archives s. We do not have records from state or county courts. Federal court records are kept in the Regional Records Services Facility that covers records from that state.

      The one exception is the District of Columbia. These court records are in the National Archives Building in Washington, Multimedia Archives s, DC. Please contact us if you have questions and please include where the records were filed.

      How do I use the National Archives to research bankruptcies?

      Please see information on how to obtain bankruptcy records.

      Where can I research Supreme Court decisions?

      Many sources exist for locating Multimedia Archives s Court decisions both in print and electronic format.

      The Court itself provides an Multimedia Archives s finding aid, Where to Obtain Supreme Court Decisions, Multimedia Archives s, on its website. Textual Supreme Court records are also held in the National Archives Building in Washington, DC, while recorded oral arguments are in the National Archives at College Park. Please Multimedia Archives s us if you have questions.

      Most research into Supreme Court decisions can be done with printed sources at Federal Depository Libraries. In addition, please be aware of the following caution from the Supreme Court concerning electronic versus print versions of decisions:

      "Only the bound volumes of the United States Reports contain the final, official text Multimedia Archives s the opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States. In case of discrepancies between the bound volume and any other version of a case--whether print or electronic, official or unofficial--the bound volume controls."

      Digitizing Projects at the National Archives

      Can you tell me about digitizing projects going on at the National Archives?

      NARA recognizes that the expectation Multimedia Archives s easy online Multimedia Archives s to our holdings continues to grow. Research is no longer relegated to libraries and research rooms but is being done around-the-clock on computers around the world. To meet this need, we will create, to the greatest extent possible, an “archives without walls.”

      We plan to create digital versions of selected records, including those most requested by researchers. Digitizing materials from our holdings will improve access to those holdings and will help preserve and protect the original materials from excessive handling.

      To help achieve those goals, we are in discussions with several private companies and non-profit organizations to explore mutually-beneficial opportunities to digitize -- and make available -- our holdings. The resulting non-exclusive partnerships will become an important component of our effort to further expand online public access to our nation’s archival records.

      As we expand and enter into more of these partnerships, we will provide news about these pilot and longer-term projects; see more information about Digitization at the National Archives.

      Document Appraisal

      Can you tell me about or appraise my historic document?

      The National Archives does not appraise or look at privately owned documents or artifacts, Multimedia Archives s. To find an appraiser in your area, you may wish to contact the ABAA (Antiquarian Booksellers Association of America).

      Document Preservation

      How do I preserve a photo or other family documents?

      Personal documents are no less valuable than government records and care should be taken for their proper storage. You can find more information in the Preservation section of this website.

      Donations

      Does NARA purchase old, historic pictures or accept them as donations?

      NARA does not add to its holdings through purchase. We may accept offers of donations when the documentary materials involved are closely related to Federal records already in our custody. When documentary materials don't have a close Federal connection, we direct potential donors to other appropriate archival facilities.

      Electronic Records

      What is the Electronic Records Archives?

      In the Federal Government, electronic records are as indispensable as their paper predecessors for documenting citizens' rights, Multimedia Archives s, the actions for which officials are accountable, and the nation's history. Effective democracy depends on access to such records.

      But we will lose the millions of records being created in electronic forms unless we find ways to preserve and keep them accessible indefinitely. The Electronic Records Archives (ERA) is NARA's vision for a comprehensive, systematic, and dynamic means of preserving and providing continuing access to authentic electronic records over time. You can read more about the Electronic Records Archives on this website.

      Federal Regulations

      What is the CFR?

      CFR is the commonly used name for the Code of Federal Regulations, an annual codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government, Multimedia Archives s. The current edition is available on the U.S. Government Publishing Office website.

      You can search the CFR and browse through the Multimedia Archives s CFR is also available in Federal Depository Libraries.

      Finding People

      Can NARA help me find someone?

      The National Archives does not have information to help you locate living individuals. The records in the custody of NARA are usually at least years old. Information windows 10 pro product key 2018 Archives - Windows Activator living individuals is protected by the Privacy Act. NARA records, therefore, are not helpful in providing current information about individuals.

      Other government resources are available that may be useful in locating individuals. The Consumer Information Center has created a list of resources for locating persons of unknown whereabouts.

      In addition to this resource, there are many online telephone directories that may be useful for locating individuals. You can also find them via most of the popular Internet search engines.

      Forms

      It seems the forms change regularly. How long do they last?

      NARA has close to forms, and some forms change regularly.

      Forms last until the office that created them cancels them.

      If there is a particular form that you have used but can no longer locate, you may contact us for assistance in determining the form's status.

      Genealogy

      How can NARA help me with genealogy research?

      The National Archives is a treasure trove of materials that can be used to trace your family lineage. More information is available on Beginning Your Genealogical Research.

      How do I get started Multimedia Archives s genealogy?

      Experts often suggest beginning with your oldest living relatives. Find out more on Beginning Your Genealogical Research.

      How do I find ancestors of Native American descent?

      NARA holds a great deal of information useful in tracing Native American descent.

      Where can I get a copy of my ancestor's passport?

      Passport applications can be an excellent source of genealogical information, especially about foreign-born individuals. NARA has passport applications from October through March ; the U.S. Department of State has passport applications from April to the present. More on Passport Applications.

      What is Soundex, and how does it work?

      The Soundex is a coded surname (last name) index based on the way a surname sounds rather than the way it is spelled. Surnames that sound the same, but are spelled differently, Multimedia Archives s, like SMITH and SMYTH, have the same code and are filed together. The Soundex coding system was developed so that you can find a surname even though it may have been recorded under various spellings. More information on Soundex.

      How do I research my family name?

      NARA is not able to help you with broad research on a family name. However, you can hire an independent researcher.

      How do I research when my family entered the country?

      You can find out about NARA's immigration records holdings in the genealogy section's Immigration Records or Naturalization Records. When researching Multimedia Archives s this area, working backward from the present should provide you with a manageable time frame in which to conduct research.

      Where can I get copies of ship passenger lists?

      NARA has some ship passenger arrival records.

      There are many other sources for these records, Multimedia Archives s, including an online guide at the Library of Congress. Your local library, Multimedia Archives s, historical society, or genealogical society can be helpful. For online research, simply begin by choosing a search engine and entering the words "ship passenger lists."

      Can I see Ellis Island or other immigration records online?

      NARA does not hold those records, but some Ellis Island records are available online from the Ellis Island Foundation.

      How do I get a copy of a Homestead application?

      The publication Research in the Land Entry Files of the General Land Office describes NARA's holdings on this topic.

      Reproductions of land entry files (such as credit, cash, Multimedia Archives s, homestead, and mineral) or surrendered military bounty-land warrants files (Acts of, and ) can now be ordered online, as well as through the NATF Form

      How can NARA help me trace my Canadian lineage?

      The Fall issue of NARA's Prologue magazine describes the materials available for this topic. Please see the information on NARA's holdings related to Canadian border crossings.

      How can NARA help me trace my Latin American lineage?

      Please see the information on NARA's holdings related to Mexican border crossings.

      How do I find information about a lighthouse or a lighthouse keeper?

      The document Basic Search Path for Records Relating to Lighthouses describes NARA's holdings on this topic.

      How do I find information about a postmaster?

      Information on Postmaster Appointments can be found in the genealogy section's Post Office Records.

      Which military records should I use for genealogical research?

      NARA has many military records that can be used for this purpose, Multimedia Archives s. More detailed information is available on the Military Records FAQ.

      Where can I find other help with my genealogical research?

      Get help with your research and find answers to your genealogy questions from National Archives staff as well as other genealogists at History Multimedia Archives s Employment Records

      I worked for the Federal government at one time. How can I get a copy of my personnel file?

      Information on this topic is available at the National Personnel Records Center.

      History Hub

      What is History Hub?

      History Hub is the National Archives' free crowdsourced history and genealogy research platform.  Anyone can ask questions and get help from National Archives staff and other experts, history enthusiasts, and citizen archivists.

      Learn more about History Hub and how to ask questions on History Hub.

      Laws

      Where can I Multimedia Archives s Federal Laws?

      The general and permanent laws of the United States can be found in the U.S. Code.

      The Office of the Federal Register's Public Laws is a good place to research, or sign up for email notification of, recently enacted laws.

      New laws can be further researched at the Library of Congress. It has the complete text of laws from the most recent Congress back to the st Congress (). You can find summary and status information, but not the full text, back to the 93rd Congress. (). GPO Access' Legislative Information website provides additional information.

      The first 42 Congresses () are available online in the Library of Congress' American Memory Project.

      Federal laws are codified in the United States Code, the most recent edition of which is available to search or browse.

      Laws that are not online are available in the printed Statutes at Large, which is available in the Federal Depository Libraries.

      Where can I research State laws?

      State laws are generally available in Multimedia Archives s public and academic libraries. In addition, most state codes are available on line at each state's website. State websites can be searched on the alloverlimo.us website.

      Missing or Stolen Federal Documents

      I have a document that may be a Federal government record. I wonder if it should be in the National Archives, Multimedia Archives s. What should I do?

      Occasionally, a document in private hands actually belongs in a government archives. If it is a Federal, Multimedia Archives s, congressional, or presidential record, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) may be interested in recovering the document. Learn more about missing or stolen documents. NARA also has tips online for identifying historical U.S. government documents.

      If you know of a document that you believe is a Federal record and belongs to the National Archives you can also contact us via e-mail at MissingDocuments@alloverlimo.us

      Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Recordings

      Does NARA have motion picture, sound, and video recordings?

      NARA holds materials in a wide variety of formats including:

      Online Records

      Why aren't all the records online?

      NARA tries to make as many records as possible available via the Internet. This is a daunting task, even with records that were created in electronic format. More information on this effort is available at Digitization at the National Archives.

      The volume of records in NARA's possession that pre-date electronic formats is so vast, that costs and resource availabilities will most likely preclude the conversion of all of them to electronic formats, Multimedia Archives s. However, as resources permit, NARA will continue to select records to be digitized and made available electronically.

      Panama Canal

      Do you have records from the construction of the Panama Canal?

      Yes. Please contact us with a question about the specific records or information you are looking for.

      Photocopies

      Is photocopying allowed at NARA?

      Self-service copying by researchers is permitted under specified conditions in most research rooms, using:

      • National Archives in-house equipment such as a coin or card-operated electrostatic copiers and microfilm printers, and, less frequently, snapshot copiers, dubbing devices, and others;
         
      • Researchers' own Multimedia Archives s ranging from cameras to scanners, that has been specifically approved by the National Archives for work with the records in question, Multimedia Archives s. See also our information on using scanners.
         

      More details are available on the reproductions overview page.

      Presidential Materials

      I'm interested in Presidential materials such as speeches, Multimedia Archives s, proclamations, Executive Orders, etc. Where can I find them?

      Presidential materials are first published in the daily Federal Register. They are then issued by the Office of the Federal Register in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. The Weekly Compilation is published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Register, and contains statements, messages, and other Presidential materials released by the White House during the preceding week. The White House website is also a useful source for current Presidential documents.

      Presidential materials are codified as Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The publication is available in both electronic and print formats and can be found in Federal Depository Libraries. The online Weekly Compilation is full-text beginning with the Clinton Administration.

      Executive Orders (EOs) can be difficult to research. The full text of EOs is available online beginning with the Clinton Administration. Bear in mind, however, that they are not static documents. They often change over time. In addition, they can be repealed or superseded by subsequent Executive Orders, Multimedia Archives s. The Executive Orders disposition tables on this site can be very helpful in locating an Executive Order and in determining its current status.

      Executive Orders published between April 13,and January 20, can be found in the publication Codification of Presidential Proclamations and Executive Orders. This document is out of print, but in addition to the online version, it can be found in most Federal Depository Libraries.

      Find a Federal Depository Library near you.

      Executive Orders and Presidential Proclamations have also been Multimedia Archives s indexed and filmed on microfiche by the Congressional Information Service (CIS index to presidential Executive Orders & proclamations. Washington, DC: Congressional Information Service, ). These indexes and/or microfiche may be available in a local library.

      Or visit a Presidential Library and learn more about their holdings and educational programs.

      Sales Catalog

      Does NARA have a sales catalog?

      Where can I get copies (reproductions) of items displayed in one of your exhibits (online or not)?

      NARA sells reproductions of some of the materials it exhibits. The Publications section describes the items available and provides ordering instructions.

      Do you sell exhibit catalogs?

      Yes, Multimedia Archives s. NARA does sell catalogs for many of its exhibits.

      Treaties

      Where can I find the text of a treaty?

      The printed series U.S. Treaties and Other International Agreements is the best source, Multimedia Archives s. It is not online, but should be available in most Federal Depository Libraries.

      Untiltreaties passed by the U.S, Multimedia Archives s. Senate appeared in the Statutes at Large, which should also be available in a depository library.

      Various other compilations and sources also exist. These may be available in a local library. Other single treaties may be available online and can be found using your favorite search engine.

      United States Code

      What is the U.S. Code?

      The U.S. Code is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States.

      How do I get to an online copy of Multimedia Archives s U.S. Code?

      A searchable version can be found on the Office of the Law Revision Counsel website at the U.S. House of Representatives. The Code is also available for sale by the U.S, Multimedia Archives s. Government Publishing Office in a variety of formats.

      Using the Website

      How can I find something specific on your website?

      We have tried to organize the website to make our most often accessed offerings easily findable via browsing. 

      In addition, we have made many improvements to our search engine to make it an effective and efficient means of locating information. Search the site.

      If you have any problems with our website, please contact us so that we can make any necessary improvements.

      Visiting and Using the National Archives

      Where is the National Archives located?

      The headquarters of the National Archives is located in Washington DC. In addition, a system of Regional Records Services facilities and Presidential libraries spans the entire country. Information on locations and hours can be found at NARA Facilities.

      National Archives Building in Washington, DC

      National Archives at College Park, MD

      How can I best use the National Archives for research?

      Often research can be conducted in local libraries or historical societies. Our Getting Started document can explain differences and similarities between NARA and libraries.

      How can I best prepare to conduct research in the National Archives?

      To best use your time at NARA, please review our tips for planning your visit.

      Who can use the National Archives?

      Anyone can use the National Archives. You do not need to be an American citizen or to present credentials or a letter of recommendation. Please refer to the synopsis of the Regulations for Using the National Archives or to the complete NARA regulations as published in the Code of Federal Regulations.

      Can I bring and use cameras, Multimedia Archives s, scanners, and laptops?

      In the Washington area, you may bring equipment. All bags and carrying cases must be left in lockers outside of the research room.

      Cameras may be used only with natural light.

      Flatbed scanners without sheet feeders are allowed. When you are using a scanner, you must show it to the research room staff and receive special instructions. More information on using scanners.

      Contact each facility directly for their policies on equipment.

      Can I use my pen and notebook?

      Because of the fragility and irreplaceability of many archival materials, restrictions for their protection are in place. We will provide blank paper and pencils.

      When can I do research?

      Contact Regional Archives Facilities and Presidential Libraries directly for their hours of operation.

      Vital Records

      What are vital records?

      "Vital records" most commonly refers to records such as birth and death certificates, Multimedia Archives s, marriage licenses and divorce decrees, Multimedia Archives s, wills, and the like. These records are created by local authorities and with possible exceptions for events overseas, in the military, or the District of Columbia. They are not considered Federal records; therefore they are not held by NARA. For more information:

      What are  essential records?

      In a Federal records management context, the term "essential records" refers to records essential to an agency's continued operations during a national emergency. NARA provides Essential Records Information to assist agencies with developing and implementing an essential records program.

      Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

      Digital Libraries and Multimedia Archives

      Digital Library Architecture

      Frontmatter

      Subject Access to Images and Exploratory Search

      As traces of social life and material culture of the past, non-art images are carriers and prompters of memory. They are important sources for social and cultural history and, at the same time, valuable cultural heritage resources. Cultural heritage information systems (CHISs) very often rely on basic search and browsing features to provide access to information related to non-art digital images. However, these forms of access are not very helpful for non-expert or casual users, who usually move through the information space in an exploratory way. Although significant strides have been made to understand exploratory search activities, there are still some open issues when it comes to the user interface (UI). After briefly reviewing concept-based indexing techniques applied to images, this paper explores some of the questions related to UI design and provides insights into how to develop a browse-and-search framework to enhance exploratory search tasks.

      Library Data Integration: The CoBiS Linked Open Data Project and Portal

      The CoBiS is a network formed by 65 libraries. The project is a pilot for Piedmont aiming to provide the libraries with an infrastructure for LOD publishing, creating a triplification pipeline designed to be easy to automate and replicate. This was realized with open source technologies, such as the TARQL and JARQL tools that use SPARQL queries to describe the conversion of tables (CSV) or trees (JSON) into graphs (RDF data). The first challenge consisted in making possible the dialog of heterogeneous data sources, coming from four different library applications and different types of data. As a second step, Multimedia Archives s, the information contained in the catalogs was interlinked with external data sources.
      Luisa Schiavone, Federico Morando, Davide Allavena, Giorgio Bevilacqua

      A Software Architecture for Narratives

      The current Digital Libraries (DLs) usually return as answer of a user’s query a ranked list of the resources included in the DLs but no semantic relation among the resources are reported. Using the Semantic Web technologies it is possible to improve these search functionalities introducing narratives as new search method. As narratives we intend semantic networks of events that are linked to the objects of the DLs and are endowed with a set of semantic relations that connect an event to another. These semantic networks may help the users to obtain a more complete knowledge on the subject of their searches. In this paper, we present a software architecture for building narratives in order to introduce them in DLs. Our architecture is composed of several tools (automatic and semi-automatic tools) for creating, storing and visualizing narratives. When possible, we reused open source components already available on-line, and for the software we developed, we freely distribute it for Multimedia Archives s aims.
      Carlo Meghini, Valentina Bartalesi, Daniele Metilli, Filippo Benedetti

      Thirty Years of Digital Libraries Research at the University of Padua: The Systems Side

      For the thirty years of the Information Management Systems (IMS) research group of the University of Padua, we report the main and more recent contributions of the group to the field of Digital Library Systems. In particular, we briefly describe the systems designed and developed by members of the group in the context of research infrastructures, digital archives, digital linguistics and scientific data.
      Maristella Agosti, Giorgio Maria Di Nunzio, Nicola Ferro, Gianmaria Silvello

      Thirty Years of Digital Libraries Research at the University of Padua: The User Side

      For the 30th anniversary of the Information Management Systems (IMS) research group of the University of Padua, we report the main and more recent contributions of the group that focus on the users in the field of Digital Library (DL). In particular, we describe a dynamic and adaptive environment for user engagement with cultural heritage collections, the role of log analysis for studying the interaction between users and DL, and how to model user behaviour.
      Maristella Agosti, Giorgio Maria Di Nunzio, Nicola Ferro, Maria Maistro, Stefano Marchesin, Nicola Orio, Multimedia Archives s, Chiara Ponchia, Gianmaria Silvello

      Multimedia Content Analysis

      Frontmatter

      An Abstract Argumentation-Based Approach to Automatic Extractive Text Summarization

      Sentence-based extractive summarization aims at automatically generating shorter versions of texts by extracting from them the minimal set of sentences that are necessary and sufficient to cover their content. Providing effective solutions to this task would allow the users of Digital Libraries to save time in selecting documents that may be appropriate for satisfying their information needs or for supporting their decision-making tasks. This paper proposes an approach, based on abstract argumentation, to select the sentences in a text that are to be included in its summary. The proposed approach obtained interesting experimental results on the English subset of the benchmark MultiLing dataset.
      Stefano Ferilli, Andrea Pazienza

      On Frequency-Based Approaches to Learning Stopwords and the Reliability of Existing Resources — A Study on Italian Language

      Natural Language Processing techniques are of Multimedia Archives s importance for the proper management of Digital Libraries. These techniques are based on language-specific linguistic resources, that might be unavailable for many languages. Since manually building them is costly, time-consuming and error-prone, it would be desirable to learn these Multimedia Archives s automatically from sample texts, without any prior knowledge about the language under consideration. In this paper we focus on stopwords, i.e., terms that can be ignored Multimedia Archives s order to understand the topic and content of a document. We propose an experimental study on the frequency behavior of stopwords, aimed at Multimedia Archives s useful information for the development of automatic techniques for the compilation of stopword lists from a corpus of documents. The reliability and/or deficiencies of the stopwords obtained from the experiments is evaluated by comparison to existing linguistic resources. While the study is conducted on texts in Italian, we are confident that the same approach and experimental results may apply to other languages as well.
      Stefano Ferilli, Floriana Esposito

      - Text Extractor Tool for Handwritten Document Transcription and Annotation

      This paper presents a framework for semi-automatic transcription of large-scale historical handwritten documents and proposes a simple user-friendly text extractor tool, \(\textit{TexT}\) for transcription. The proposed approach provides a quick and easy transcription of text using computer assisted interactive technique. The algorithm finds multiple occurrences of the marked text on-the-fly using a word spotting system. \(\textit{TexT}\) is also capable of performing on-the-fly annotation of handwritten text with automatic generation of ground truth labels, Multimedia Archives s, and dynamic adjustment and correction of user generated bounding box annotations with the word being perfectly encapsulated. The user can view the document and the found words in the original form or with background noise removed for easier visualization of transcription results. The effectiveness of \(\textit{TexT}\) is demonstrated on an archival manuscript collection from well-known publicly available dataset.
      Anders Hast, Per Cullhed, Ekta Vats

      The Distiller Framework: Current State and Future Challenges

      Inwe introduced a novel knowledge extraction framework called the Distiller Framework, with the goal of offering the research community a flexible, multilingual information extraction framework [3]. Two years later, the project has significantly evolved, by supporting more languages and many machine learning algorithms. In this paper we present the current design of the framework and some of its applications.
      Marco Basaldella, Giuseppe Serra, Multimedia Archives s, Carlo Tasso

      Applications of Duplicate Detection in Music Archives: From Metadata Comparison to Storage Optimisation

      The Case of the Belgian Royal Museum for Central Africa
      This work focuses on applications of duplicate detection for managing digital music archives. It Multimedia Archives s to make this mature music information retrieval (MIR) technology better known to archivists and provide clear suggestions on how this technology can be used in practice. More specifically applications are discussed to complement meta-data, to link or merge digital music archives, to improve listening experiences and to re-use segmentation data. To illustrate the effectiveness of the technology a case study is explored. The case study identifies duplicates in the archive of the Royal Museum for Central Africa, which mainly contains field recordings of Central Africa. Duplicate detection is done with an existing Open Source acoustic fingerprinter system. In the set, % of the recordings are duplicates. It is found that meta-data differs dramatically between original and duplicate showing that merging meta-data could improve the quality of descriptions. The case study also shows that duplicates can be identified even if recording speed is not the same for original and duplicate.
      Joren Six, Federica Bressan, Marc Leman

      Extracting Dependency Relations from Digital Learning Content

      Digital Libraries present tremendous potential for developing e-learning applications, such as text comprehension and question-answering tools, Multimedia Archives s. A way to build this kind of tools is structuring the digital content into relevant concepts and dependency relations among them. While the literature offers several approaches for the former, the identification of dependencies, and specifically of prerequisite relations, is still an open issue. We present an approach to manage this task.
      Giovanni Adorni, Felice Dell’Orletta, Frosina Koceva, Ilaria Torre, Giulia Venturi

      Annote: A Serious Game for Medical Students to Approach Lesion Skin Images of a Digital Library

      Nowadays it is claimed that one method to learn how to execute a task is to present it as a gaming activity: in this way a teacher can offer a safe and controlled environment for learners also arousing excitement and engagement. In this work we present the design of the serious game ‘Annote’, to exploit a medical digital library with the aim to help dermatologists to teach students how to approach the examination of skin lesion images to prevent melanomas.

      Term-Based Approach for Linking Digital News Stories

      The World Wide Web has become a platform for news publication in the past few years. Many Multimedia Archives s channels, magazines and newspapers have started publishing digital versions of the news stories online. It is observed that recommendation systems can automatically process lengthy articles and identify similar articles to readers based on a predefined criteria i.e. collaborative filtering, content-based filtering approach. The paper presents a content-based similarity measure for linking digital news stories published Multimedia Archives s various newspapers during the preservation process. The study compares similarity of news articles based on human judgment with a similarity value computed automatically using common ratio measure for stories. The results are generalized by defining a threshold Multimedia Archives s based on multiple experimental results using the proposed approach.
      Muzammil Khan, Arif Ur Rahman, Muhammad Daud Awan

      A Graphic Matching Process for Searching and Retrieving Information in Digital Libraries of Manuscripts

      This paper outlines ICRPad, a pattern recognition system based on a graphic matching algorithm, which works on images by shape contour recognition, Multimedia Archives s, without requiring any segmentation process. The algorithm starts the process from a region of interest (ROI) selected in the image, using it as a shape model and looking for similar patterns in one or many target images. The process was developed and tested with the aim of proposing a new approach for searching and retrieving information in digital libraries. This approach is based on the application of data science, the fourth paradigm of knowledge development in the scientific field, that is at the basis of science informatics, to studies in data humanities. Following this approach, the algorithm is applied to find new research hypotheses through the discovery of patterns directly inferred from large digital libraries.
      Nicola Barbuti, Tommaso Caldarola, Stefano Ferilli

      XDOCS: An Application to Index Historical Documents

      Dematerialization and digitalization of historical documents are key elements for their availability, preservation and diffusion. Unfortunately, the conversion from handwritten to digitalized documents presents several technical challenges.
      The XDOCS project is created with the main goal of making available and extending the usability of historical documents for a great variety of audience, like scholars, institutions and libraries. In this paper, Multimedia Archives s, the core elements of XDOCS, i.e. page dewarping and word spotting technique, are described and two new applications, i.e. annotation/indexing and search tool, Multimedia Archives s presented.
      Federico Bolelli, Guido Borghi, Costantino Grana

      Object Recognition and Tracking for Smart Audio Guides

      In this paper we address the problem of creating a smart audio guide that adapts to the actions and interests of tourists. Multimedia Archives s guide performs automatic recognition of artworks and allows the users instant or deferred fruition of multimedia content. We use a compact CNN as computer vision system to back the whole application to performs object classification, localization and recognition. Tracking is used to improve the recognition accuracy over sequences of detections. We also provide an automatic pipeline for dataset creation based on the same tracking algorithm. The system, deployed on an NVIDIA Jetson TK1 and an NVIDIA Shield Tablet, has been tested in a real world environment.
      Lorenzo Seidenari, Claudio Baecchi, Tiberio Uricchio, Andrea Ferracani, Marco Bertini, Alberto Del Bimbo

      Automatic Image Cropping and Selection Using Saliency: An Application to Historical Manuscripts

      Automatic image cropping techniques are particularly important to improve the visual quality of cropped images and can be applied to a wide range of applications such as photo-editing, image compression, and thumbnail selection. In this paper, we propose a saliency-based image cropping method which produces significant cropped images by only relying on the corresponding saliency maps. Experiments on standard image cropping datasets demonstrate the benefit of the proposed solution with respect to other cropping methods, Multimedia Archives s. Moreover, we present an image selection method that can be effectively applied to automatically select the most representative pages of historical manuscripts thus improving the navigation of historical digital libraries.
      Marcella Cornia, Stefano Pini, Lorenzo Baraldi, Rita Cucchiara

      Bidirectional LSTM Recurrent Neural Network for Keyphrase Extraction

      To achieve state-of-the-art performance, keyphrase extraction systems rely on domain-specific knowledge and sophisticated features. In this paper, we propose a neural network architecture based on a Bidirectional Multimedia Archives s Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network that is able to detect the main topics on the input documents without the need of defining new hand-crafted features. A preliminary experimental evaluation on the well-known INSPEC dataset confirms the effectiveness of the proposed solution.
      Marco Basaldella, Elisa Antolli, Giuseppe Serra, Carlo Tasso

      Models and Applications

      Frontmatter

      Eliciting the Ancient Geography from a Digital Library of Latin Texts

      Geolat – Geography for Latin Literature is a research project, aimed at making accessible a digital library containing the works of Latin literature (from its origins in BCE to the end of the Roman Empire in CE) through a query interface of geographic/cartographic type representing the geographic knowledge expressed in the Latin texts themselves. A core activity of the project has been the development of the ontology GO!, which describes the geographical knowledge contained in the texts of the library, Multimedia Archives s. The ontologically annotated texts will allow for a variety of scientifically relevant uses, apart from the geo-based browsing: for example the production of digital and printed critical editions. The project is under development at Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici of Università del Piemonte Orientale, and financially supported by Fondazione Compagnia di San Paolo.
      Maurizio Lana, Timothy Tambassi

      A Research Tool for the ERC-Funded EMoBookTrade Project

      The ERC-funded EMoBookTrade project, led by professor Angela Nuovo and based at the University of Udine, addresses the issues of book prices and of book privileges in early modern Europe (–c.). To achieve the goals set, Multimedia Archives s, a Web application is under development by the research team. This paper describes technical solutions found to ensure usability and effectiveness in recording complex historical data, and automatisms which allow data analysis.
      Giliola Barbero, Luigi Tessarolo

      The Biographical Dictionary of Friulians - “Nuovo Liruti” Online

      A Biographical Dictionary Based on Semantic Web and Linked Open Data
      Most biographical dictionaries today are becoming more and more online based. For example, Treccani has produced a digital edition of the Italian Biographical Dictionary, which is more readily available and more up-to-date than the paper edition. In fact, Multimedia Archives s traditional edition, which is organized according to an alphabetical order, has the entries relating to the letter “A” published in and those related to the letter “M” published in ; therefore it is currently obsolete. The Rosi Dictionary of the Renaissance Risorgimento is fully accessible online, as well as the Biography of Women and Men of Resistance of the National Association of Partisans of Italy, the Online Biography of Protestants in Italy of the Society of Studies Valdesi and many other examples that could be made. A similar trend amongst these is the American National Biography, the Diccionario Biogràfico Español, the Slovenska Biografija show, only to make some significant examples. However, these online dictionaries often don’t have an intuitive interface and often are not so “attractive” to entice the user into navigation. Moreover, semantic web tools are almost never used, but they can find their own special and interesting application in this particular field. The aim of this project was to realize not only a digital edition of the printed version of the “Biographical Dictionary of Friulians” (“New Liruti online”), but also one of the richest and structured cultural and historical information deposit on Italian web sites, thanks to the application of semantic web methodologies for the digital edition of biographical dictionaries, with the opportunity to reach a much more ambitious and potentially unlimited audience than the paper edition - as well as being one of the most important cultural initiatives within the broadest project on “Cultural Identity of Friuli (ICF)”. It is also an example of effective collaboration between humanists and computer scientists, without whom the project would not be possible.
      Stefano Allegrezza, Nicola R. Di Matteo

      ISS Project: The Integrated Search System in the National Bibliographic Services

      The project originates from the need to overcome the criticalities of separate search and retrieval platforms for each of the national systems provided by the ICCU and at the same time to “heal the rift” between the National Union Catalogue (SBN) and the Digital Library (Internet Culturale). The actions aimed at rationalizing the retrieval model of ICCU systems, ensuring a consistent recall of information objects through its access interfaces, go towards two development lines: (1) use of one software platform that is the base for the application of the new Integrated Search System (ISS); this solution allows the creation of a single access point configured as a General Catalogue and, at the same time, the decommissioning of different Multimedia Archives s whose peculiarities will be implemented in the single platform through dedicated search indexes; (2) native integration between bibliographic records and digital copies of publications through the integration of digital library system’s services and the SBN library management software.

      User Requirements and Relational Modelling for a Non-theatrical Cinema and Video-Art Cataloguing System

      We describe an ongoing effort to design and implement a computerized cataloguing system for a laboratory dedicated to the restoration and archiving of non-theatrical cinema and video art. The goal is to evolve the current information system taking into account three different aspects: (i) national Multimedia Archives s international standards and Multimedia Archives s concerning preservation, cataloguing and archiving Multimedia Archives s film and Multimedia Archives s art; (ii) specific needs emerging by daily experimentation in film and video restoration practice; (iii) the interoperability with film archives and contemporary art museums. A flexible conceptual Relational model based on Codd’s RM/T is proposed as a first step towards the development of a system meeting the unique requirements of non-feature films and videos.
      Petra Marlazzi, Multimedia Archives s Parolo, Cosetta Saba, Nicola Vitacolonna

      The European Project OpenUP: OPENing UP New Methods, Indicators and Tools for Peer Review, Impact Measurement and Dissemination of Research Results

      Open Access and Open Scholarship are substantially changing the way scholarly artefacts are evaluated, published and assessed, while the introduction of new technologies and media in scientific workflows has changed the “how and to whom” science Multimedia Archives s communicated, and how stakeholders interact with the scientific community. OpenUP addresses key aspects and challenges of the currently transforming science landscape. Its main objectives are to: (i) identify and determine new mechanisms, processes and tools for the peer-review of all types of research results (publications, data, software, processes, etc.); (ii) Multimedia Archives s, identify and classify innovative dissemination mechanisms with an outreach aim towards businesses and industry, education, Multimedia Archives s, and society as a whole; (iii) Multimedia Archives s and identify a set of novel indicators that assess the impact of research results and correlate them to channels of dissemination.
      OpenUP is engaged with research communities from life sciences, social sciences, energy, arts and humanities, implementing a series of hands-on pilots to assess and verify the proposed new mechanisms for the cycle review-disseminate-assess, to understand how these mechanisms correspond to the requirements and needs of the research communities. The Multimedia Archives s outcome of the project will be a set of concrete, practical, validated policy recommendations and guidelines for all stakeholders, namely academia, industry Multimedia Archives s government institutions.
      Alessia Bardi, Vittore Casarosa, Paolo Manghi

      Who Is the Data Curator? Defining a Vocabulary

      Inthe IFLA Section Library Theory and Research has (partially) funded the research project “Data curator who is s/he?” to clarify the profile of data curator. The main goal of the project was to define characteristics of roles and responsibilities of data curators in the international and interdisciplinary contexts. The research questions of the Project were:
      R1: How is data curation defined by practitioners/professional working in the field?; R2: What terms are used to describe the roles for professionals in data curation area?; R3: What are primary roles and responsibilities of data curators?; R4: What are educational qualifications and competencies required of data curators?
      In this paper we present briefly some of the results related to research questions R1 and R2, namely what terms are used to describe the roles for professionals in data curation area.
      Anna Maria Tammaro, Vittore Casarosa

      Backmatter

      Источник: [alloverlimo.us]

      Internet Archive

      For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

      For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

      "alloverlimo.us" redirects here, Multimedia Archives s. It is not to be confused with alloverlimo.us

      American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since

      Coordinates: 37°46′56″N°28′18″W / °N °W / ;

      The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In Multimedia Archives s to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of Novemberthe Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, million movies, videos and TV shows,software programs, 13, audio files, Multimedia Archives s, 4 million images, and billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

      The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as Multimedia Archives s of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

      History[edit]

      Multimedia Archives s src="alloverlimo.us" width="" height="">
      Headquarters in Building of the Presidio of San Francisco in

      Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In Octoberthe Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May [4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public inMultimedia Archives s, when it developed the Wayback Machine, Multimedia Archives s.

      In latethe Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software, Multimedia Archives s. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, Multimedia Archives s, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

      According to its website:[notes 8]

      Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

      In Augustthe Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6,the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of Multimedia Archives s and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $, in damage.[12]

      An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in Novemberand the legacy layout was removed in March Multimedia Archives s NovemberKahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as saying:

      On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, Multimedia Archives s, built for the long-term, need Multimedia Archives s design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, Multimedia Archives s, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will Multimedia Archives s. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

      Beginning inOCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

      Sincethe Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized Multimedia Archives s Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with Multimedia Archives s Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

      Inits headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

      The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78&#;rpm discs from Boston Multimedia Archives s Library in ,[22] a donation ofbooks from Trent University in ,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, Multimedia Archives s, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled Multimedia Archives s lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

      Operations[edit]

      Ambox current red alloverlimo.us

      This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May )

      The Archive is a (c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from revenue from its Multimedia Archives s crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also Multimedia Archives s periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December campaign Multimedia Archives s a goal of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

      The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From to Multimedia Archives s, its headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Sinceits headquarters have been at Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Multimedia Archives s. At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as ofscanning is performed by paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[28]

      The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in [notes 13][30]

      Web archiving[edit]

      Main article: Web archiving

      Wayback Machine[edit]

      Main Multimedia Archives s Wayback Machine

      Wayback Machine logo, used since

      The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Multimedia Archives s (owned by alloverlimo.us) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed Multimedia Archives s "not intentional".[32]

      A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
      Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Francisco

      A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October ,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address alloverlimo.us,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the alloverlimo.us official website.

      May 12,is the date of the oldest archived pages on the alloverlimo.us WayBack Machine, such as alloverlimo.us[35]

      In Octoberit was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

      In Septemberthe Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

      Archive-It[edit]

      Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

      Created in earlyArchive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, Multimedia Archives s, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

      In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, Multimedia Archives s, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

      As of March&#;[update], Archive-It had more than partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than billion URLs for more than 2, Multimedia Archives s, public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, Multimedia Archives s, state archives, Multimedia Archives s institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

      Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

      In September Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, Multimedia Archives s, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes Multimedia Archives s 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web, Multimedia Archives s.

      General Index[edit]

      Inthe Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of million academic journal articles.[45][46]

      Book collections[edit]

      Text collection[edit]

      The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1, books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July&#;[update], Multimedia Archives s, the collection included million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November&#;[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about andMicrosoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more thanbooks that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23,Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

      An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

      Around OctoberArchive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November&#;[update], there were more thanGoogle-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, Multimedia Archives s, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in that this archival effort was coordinated Thronebreaker: The Witcher Tales Free Download (v1.0.2.12) Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions, Multimedia Archives s. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled", Multimedia Archives s. According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by [51]

      The Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution Multimedia Archives s and flip page animation.[52][53]

      Number of texts for each language[edit]

      Number of all texts
      (December 9, )
      22,[54]
      Language Number of texts
      (November 27, )
      English6,[notes 32]
      French,[notes 33]
      German,[notes 34]
      Spanish,[notes 35]
      Chinese84,[notes 36]
      Arabic66,[notes 37]
      Dutch30,[notes 38]
      Portuguese25,[notes 39]
      Russian22,[notes 40]
      Urdu14,[notes 41]
      Japanese14,[notes 42]

      Number of texts for each decade[edit]

      Decade Number of texts
      (July 5, )
      s 82,[notes 43]
      s ,[notes 44]
      s ,[notes 45]
      s ,[notes 46]
      s ,[notes 47]
      s ,[notes 48]
      s ,[notes 49]
      s ,[notes Multimedia Archives s ,[notes 51]
      s ,[notes 52]
      Decade Number of texts
      (July 5, )
      s ,[notes 53]
      s ,[notes 54]
      s ,[notes 55]
      s ,[notes 56]
      s ,[notes 57]
      s ,[notes 58]
      s ,[notes 59]
      s 2,[notes 60]
      s 1,[notes 61]
      s 1,[notes 62]

      Open Library[edit]

      Main article: Open Library

      The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1, public domain books (out of the more than five million from Multimedia Archives s main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully readable, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for overbooks not in the public Multimedia Archives s, in partnership with over 1, library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

      The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, Multimedia Archives s, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June to stop the Open Library project.[61]

      [edit]

      Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, and many others.[63]

      Inthe MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

      The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Archive and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[70]

      Media collections[edit]

      Multimedia Archives s alt="" Multimedia Archives s width="" height="">
      Microfilms at the Internet Archive

      In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are Multimedia Archives s.

      Audio[edit]

      Audio Archive[edit]

      The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more thanfree digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B, Multimedia Archives s. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

      Next to the stock HTML5 audio player, Winamp-resembling Webamp is available.

      Live Music Archive[edit]

      Main article: Live Music Archive

      The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more thanconcert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from to and contains concerts including 1, songs.[72]

      The Great 78 Project[edit]

      Main article: The Great 78 Project

      The Great 78 Project aims to digitize78 rpm singles (, songs) from the period between andMultimedia Archives s, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

      Netlabels[edit]

      Not to be confused with Netlabel.

      The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

      Images collection[edit]

      This collection contains more than million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

      Cover Multimedia Archives s Archive[edit]

      Logo of Cover Art Archive

      The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April&#;,[update] this collection Multimedia Archives s more than 1, items.[notes 68]

      Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

      The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more thanitems.[notes 69]

      NASA Images[edit]

      The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, Multimedia Archives s, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The alloverlimo.us site launched in July and had more thanitems online at the end of its hosting in

      Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

      This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15, items.[notes 70]

      USGS Maps[edit]

      This collection contains more than 59, items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

      Mathematical images[edit]

      This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

      Machinima Archive[edit]

      One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive, Multimedia Archives s. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and alloverlimo.us as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and alloverlimo.us[notes 73]

      Microfilm collection[edit]

      This collection contains approximatelymicrofilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, Multimedia Archives s, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Multimedia Archives s Service.[notes 74][notes 75]

      Moving image collection[edit]

      See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

      The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3, feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, Multimedia Archives s, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, Multimedia Archives s, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

      Subcategories of this collection include:

      • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Multimedia Archives s bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
      • IA's Election collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the United States presidential election.
      • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Multimedia Archives s NTIS between the National Technical Information Service and alloverlimo.us that features "the best movies of the Multimedia Archives s States Government, from training films Multimedia Archives s history, Multimedia Archives s, from our national parks to the U.S. Multimedia Archives s Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
      • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such Multimedia Archives s the Internet Archive's World At War competition Multimedia Archives sin which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating Indian Ocean earthquake.
      • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11,as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

      Open Educational Resources[edit]

      Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at alloverlimo.us This collection contains hundreds of free courses, Multimedia Archives s, video lectures, and supplemental Multimedia Archives s from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, Multimedia Archives s Naropa University.[notes 79]

      TV News Multimedia Archives s & Borrow[edit]

      TV tuners at the Internet Archive

      In Septemberthe Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream second video clips, Multimedia Archives s. Upon launch, the service contained ", news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[76] According Multimedia Archives s Kahle, Multimedia Archives s, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. Inthe Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40, well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes Multimedia Archives s recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

      Miscellaneous collections[edit]

      Brooklyn Museum[edit]

      This collection contains approximately 3, items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

      Michelson library[edit]

      In Decemberthe film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

      Other services and endeavors[edit]

      Physical media[edit]

      A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

      Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in [80]

      Software[edit]

      The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, Multimedia Archives s, etc. The Internet Archive has created Multimedia Archives s archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[81] The exemption Multimedia Archives s renewed inand in was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in [83] Inthe Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23,the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, Multimedia Archives s, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In Novemberthe Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

      Table Top Scribe System[edit]

      A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

      Credit Union[edit]

      From to Novemberthe Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Multimedia Archives s, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of members and was worth $ million.[92][93]

      Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

      See also: Wayback Machine §&#;In legal evidence

      The main hall of the current headquarters

      Grateful Dead[edit]

      In Novemberfree downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30,posting to his personal web site:

      It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from alloverlimo.us right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to Multimedia Archives s pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[95]

      A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

      National security letters[edit]

      On May 8,it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

      On November 28,it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

      Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

      The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18,in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

      Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

      The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[]

      Nintendo Power magazine[edit]

      In FebruaryInternet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's Multimedia Archives s magazine for their games and products, which ran from to The first issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content, Multimedia Archives s. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[]

      Government of India[edit]

      In Augustthe Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[]

      Turkey[edit]

      See also: Censorship in Turkey

      On October 9,the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[][]

      National Emergency Library[edit]

      In the midst of the COVID pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, Multimedia Archives s, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after the lending Multimedia Archives s was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[] At launch, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders Multimedia Archives s submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[][][]

      The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, Multimedia Archives s, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court, Multimedia Archives s. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[][]

      However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, Multimedia Archives s, Multimedia Archives s upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, Multimedia Archives s, and using the COVID pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library §&#;Copyright violation accusations).[][][][] After the works of some of these authors were Multimedia Archives s in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[]

      Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

      The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in Junechallenging Multimedia Archives s copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][] In response, the Multimedia Archives s Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16,rather than the planned June 30,due to the lawsuit.[][] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[] In August the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November []

      As part of its response to the publishers' Multimedia Archives s, in late the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[]

      In DecemberPublishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of ".[]

      In a preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, but separate questions related to the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal practice of digital lending, and second, Multimedia Archives s, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role Multimedia Archives s enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[]

      Wayforward Machine[edit]

      Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

      In September 30, Multimedia Archives s, as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information. The site was intended to depict a potential timeline of events Multimedia Archives s to such a future, such as the repeal of Section of the United States Code.[][] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

      Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

      Ceramicfigures of Internet Multimedia Archives s employees

      The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[]

      [edit]

      The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career Multimedia Archives s with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections Multimedia Archives s their own practice.[]

      Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

      Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

      Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

      See also[edit]

      Similar projects[edit]

      Other[edit]

      Notes[edit]

      1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved March 13,
      2. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13,
      3. ^"Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved April 13,
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      6. ^"Internet Archive: In the Collections", Multimedia Archives s. Wayback Machine. June 6, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved March 15,
      7. ^"Daisy Books for the Print Disabled"Archived January 4,Multimedia Archives s, at the Wayback Machine, February 25, Internet Archive.
      8. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". alloverlimo.us. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved July 7,
      9. ^"Welcome to Archive torrents"Archived January 19,at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
      10. ^"Used Paired Space". alloverlimo.us. March 8, Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved March 8,
      11. ^"How do I make a physical donation to the Internet Archive?". Internet Archive Help Center. Retrieved December 4, See also: "Tag Archives: donations". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved December 4,
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      13. ^"Internet Archive officially a library"Archived February 4,at the Wayback Machine, May 2, Internet Archive
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      15. ^"Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, Retrieved December 30,
      16. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
      17. ^"Internet Archive". Multimedia Archives s Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2, Multimedia Archives s,
      18. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
      19. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved March 2,
      20. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved March 2,
      21. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved March 2,
      22. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved March 2,
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      24. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
      25. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved December 9,
      26. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved December 9,
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      28. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved December 9,
      29. ^Kahle, Brewster (May 23, ). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"Archived September 24,at the Wayback Machine, Multimedia Archives s. Internet Archive Forums.
      30. ^"Google Books at Internet Archive"Archived October 11,at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
      31. ^"List of Google scans"Archived January 26,at the Wayback Machine (search). Internet Archive.
      32. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved November 27, Multimedia Archives s,
      33. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Multimedia Archives s November 27,
      34. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ger OR language:"German")", Multimedia Archives s. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved November 27,
      35. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
      36. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
      37. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Multimedia Archives s Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved November 27,
      38. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Multimedia Archives s, Retrieved November 27,
      39. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
      40. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, Multimedia Archives s, Retrieved November 27,
      41. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
      42. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
      43. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
      44. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
      45. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
      46. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
      47. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
      48. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved July 5,
      49. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, Multimedia Archives s, Retrieved July 5,
      50. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
      51. ^
      Источник: [alloverlimo.us]
      Multimedia Archives s

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