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In the 21st Century, if we talk about Windows, then we will get a lot of versions. Windows was originated way back in 1985, and it is now the top-class operating system. Days after days, we see different operating systems coming up, but it does not affect Windows. Among the entire Windows version, we can see that Windows 7 has become very popular and has its significance.

Many experts say that Windows 7 is an operating system that was introduced by Microsoft as a member of the Windows NT group of operating systems. JetBrains PyCharm v2.5.1 crack serial keygen system was launched in July 2009 and was officially available in the month of October. Although, today, we can see new versions of Windows Windows 7 remains as it is.

But before installing Windows 7, we require the Windows 7 product key, which is the essential thing. We can say that without this thing, we cannot install the operating system, and it will result in failure. The users have got the best possible benefits after using this and observed a lot of changes in their works.

Before Windows 7, many versions have come and gone, but it remains popular even today. There are the latest versions of Windows, which has penetrated deeply, but it does not affect Windows 7. Two sorts of operating systems are there for Windows 7, one is 32 bit, and another one is 64 bit.

Features of Windows 7

There are some features of Windows 7 with which the system is reliable and faster. Everyone has to be aware of these features so that we do not face any further problems.

  1. With the latest Windows 7 activation key, it upgrades the Tablet functions so that corrections can be made easily. It can easily identify mathematical expressions so that you do not have to do any further hard works. Extra language support for handwriting identification can be regenerated by downloading the latest package for a specific language.
  2. It has come up with a step recorder of problems that allows the user to track the record of their interaction with the software. This feature displays a duplicate of a problem to give a quick and easy solution.
  3. The first edition of Windows 7 can run an ample number of applications, which was not easy in other Windows. With this feature, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, there are no chances of hanging, and you can work easily on your device.
  4. There are few developments with which the applications can are installed in a short period.
  5. If an application is damaged twice or thrice in a row, it will itself apply a block. There are several applications which are failed while installing there is a tool that can provide prelaunch the install.
  6. The latest console is attached to the new theme of windows, which cannot display the classical theme.
  7. There are the latest games on Windows 7, which were not there in the other windows.
  8. You will get the best components which you might not have imagined in the earlier windows.
  9. The memory manager is advanced to reduce the problems of total memory usage.
  10. The graphics system is updated on a day to day basis so that it can allow different file formats.
  11. There is an encoded file that supports a specific algorithm in Windows 7. With this algorithm, your operating system is safely secured, and you can get exclusive features.
  12. If your battery is obsolete and it needs repairing, then you will get a proper 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen a new energy parameter, it can produce a report of your device’s energy. It can also showcase your variety of information related to queries of settings.
  13. A power shell option is there with which you can download older platforms.
  14. Includes the latest browsers of Internet Explorer that can modify your browsing a lot.
  15. Gives you an ability to join any section even if you are offline
  16. The 64-bit versions introduce a modified framework of scheduling with which all the databases can be controlled. Few applications require a large number of threads that can get the best advantage from this framework.
  17. The Bluetooth option is there, which supports all kinds of devices.
  18. The media player in Windows 7 has updated so much that you will get the best features in it. With the help of it, you can play files of different formats.
  19. The latest technology is the Xbox 360, where you can get high definition games, but you might need a subscription.
  20. You might get the latest Direct X software which you could not find in the other windows.
  21. There is also an Aero option with which you can control the screen while shaking
  22. The foremost thing is the desktop slideshow with which the wallpaper keeps changing after an interval. You will get local images obtained by the Windows software, which is eye appealing.
  23. There are supports of much virtual software through which programs can be easily restored.

How to use Windows 7 activator?

If Sony Vegas Pro 19 Crack With Serial Number {Latest} Free Download are thinking of using a windows 7 activation key, it is not that difficult. It can be easy. You would not get too many options that can make you reliable to use it. There is just a simple button which you need to press so that it can be easily activated.

There are also other alternatives that you can follow like a deactivating Antivirus option. With the help of this, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, there can be no problems, and you can activate it easily. They do 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen have a virus, but there are few pirated tools that can infect the whole process. This is a major thing so that you do not face any virus problem in your program.

If you are activating it with an antivirus product, then your product can be ostracized. Do not try it at your own risk; take the help of an expert. In other countries, there are strict rules and regulations which can land you up in trouble. Beware of whatever you are doing and make sure that things are done on a careful basis.

Download Windows 7 Activator

There is a particular website from where you can download this Activator in an easy manner. Users often get confused about the downloading process and think that it is difficult. This website does 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen display any pop-up advertisements, or anything like that.

Step 1: Click on the download button, which is located below the website.

Step 2: After downloading, you will be redirected to a download page where you will find more details about the product. Under that table, you will see another download button, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, which is your next step.

Step 3: After clicking that, you will be redirected to another website where you will see two major options. If you have a registered account on that particular website, then you do not have to work hard.

Important note: Never ever disable your antivirus before downloading as it can be harmful to you and for other users. The activator can easily be removed from your device, and your hard work can be wasted.

Activation Method 

There are various ways by which you can activate Windows 7. With the Windows 7 pro key, you can also activate it without a product key. There are many users who do not get a product key for them; it is essential. People think that it is necessary to activate it with a 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen key, but it is not.

Many users have benefited without using the product key. As a result, you can rely on it, but everyone has to be aware of different 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. At the end of the day, it will be good for you and your friends who are using it.

Activation Method using a product key

The activation process with Windows 7 serial key is iMazing 2.11.1 Crack Archives and simple. You might require a genuine Windows 7 product key with which it would not be more time-consuming.

Step 1: Click on the start bar

Step 2: On the search box, type “activate windows.”

Step 3: Select the option “Activate Windows” from the finding results.

Step 4: Alternatively, you can also select “Active Now” option that appears on the taskbar

Step 5: Insert the Windows 7 product key details and select the option validate

It will hardly take time if your internet speed is fast and reliable. There are few users who might have used this process, and you will get a strict notification. It will notify you that you have extended the limit of activation for that specific key. The system will prefer a different key, and then you can click on the “Retry” option.

Windows 7 Home Basic Product Key


Windows 7 Ultimate Product Key 2020


Windows 7 Starter Product Key 2020

  • 2V3W2-JXTTR-28RD8-R228D-KR69C
  • 22P26-HD8YH-RD96C-28R8J-DCT28
  • 273P4-GQ8V6-97YYM-9YTHF-DC2VP

Windows 7 Home Premium Serial Key 2020

  • 2V36J-4RK8B-GW27Q-4DXPG-RQP78
  • 4FG99-BC3HD-73CQT-WMF7J-3Q6C9
  • 4G3GR-J6JDJ-D96PV-T9B9D-M8X2Q
  • 38JTJ-VBPFW-XFQDR-PJ794-8447M

Windows 7 Professional serial Key 2020

  • 237XB-GDJ7B-MV8MH-98QJM-24367

Windows 7 Product keys for activation 2020

  • 74T2M-DKDBC-788W3-H689G-6P6GT

Activation method without a product key

We know that a product key is one of the finest ways to activate Windows 7. You might not get free windows 7 product key, which you think can be complicated for you. You need to follow two simple methods if you are not using a product key.

1st Method: Delete the Software License user interface file.

After deleting this file, you can easily activate Windows 7, which would not be time-consuming. There are few steps which you have to be aware of.

Step 1: Go to “My computer” and open the C drive

Step 2: Search the file name System 32 and open it.

Step SolveigMM Video Splitter 7.6.2106.09 With Crack [Latest] With the search option, find the Software license user interface 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen 4: In this file, you will get several Windows 7 keys. Just delete it.

Step 5: Right-click on the tool and choose the option “properties.”

Step 6: A new window will appear, from there, you can tap the security tab and select the option “Users.”

Step 7: Select the 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen option advanced to disclose a new window with a modified software license user interface security settings.

Step 8: Tap the owner button and choose the owner as its user, and you can select “Apply.”

Step 9: Move back to the folder which has the software license user interface file.

Step 10: Again, right-click on the file and choose “Properties.”

Step 11: Tap on the security tab again, choose users, and tap the edit option

Step 12: In the next window, you can easily update permission for the latest user.

Step 13: Tap the username option and select a tick mark on the box beside the full control. It can easily activate without the product key.

Step 14: Select OK and shut all the disclosed windows which you do not want.

Step 15: Tap the software license user interface file and press the delete option on the keypad.

You can also try an alternative method if this method does not work.

2nd Method: Using Command

This is another alternative method in which you can try and get your favorable advantage of activating Windows 7. Necessary steps you need to follow and remember so that it is easy for you.

Step 1: Insert command to the Windows search and switch it as a system admin.

Step 2: Enter a specific command in the “command” button

Step 3: Press enter on your keypad

Step 4: Relaunch your system after you get a specific instruction.

Step 5: After relaunching, it goes back to the command again and types the specific command.

Step 6: Again, click on enter your activation will be successful. You will get a notification saying that it has been successfully activated.

Activation using a code

One of the simplest forms of Activating Windows 7 is by using a specific command code. Under this method, you do not have to download any specific tool or any folder. The best thing you have to do is to copy the code and paste it, which can be easy for everyone. These are just simple steps that you need to follow, and your work is done.

You do not have to be a computer expert for it, but you can easily do it. Just follow these steps in the right manner so that you do not have to face any further problems.

Step 1: Visit the specific link and copy that code, which you can see there.

Step 2: After copying the code, do not forget to deactivate your Windows protector and other antivirus tools. It is the most important thing which has to be followed by every user.

Step 3: Go to the desktop and create a fresh document and name it as Windows 7 Activator.cmd

Step 4: Just save your file and leave that window 

Step 5: After this, give a right-click on the fresh file and select Run as administrator.

Step 6: You will be asked for a password insert it, and your script will get activated.

With this process, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, you will see your windows will be activated in a few minutes. Just relaunch your system, then right tap on “My Computer” and select the option “Properties.” You can see how the process is easy and can be done within a few minutes.

Recommended: Windows 10 Product Keys

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding Windows 7 Product Key

1. Is this activation used only for Windows 7 professional?

It can be used for many versions of Windows 7, not for a particular version. The activator supports all the versions of the operating system so that you do not face any problems. As a result, you can activate the operating system with a particular tool. If you are following any other method, then you can check the similarity.

2. Is Windows 7 activation safe?

Yes, it is safe to activate Windows 7 if you have a specific product key. But, make sure that you go through all the procedures briefly. If you do not follow the required procedures, then you can face a lot of problems.

3. Are there viruses in the activation key?

No, you would not get any virus as it is a safe procedure, and it’s free from traktor scratch pro 3 crack Archives virus, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. It is scanned in a process that there cannot be any virus. It is necessary for you to 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen antivirus as these folders are ostracized by a specific program.

4. Are there any chances of a fake activation key?

No, if you have purchased it from Microsoft, then you might not face OfficeSuite Premium Edition Crack 4.20 Activation Code [2020] problem. But, if you purchase it from somewhere else, then it might be a fake. While purchasing, be careful and make the right choice. So, do not hurry and choose the right thing so that you can save time and money.

5. What will happen if the copied code is not working? 

Make sure to copy the code from a particular extension so that it can work easily, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. You can also use it in notepad, but it has to be updated and modified so that the code can be easily copied. Remember, this code is the simplest and the easiest method so that you do not require much time.

6. Is it necessary to activate Windows 7?

No, it is not, but you will get a lot of advantages and benefits from it, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. It can give you the latest features, which will improve your operating system in the right manner.

7. What happens 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen you don’t activate Windows 7?

If you don’t activate Windows 7 during installation, you will see an “Activate Windows Online Now” message in the system tray. Also, Windows 7 will not perform any system updates after the grace period is over.

8. Is it safe to use Windows 7 after 2020?

Yes, you can continue using Windows 7 after 2020. It will continue to run normally without any hassles. However, you are advised to upgrade to Windows 10 before January 14, 2020, as Microsoft will discontinue all their software updates, technical support, security updates, or any other fixes after that date.

9. What is the product key of Windows 7?

Windows product key is a 25 character code that is used to activate the operating system. However, you should know that the Windows 7 product key is not provided by Microsoft. This also includes DVD and product key stickers or labels for any version of Windows 7 to activate without its hardware.

10. Is the product ID the same as the product key?

No, the product ID and product key are two different things. The product key is a 25 character code which is required to activate Windows. On the other hand, product ID identifies which version of Windows you have.

11. Will these product keys harm my computer in any way?

These product keys are only for upgrading your operating system, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. It doesn’t harm you in any way, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. People are often concerned about the upgrade key as they are unaware of the fact that these are a key for upgrading windows to different versions.

12. Can we put any of the keys for an upgrade?

The above excerpt is equipped with specified keys for different upgrades. It holds keys for an upgrade to premium, professional, ultimate, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, and other windows update. These are free of cost.

13. Do we need to pay anything for attaining the window upgrade keys?

No, these are free of cost upgrade keys that can help you to get the advanced version of windows quickly. The above keys can be used for an upgrade.

14. How much time does it take to upgrade windows?

While upgrading windows, it is hard to specify the time for the upgrade. Though on average it takes a maximum of 30 minutes for upgrading to any other version of windows. It is recommended to follow all the directions while upgrading the same.

15. Is it legal to opt for those upgrade keys which are available on the internet for free?

Yes, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, these are legal and safe as you aren’t liable to any criminal suit for attaining these. However, it depends on the credibility and the expiration of the key, which can only be achieved by using them.

16. From where can we download other upgrade keys?

You can easily download upgrade keys from the internet as numerous sites provide upgrade keys. However, the credibility of those keys is vague as some of the sites offer fake upgrade keys that don’t work at all.

17. Can I use Windows 7 without activation?

Users can install and run any version of Windows 7 for up to 30 days without activation. But after the 30-days period is over, you are required to activate Windows 7 using the 25-character alphanumeric activation key.

18. Can I get a free Windows 7 product key?

Yes, you can use Windows 7 for free by using the working product key. In case, you are having any problem with your Windows 7, you just have to enter a genuine serial key. 

19. Is Windows 7 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen ID the same as product key?

No, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, the Windows 7 product ID is different from the product key. The Product ID is used to identify the version of Windows you are using. On the other hand, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, the Windows product key is a 25 character alphanumeric code that is used to activate Windows.

20. Where can we find the Windows 7 Xtream Path (for Adobe Illustrator) 1.4 crack serial keygen key?

If your PC is pre-loaded with Windows 7, you will probably find a Certificate of Authenticity (COA) sticker somewhere on your device. Your Windows 7 activation key is printed there on the sticker. The COA sticker can be located on the back, bottom, top, or any side of your PC.

21. How many digits is a Windows 7 product key?

The Windows 7 product key consists of a sequence of 25 numbers and letters. It is divided into 5 groups consisting of 5 characters each. For example, XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX. You need the Windows 7 product key to activate your copy of Windows which is either 32-bit or 64-bit. The Windows 7 product key is provided to you at the time of purchase.

Recommended: Windows 8 Product Keys


Therefore, we have known about the product key and its relevance. This will help you with easy activation. Choose the right thing and upgrade your windows so that you do not face any problems.


Category: Product KeysWindows

About Tessa Love

Tessa Love is a Senior Writer at VOIVO InfoTech. She is very much interested in the latest 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen launching in the market. Her work has appeared at various popular media sites such as BBC, The Outline, DAME, etc. Also, she likes to share the latest tech news from the market. To get in touch with Tessa for news reports you can email her on [email protected] or reach her out on social media links given below.

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Ant Download Manager 2.4.3 Crack + Serial Number Download 2021

Ant Download Manager 2.4.3 Crack is a fast web-based file download manager with advanced audio and video download functions. It is a fast and easy program to download any web file. The application has many useful functions, various content that you can download, search, manage on the Internet. This software is an application that allows you to easily organize and track your downloads. You can rely on this program to capture online content and easily store it on your computer. You can easily add an item to the queue by copying the download link to your clipboard. The app will automatically detect this and allow you to enter the saved path.

Ant Download Manager Crack

Ant Download Manager Crack is a simple and fast download application that makes it easy to download all online content video files. It is an integrated download manager application that works with the most popular web browser Internet Explorer. Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, Slimjet, ComodoDragon. This application has a simple and easy user interface and offers various customizable options and capabilities. It can stream media and record audio or video from popular video magazines. Use special Digital Rights Management (DRM) protection for their content.

Ant Download Manager Crack + Keygen:

Ant Download Manager Keygen is a fast web content downloader with video download support, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Provides full integration with Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and their clones Comodo IceDragon, and F4M, MPEG, media streaming protocols. Download categories, and speed, multilingual support. Animated list of downloaded samples, portability, functions, and release. Supports various media services Youtube, Vimeo, DailyMotion.

The Internet is a mine of knowledge, and video is one of the most effective ways to spread information around the world. As a result, no one can blame people for downloading all kinds of videos. There is so much video download software on the market. Ultimately it will be a matter of personal opinion, and in my opinion, this software and Video Downloader from ant GROUP are some of the best programs for this purpose.

Ant Download Manager Key and Video Downloader have a unique design. Available in blue, white, and orange colors. The font they used is uppercase and lowercase, and their ant mascot can be seen at the top of the program. This is one of those icons. Not necessarilybad, but maybe not for everyone. The icons are beautiful. 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen speed icon changes depending on your choice. It looks like a high-speed and a low-speed snail. The interaction is loving. It can upload videos, it can manage and organize your uploads.

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  • Recording a video, AntDM always provides an audio-video clip and converts it to MP3 format. To do this,
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  • The main download list has a simple function to 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen your video files.

Ant Download Manager Crack

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  • Ant Download Manager Pro Download the latest and greatest version for Windows.
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  • The built-in video capture browser allows you to download videos.
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  • It might be a good idea to download VSO Downloader Ultimate 5.

Ant Download Manager Activation Keys





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System Requirements

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How to Crack?

  • First of all download the software.
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Official Web Link

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Windows Secure Boot Key Creation and Management Guidance

This document helps guide OEMs and ODMs in creation and management of the Adobe Photoshop CS2 Full Version crack serial keygen Boot keys and certificates in a manufacturing environment. It addresses questions related to creation, storage and retrieval of Platform Keys (PKs), secure firmware update keys, and third party Key Exchange Keys (KEKs).


These steps are not specific to PC OEMs. Enterprises and customers can also use these steps to configure their servers to support Secure Boot.

Windows requirements for UEFI and Secure Boot can be found in the Windows Hardware Certification Requirements. This paper does not introduce new requirements or represent an official Windows program. It is intended as guidance beyond certification requirements, to assist in building efficient and secure processes for creating and managing Secure Boot Keys. This is important because UEFI Secure Boot is based on the usage of Public Key Infrastructure to authenticate code before allowed to execute.

The reader is expected to know the fundamentals of UEFI, basic understanding of Secure Boot (Chapter 27 of the UEFI specification), and PKI security model.

Requirements, tests, and tools validating Secure 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen on Windows are available today through the Windows Hardware Certification Kit (HCK). However, these HCK resources do not address creation and management of keys for Windows deployments. This paper addresses key management as a resource to help guide partners through deployment of the keys used by the firmware. It is not intended as prescriptive guidance and does not include any new requirements.

On this page:

This document serves as a starting point in developing customer ready PCs, factory deployment tools and key security best practices.

1. Secure Boot, Windows and Key Management

The UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) specification defines a firmware execution authentication process called Secure Boot. As an industry standard, Secure Boot defines how platform firmware manages certificates, authenticates firmware, and how the operating system interfaces with this process.

Secure Boot is based on the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) process to authenticate modules before they are allowed to execute, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. These modules can include firmware drivers, option ROMs, UEFI drivers on disk, UEFI applications, or UEFI boot loaders. Through image authentication before execution, Secure Boot reduces the risk of pre-boot malware attacks such as rootkits. Microsoft relies on UEFI Secure Boot in Windows 8 and above as part of its Trusted Boot security architecture to improve platform security for our customers. Secure Boot is required for Windows 8 and above client PCs, and for Windows Server 2016 as defined in the Windows Hardware Compatibility Requirements.

The Secure Boot process works as follows and as shown in Figure 1:

  1. Firmware Boot Components: The firmware verifies the OS loader is trusted (Windows or another trusted operating system.)
  2. Windows boot components: BootMgr, WinLoad, Windows Kernel Startup. Windows boot components verify the signature on each component. Any non-trusted components will not be loaded and instead will trigger Secure Boot remediation.
    • Antivirus and Antimalware Software initialization: This software is checked for a special signature issued by Microsoft verifying that it is a trusted boot critical driver, and will launch early in the boot process.
    • Boot Critical Driver initialization: The signatures on all Boot-critical drivers are checked as part of Secure Boot verification in WinLoad.
  3. Additional OS Initialization
  4. Windows Logon Screen

image of platform integrity architecture

Figure 1: Windows Trusted Boot Architecture

Implementation of UEFI Secure Boot is part of Microsoft’s Trusted Boot Architecture, introduced Windows 7 Product Key For All Editions 32-64Bit [2021] Windows 8.1. A growing trend in the evolution of malware exploits is targeting the boot path as a preferred attack vector. This class of attack has been difficult to guard against, since antimalware products can be disabled by malicious software that prevents them from loading entirely. With Windows Trusted Boot architecture and its establishment of a root of trust with Secure Boot, the customer is protected from malicious code executing in the boot path by ensuring that only signed, certified "known good" code and boot loaders can execute before the operating system itself loads.

1.1 Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Secure Boot

The PKI establishes authenticity and trust in a system. Boson netsim crack serial keygen Boot leverages PKI for two high-level purposes:

  1. During boot to determine if early boot modules are trusted for execution.
  2. To authenticate requests to service requests include modification of Secure Boot databases and updates to platform firmware.

A PKI consists of:

  • A certificate authority (CA) that issues the digital certificates.
  • A registration authority which verifies the identity of users requesting a certificate from the CA.
  • A central directory in which to store and index keys.
  • A certificate management system.

1.2 Public Key Cryptography

Public key cryptography uses a pair of mathematically related cryptographic keys, known as the public and private key. If you know one of the keys, you cannot easily calculate what the other one is. If one key is used to encrypt information, then only the corresponding key can decrypt that information. For Secure Boot, the private key is used to digitally sign code and the public key is used to verify the signature on that code to prove its authenticity. 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen a private key is compromised, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, then systems with corresponding public keys are no longer secure. This can lead to boot kit attacks and will damage the reputation of the 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen responsible for ensuring the security of the private key.

In a Secure Boot public key system you have the following:

  • 1.2.1 RSA 2048 Encryption

    RSA-2048 is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm. The space needed to store an RSA-2048 modulus in raw form is 2048 bits.

  • 1.2.2 Self-signed certificate

    A certificate signed by the private key that matches the public key of the certificate is known as a self-signed certificate. Root certification authority (CA) certificates fall into this category.

  • 1.2.3 Certification Authority

    The certification authority (CA) issues signed certificates that affirm the identity of the certificate subject and bind that identity to the public key contained in the certificate. The CA signs the certificate by using its private key. It issues the corresponding public key to all interested parties in a self-signed root CA certificate.

    In Secure Boot, Certification Authorities (CAs) include the OEM (or their delegates) and Microsoft. The CAs generate the key pairs that form the root of trust and then use the private keys to sign legitimate operations such as allowed early boot EFI modules and firmware servicing requests. The corresponding public keys are shipped embedded into the UEFI firmware on Secure Boot-enabled PCs and are used to verify these operations.

    (More information on usage of CAs and key exchanges is readily available on the internet which relates to the Secure Boot model.)

  • 1.2.4 Public Key

    The public Platform Key ships Search Results Web results CorelDRAW Graphics Suite ACTIVATION CODE Archives the PC and is accessible or "public". In this document we will use the suffix "pub" to denote public key. For example, PKpub denotes the public half of the PK.

  • 1.2.5 Private Key

    For PKI to work the private key needs to be securely managed. It should be accessible to a few highly trusted individuals in an organization and located in a physically secure location with strong access policy restrictions in place. In this document we will use the suffix "priv" to denote private key, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. For example, the PKpriv indicates private half of the PK.

  • 1.2.6 Certificates

    The primary use for digital certificates is to verify the origin of signed data, such as binaries etc. A common use of certificates is for internet message security using Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Verifying the signed data with a certificate lets the recipient know the origin of the data and if it has been altered in transit.

    A digital certificate in general contains, at a high level, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, a distinguished name (DN), a public key, and a signature. The DN identifies an entity -- a company, for example -- that holds the private key that matches the public key of the certificate. Signing the certificate with a private key and placing the signature in the certificate ties the private key 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen the public key.

    Certificates can contain some other types of data. For example, an X.509 certificate includes the format of the certificate, the serial number of the certificate, the algorithm used to sign the certificate, the name of the CA that issued the certificate, the name and public key of the entity requesting the certificate, and the CA's signature.

  • 1.2.7 Chaining certificates

    From: Certificate chains:

    root ca is self-signed, others signed by root ca

    Figure 2: Three-certificate chain

    User certificates are often signed by a different private key, such as a private key of the CA. This constitutes a two-certificate chain. Verifying that a user certificate is genuine involves verifying its signature, which requires the public key of the CA, from its certificate. But before the public key of the CA can be used, the enclosing CA certificate needs to be verified. Because the CA certificate is self-signed, the CA public key is used to verify the certificate.

    A user certificate need not be signed by the private key of the root CA, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. It could be signed by the private key of an intermediary whose certificate is signed by the private key of the CA. This is an instance of a three-certificate chain: user certificate, intermediary certificate, and CA certificate. But more than one intermediary can be part of the chain, so certificate chains can be of any length.

1.3 Secure Boot PKI requirements

The UEFI-defined root of trust consists of the Platform Key and any keys an OEM or ODM includes in 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen firmware core. Pre-UEFI security and a root of trust are not addressed by the UEFI Secure Boot process, but instead by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Trusted Computing Group (TCG) publications referenced in this paper.

  • 1.3.1 Secure Boot requirements

    You’ll need to consider the following parameters for implementing Secure Boot:

    • Customer requirements
    • Windows Hardware Compatibility requirements
    • Key generation and management requirements.

    You would need to pick hardware for Secure Boot key management like Hardware Security Modules (HSMs), consider special requirements on PCs to ship to governments and other agencies and finally the process of creating, populating and managing the life cycle of various Secure Boot keys.

  • 1.3.2 Secure Boot related keys

    The keys used for Secure Boot are below:

    pk, kek, db, dbx, and firmware key, winrt key

    Figure 3: Keys related to Secure Boot

    Figure 3 above represents the signatures and keys in a PC with Secure Boot. The platform is secured through a platform key that the OEM installs in firmware during manufacturing. Other keys are used by Secure Boot to protect access to databases that store keys to allow or disallow execution of firmware.

    The authorized database (db) contains public keys and certificates that represent trusted firmware components and operating system loaders. The forbidden signature database (dbx) contains hashes of malicious and vulnerable components as well as compromised keys and certificates and blocks execution of those malicious components. The strength of these policies is based on signing firmware using Authenticode and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). PKI is a well-established process for creating, managing, and revoking certificates that establish trust during information exchange. PKI is at the core of the security model for Secure Boot.

    Below are more details on these keys.

  • 1.3.3 Platform Key (PK)

    As per section 27.5.1 of the UEFI 2.3.1 Errata C, the platform key establishes a trust relationship between the platform owner and the platform firmware. The platform owner enrolls the public half of the key (PKpub) into the platform firmware as specified in Section 7.2.1 of the UEFI 2.3.1 Errata C. This step moves the platform into user mode from setup mode. Microsoft recommends that the Platform Key be of type with public key algorithm RSA, public key length of 2048 bits, and signature algorithm sha256RSA. The platform owner may use type if storage space is a concern. Public keys are used to check signatures as described earlier in this document. The platform owner can later use the private half of the key (PKpriv):

    • To change platform ownership you must put the firmware into UEFI defined setup mode which disables Secure Boot. Revert to setup mode only if there is a need to do this during manufacturing.
    • For desktop PC, OEMs manage PK and necessary PKI associated with it. For Servers, OEMs by default manage PK and necessary PKI. Enterprise customers or Server customers Jogos de Beatem Up de Graça para Baixar also customize PK, replacing the OEM-trusted PK with a custom-proprietary PK to lock down the trust in UEFI Secure Boot firmware to itself. To enroll or update a Key Exchange Key (KEK) Enrolling the Platform Key

    The platform owner enrolls the public half of the Platform Key (PKpub) by calling the UEFI Boot Service SetVariable() as specified in Section 7.2.1 of UEFI Spec 2.3.1 errata C, and resetting the platform. If the platform is in setup mode, then the new PKpub shall be signed with its PKpriv counterpart. If the platform is in user mode, then the new PKpub must be signed with the current PKpriv. If the PK is of typethen this must be signed by the immediate PKpriv, not a private key of any certificate issued under the PK. Clearing the Platform Key

    The platform owner Как установить Viber на компьютер? the public half of the Platform Key (PKpub) by calling the UEFI Boot Ser¬vice SetVariable() with a variable size of 0 and resetting the platform. If the platform is in setup mode, then the empty variable does not need to be authenticated. If the platform is in user mode, then the empty variable must be signed with the current PKpriv; see Section 7.2(Variable Services) under UEFI specification 2.3.1 Errata C for details. It is strongly recommended that the production PKpriv never be used to sign a package to reset the platform since this allows Secure Boot to be disabled programmatically. This is primarily a pre-production test scenario.

    The platform key may also be cleared using a secure platform-specific method. In this case, the global variable Setup Mode must also be updated to 1.

    7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen pk determines setup mode or user 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen 4: Platform Key State diagram PK generation

    As per UEFI recommendations, the public key must be stored in non-volatile storage which is tamper and delete resistant on the PC. The Private keys stay secure at Partner or in the OEM’s Security Office and only the public key is loaded onto the platform. There are more details under section 2.2.1 and 2.3.

    The number of PK generated is at 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen discretion of the Platform owner (OEM). These keys could be:

    1. One per PC. Having one unique key for each device. This may be required for government agencies, financial institutions, or other server customers with high-security needs. It may require additional storage and crypto processing power to generate private and public keys for large numbers of PCs. This adds the complexity of mapping devices with their corresponding PK when pushing out firmware updates to the devices in the future. There are a few different HSM solutions available to manage large number of keys based on the HSM vendor. Video Editor Archives - All Latest Crack Software Free Download more info, see Secure Boot Key Generation Using HSM.

    2. One per model. Having one key per PC model. The tradeoff here is that if a key is compromised all the machines within the same model would be vulnerable. This is recommended by Microsoft for desktop PCs.

    3. One per product line. If a key is compromised a whole product line would be vulnerable.

    4. One per OEM. While this may be the simplest to set up, if the key is compromised, every PC you manufacture would be vulnerable. To speed up operation on the factory floor, the PK and potentially other keys could be pre-generated and stored in a safe location. These could be later retrieved and used in the assembly line. Chapters 2 and 3 have more details. Rekeying the PK

    This may be needed if the PK gets compromised or as a requirement by a customer that for security reasons may decide to enroll their own PK.

    Rekeying could be done either for a model or PC based on what method was selected to create PK. All the newer PCs will get signed with the newly created PK.

    Updating the PK on a production PC would require either a variable update signed with the existing PK that replaces the PK or a firmware update package. An OEM could also create a SetVariable() package and distribute that with a simple application such as PowerShell that just changes the PK. The firmware update package would be signed by the secure firmware update key and verified by firmware. If doing a firmware update to update the PK, care should be taken to ensure the KEK, db, and dbx are preserved.

    On all PCs, it is recommended to not use the PK as the secure firmware update key. If the PKpriv is compromised then so is the secure firmware update key (since they are the same). In this case the update to enroll a new PKpub might not be possible since the process of updating has also been compromised.

    On SOCs PCs, there is another reason to not use the PK as the secure firmware update key. This is because the secure firmware update key is permanently burnt into fuses on PCs that meet Windows Hardware Certification requirements.

  • 1.3.4 Key Exchange Key (KEK) Key exchange keys establish a trust relationship between the operating system and the platform firmware, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Each operating system (and potentially, each 3rd party application which need to communicate with platform firmware) enrolls a public key (KEKpub) into the platform firmware. Enrolling Key Exchange Keys

    Key exchange keys are stored in a signature database as described in 1.4 Signature Databases (Db and Dbx)). The signature database is stored as an authenticated UEFI variable.

    The platform owner enrolls the key exchange keys by either calling SetVariable() as specified in Section 7.2(Variable Services) under UEFI specification 2.3.1 Errata C. with the attribute set and the Data parameter containing the new key(s), or by reading the database using GetVariable(), appending the new key exchange key to the existing keys and then writing the database using SetVariable()as specified in Section 7.2(Variable Services) under UEFI specification 2.3.1 Errata C without the attribute set.

    If the platform is in setup mode, the signature database variable does not need to be signed but the parameters to the SetVariable() call shall still be prepared as specified for authenticated variables in Section 7.2.1. If the platform is in user mode, the signature database must be signed with the current PKpriv Clearing the KEK

    It is possible to "clear" (delete) the KEK. Note that if the PK is not installed on the platform, "clear" requests are not required to be signed. If they are signed, then to clear the KEK requires a PK-signed package, and to clear either db or dbx requires a package signed by any entity present in the KEK. Microsoft KEK

    The Microsoft KEK is required to enable revocation of bad images by updating the dbx and potentially for updating db to prepare for newer Windows signed images.

    Include the Microsoft Corporation KEK CA 2011 in the KEK database, with the following values:

    • SHA-1 cert hash: .
    • SignatureOwner GUID: .
    • Microsoft will provide the certificate to partners and it can be added either as an or an type signature.

    The Microsoft KEK certificate can be downloaded from: KEKDefault The platform vendor may provide a default set of Key Exchange Keys in the KEKDefault variable. Please reference UEFI specification section 27.3.3 for more information. OEM/3rd party KEK - adding multiple KEK

    Customers and Platform Owners don’t need to have their own KEK. On non-Windows RT PCs the OEM may have additional KEKs to allow additional OEM or a trusted 3rd party control of the db and dbx.

  • 1.3.5 Secure Boot firmware update keyThe Secure firmware update key is used to sign the firmware when it needs to be updated. This key has to have a minimum key strength of RSA-2048, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. All firmware updates must be signed securely by the OEM, their trusted delegate such as the ODM or IBV (Independent BIOS Vendor), or by a secure signing service.

    As per NIST publication 800-147 Field Firmware Update must support all elements of guidelines:

    Any update to the firmware flash store must be signed by creator.

    Firmware must check signature of the update.

  • 1.3.6 Creation of keys for Secure Firmware Update

    The same key will be used to sign all firmware updates since the public half will be residing on the PC, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. You could also sign the firmware update with a key which chains to Secure Firmware update key.

    There could be one key per PC like PK or one per model or one per product line. If there is one key per PC that would mean that millions of unique update packages will need to be generated. Please consider based on resource availability what method would work for you. Having a key per model or product line is a good compromise.

    The Secure Download finale crack Archives Update public key (or its hash to save space) would be stored in some protected storage on the platform – generally protected flash (PC) or one-time-programmable fuses (SOC).

    If only the hash of this key is stored (to save space), then the firmware update will include the key, and the first stage of the update process will be verifying that the public key in the update matches the hash stored on the platform.

    Capsules are a means by which the OS can pass data to UEFI environment across a reboot. Windows calls the UEFI UpdateCapsule() to deliver system and Itube studio torrent Archives firmware updates. At boot time prior to calling ExitBootServices(),Windows will pass in any new firmware updates found in the Windows Driver Store into UpdateCapsule(). UEFI system firmware can use this process to update system and PC firmware. By leveraging this Windows firmware support an OEM can rely on the same common format and process for updating firmware for both system and PC firmware. Firmware must implement the ACPI ESRT table in order to support UEFI UpdateCapsule() for Windows.

    For details on implementing support for the Windows UEFI Firmware Update Platform consult the following documentation: Windows UEFI Firmware Update Platform.

    Update capsules can be in memory or on the disk. Windows supports in memory updates. Capsule (Capsule-in-Memory)

    Following is the flow of events for an In-memory update capsule to work.

    1. A capsule is put in memory by an application in the OS
    2. Mailbox event is set to inform BIOS of pending update
    3. PC reboots, verifies the capsule image and update is performed by the BIOS
  • 1.3.7 Workflow of a typical firmware update

    1. Download and install the firmware driver.
    2. Reboot.
    3. OS Loader detects and verifies the firmware.
    4. OS Loader passes a binary blob to UEFI.
    5. UEFI performs the firmware update (This process is owned by the silicon vendor).
    6. OS Loader detection completes successfully.
    7. OS finishes booting.

1.4 Signature Databases (Db and Dbx)

  • 1.4.1 Allowed Signature database (db)

    The contents of the EFI db control what images are trusted when verifying loaded images. The database may contain multiple certificates, keys, and hashes in order to identify allowed images.

    The Microsoft Windows Production PCA 2011 with a SHA-1 Cert Hash of must be included in db in order to allow the Windows OS Loader to load. The Windows CA can be downloaded from here:

    On non-Windows RT PCs the OEM should consider including the Microsoft Corporation UEFI CA 2011 with a SHA-1 Certificate Hash of. Signing UEFI drivers and applications with this certificate will allow UEFI drivers and applications from 3rd parties to run on the PC without requiring additional steps for the user. The UEFI CA can be downloaded from here:

    On non-Windows RT PCs the OEM may also have additional items in the db to allow other operating systems or OEM-approved UEFI drivers or apps, but these images must not compromise the security of the PC in any way.

  • 1.4.2 DbDefault: The platform vendor may provide a default set of entries for the Signature Database in the dbDefault variable. For more information see section 27.5.3 in the UEFI specification.

  • 1.4.3 Forbidden Signature Database (dbx)

    The contents of dbx must be checked when verifying images before checking db and any matches must prevent the image from executing. The database may contain multiple certificates, keys, and hashes in order to identify forbidden images. The Windows Hardware Certification Requirements state that a dbx must be present, so any dummy value, such as the SHA-256 hash ofmay be used as a safe placeholder until such time as Microsoft begins delivering dbx updates. Click Here to download the latest UEFI revocation list from Microsoft.

  • 1.4.4 DbxDefault: The platform vendor may provide a default set of entries for the Signature Database in the dbxDefault variable. For more information see WinX DVD Ripper Platinum Full Crack 27.5.3 in the UEFI specification.

1.5 Keys Required for Secure Boot on all PCs




PK – 1 only. Must be RSA 2048 or stronger.

Microsoft Corporation KEK CA 2011



Allows updates to db and dbx:

Microsoft Windows Production CA 2011



This CA in the Signature Database (db) allows Windows to boot:

Forbidden Signature Database



List of known bad Keys, CAs or images from Microsoft

Secure firmware update key


Recommendation is to have this key be different from PK

Table 1: Keys/db needed for Secure Boot

2. Key Management Solutions

Below are given some of the metrics we used for comparison.

2.1 Metrics used

The following 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen can help you select a HSM PC based on the requirements of UEFI specification 2.3.1 Errata C and your needs.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) related

  • Does it support RSA 2048 or higher? - The UEFI specification 2.3.1 Errata C recommends the keys to be RSA-2048 or better.
  • Does it have the ability to generate keys and sign?
  • How many keys can it store? Does it store keys on HSM or an attached server?
  • Authentication method for key retrieval. Some PCs support multiple authentication entities to be present for key retrieval.


  • What is the price point? HSMs can range in price from $1,500 to $70,000 depending on available features.

Manufacturing environment

  • Speed of operation on factory floor. Crypto processors can speed up key creation and access.
  • Ease of setup, deployment, maintenance.
  • Skillset 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen training required?
  • Network access for backup and High Availability

Standards and Compliance

  • What level of FIPS compliance does it have? Is it tamper resistant?
  • Support for other standards, for example, MS crypto APIs.
  • Does it meet government and other agency requirements?

Reliability and disaster recovery

  • Does it allow for Key Backup?

    Backups can be stored both onsite in a safe location that is a different physical location than the CA computer and HSM and /or at an offsite location.

  • Does it allow for High Availability for disaster recovery?

2.2 Key Management Options

  • 2.2.1 Hardware Security Module (HSM)

    Based on the above criteria this is probably the most suitable and secure solution. Most HSM have FIPS 140-2 level 3 compliance. FIPS 140-2 level 3 compliance is strict on authentication and requires that keys are not exported or imported from the HSM.

    They support multiple ways of key storage. They could be stored either locally on the HSM itself or on the server attached to the HSM. On the server the keys are encrypted and stored and is preferable for solutions which requires lots of keys to be stored.

    The cryptographic module security policy shall specify a physical security policy, including physical security mechanisms that are implemented in a cryptographic module Battlefield 2 *RELOADED* key crack serial keygen as, tamper-evident seals, locks, tamper response and zeroization switches, and alarms. It also allows specifying actions required by the operator(s) to ensure that physical security is maintained such as periodic inspection of tamper-evident seals or testing of tamper response and zeroization switches.

    • Network HSM

      This solution is the best in its class in terms of security, adherence to standards, key generation, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, storage and retrieval. Most of these PCs support high availability and have ability to backup keys.

      The costs of these products can be in tens of thousands of dollars based on the extra services they offer.

    • Standalone HSM

      These work great with standalone servers. One can use Microsoft CAPI and CNG or any other secure API supported by HSM. These HSMs come in variety of form factors supporting USB, PCIe and PCMCIA buses.

      They optionally support key backup and high availability.

  • 2.2.2 Custom solutions providers

    Public Key cryptography can be challenging and require understanding of cryptographic concepts which maybe new. There are custom solution providers who could help with the getting Secure Boot to work in the manufacturing environment.

    There are varieties of custom solutions offered by BIOS vendors, HSM companies and PKI consulting companies to get Secure Boot PKI working in the manufacturing environment.

    Some of the providers are listed below:

  • 2.2.3 Trusted Platform Module (TPM)

    A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a hardware chip on the motherboard that stores cryptographic keys used for encryption. Many computers include a TPM, but if the PC doesn’t include it, it is not feasible to add one. Once enabled, the Trusted Platform Module can help secure full disk encryption products such as Microsoft BitLocker capabilities. It keeps hard drives locked, or sealed, until the PC completes a system verification or authentication process.

    The TPM can generate, store, and protect keys used in the encryption and decryption process.

    The drawbacks of TPMs are that it may not have fast crypto processors to speed up processing in the manufacturing environment. They also are not suitable for storing large number of keys. Backup and high availability and standards compliance to FIPS 140-2 level 3 may not be available.

  • 2.2.4 Smart Cards

    A smart card can generate and store keys. They do share some features which HSM support like authentication and tamper proofing, but they don’t include much 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen storage or backup. They require manual intervention and may not be suitable for automation and use in MAC Archives - Malik Softs environment as the performance maybe low.

    The drawbacks of Smart cards 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen similar to TPMs. They may not have fast crypto processors to speed up processing in the manufacturing environment. They also are not suitable for storing large number of keys. Backup and high availability and standards compliance to FIPS 140-2 level 3 may not be available.

  • 2.2.5 Extended Validation Certificate

    EV Certificates are high assurance certificates whose private keys are stored in hardware tokens. This helps establish stronger key management practices. EV certificates have the same drawbacks as Smart cards.

  • 2.2.6 Software-centric approaches (NOT RECOMMENDED)

    Use crypto APIs for key management. This may involve storing a key in a key container on an encrypted hard drive and possible for additional sandboxing and security use a Virtual machine.

    These solutions are not as secure as using an HSM and expose a higher attack vector. Makecert (NOT RECOMMENDED)

    Makecert is a Microsoft tool and can be used as follows for key generation. To make sure that the attack surface is minimized you may need to "air gap" the PC. The PC that has the PKpriv on should not be connected to the network. It should be in a secure location and ideally should at least use a smart card reader if not a real HSM.

    For more info, see Certificate Creation Tool (Makecert.exe).

    This solution is not recommended.

2.3 HSM Key generation and storage for Secure Boot keys

  • 2.3.1 Storing Private keys

    The space requirement for each RSA-2048 key is 2048 bits. The actual location of the storage of the keys depends on the solution chosen. HSM are a good way of storing keys.

    The physical location of the PCs 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen the factory floor would need to be a protected area with limited user access like a 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen cage.

    Depending on your requirements these keys could also be stored in a diverse geographical location or backed up in a different location.

    The rekeying requirements for these keys could vary based on the customer (see Appendix A for Federal bridge certificate authority rekeying guidelines).

    These could be done once per year. You may need to have access to these keys for up to 30 years (depending on the rekeying requirements etc.).

  • 2.3.2 Retrieving the private Keys

    The keys may need to be retrieved for many reasons.

    1. The PK may need to be retrieved to issue an updated PK due to it being compromised or to adhere to government /other agency regulations.
    2. KEKpri will be used to update the db and dbx.
    3. Secure firmware update key –pri will be used to sign newer updates.
  • 2.3.3 Authentication

    As per FIPS 140-2 authentication is based on level of access.

    Level 2

    Security Level 2 requires, at a minimum, role-based authentication in which a cryptographic module authenticates the authorization of an operator to assume a specific role and perform a corresponding set of services.

    Level 3

    Security Level 3 requires identity-based authentication mechanisms, enhancing the security provided by the role-based authentication mechanisms specified for Security Level 2. A cryptographic module authenticates the identity of an operator and verifies that the identified operator is authorized to assume a specific role and perform a corresponding set of services.

    PCs like HSM’s support Security Level 3, which requires identity-based "k of m authentication". This means k entities are given access to the HSM with a token but at a given point at least k out of the m tokens need to be present for authentication to work to get access to private keys from HSM.

    For example, you could have 3 out of 5 tokens should be authenticated to access HSM. Those members could be the security officers, transaction authorizer and/or members from Executive Management.

    HSM Tokens

    You could have a policy on the HSM which require the token to be present:

    • Locally

    • Remotely

    • Configured to be automated

    As a good practice, please use a combination of token and per token password.

2.4 Secure Boot and 3rd party signing

  • 2.4.1 UEFI driver signing

    UEFI Drivers must be signed by a CA or key in the db as described elsewhere in the document, or have the hash of the driver image included in db. Microsoft will be providing a UEFI driver signing service similar to the WHQL driver signing service using the Microsoft Corporation UEFI CA 2011. Any drivers signed by this will run seamlessly on any PCs that include the Microsoft UEFI CA. It is also possible for an OEM to sign trusted drivers and include the OEM CA in the db, or to include hashes of the drivers in the db. In all cases 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen UEFI driver (Option ROM) shall not execute if it is not trusted in the db.

    Any drivers that are included in the system firmware image do not need to be re-verified. Being part of the overall system image provides sufficient assurance that the driver is trusted on the PC.

    Microsoft has this made available to anyone who wants to sign UEFI drivers, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. This certificate is part of the Windows HCK Secure Boot tests. Follow [this blog](( to read more about UEFI CA signing policy and updates.

  • 2.4.2 Boot loaders

    The Microsoft UEFI driver signing certificate can be used for signing other OSs. For example, Fedora’s Linux boot loader will be signed by it.

    This solution doesn’t require any more certificates to be added to the key Db. In addition to being cost effective, it can be used for any Linux distribution. This solution would work for any hardware which supports Windows so it is useful for a wide range of hardware.

    The UEFI-CA can be downloaded from here: The following links have more information on Windows HCK UEFI signing and submission:

3. Summary and Resources

This section intends to summarize the above sections and show a step by step approach:

  1. Establish a secure CA or identify a partner to securely generate and store keys

    If you are not using a 3rd party solution:

    1. Install and configure the HSM software on the HSM server. Check your HSM reference manual for installation instructions. The server will either be connected to a standalone or network HSM.

      For info about HSM configuration, see Section 2.2.1, 2.3 and Appendix C.

      Most HSMs offer FIPS 140-2 level 2 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen 3 compliance. Configure the HSM for either level 2 or level 3 compliance. Level 3 compliance has stricter requirements around authentication and key access and hence is more secure. Level 3 is recommended.

    2. Configure HSM for High Availability, Backup and Authentication. Check your HSM reference manual.

      Follow HSM provider guidelines on setting up HSM for High Availability and backup.

      Also, Network HSMs typically have multiple network ports to segregate traffic; allowing a server to communicate with network HSMs on a network separate from the regular production network.

      Once team members who are part of the security team have been 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen and tokens assigned to them. You will need to setup HSM hardware for k-of-m authentication.

    3. Secure Boot Keys and certificate pre-generation. See Sections 1.3 to 1.5

      Use HSM APIs to pre-generate (generate in advance) the PK and Firmware Update Key and certificates.

      Required - PK (recommend 1 per model), Firmware Update key (recommend 1 per model), 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Microsoft KEK, Db, DbxNOTE: The Microsoft KEK, db, and dbx don’t have to be generated by the OEM and are mentioned for completeness.Optional - OEM/3rd party KEK db, dbx and any other keys which would go into OEM Db.

  2. Apply a Windows image to the PC.

  3. Install Microsoft db and dbx. See Section 1.3.6 and Appendix B – Secure Boot APIs.

    1. Install the Microsoft Windows Production PCA 2011 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen db.

    2. Install an empty dbx if Microsoft does not provide one. Windows will automatically update DBX to the latest DBX through Windows Update on first reboot.


    Use PowerShell cmdlets which are part of the Windows HCK tests or use methods provided by BIOS vendor.

  4. Install Microsoft KEK. See Section 1.3.3.

    Install Microsoft KEK into the UEFI KEK database


    Use PowerShell cmdlets which are part of the Windows HCK tests or use methods provided by BIOS vendor.

  5. Optional step - OEM/3rd party secure boot components. See Section 1.3.4 and 1.4.

    1. Identify if you have need for creating a OEM/3rd party KEK, db and dbx.

    2. Sign OEM/3rd party db and Features of Worksheet Crafter Premium Edition 2019 for Mac with OEM/3rd party KEK(generated earlier) using HSM API.

    3. Install OEM/3rd party KEK, db and dbx.

  6. UEFI driver signing – See Section 2.4.

    If supporting add-in cards or other UEFI drivers/apps/bootloaders, install Microsoft Corporation UEFI CA 2011 into UEFI db.

  7. Secure boot firmware update key - See Section 1.3.5.

    1. Non-Windows RT PCs only: Install the Secure firmware update public key or its hash to save space.

    2. On SoC only, you may need to do something different, for example, burn Secure firmware update key: public or its hash.

  8. Enabling Secure Boot. See Appendix B – Secure Boot APIs.

    1. Install the OEM/ODM PKpub (certificate preferred, but key is okay) into the UEFI PK.

    2. Enroll the PK using Secure Boot API, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. The PC should be now enabled for Secure Boot.


    If Tag: zonealarm mobile security crack download install the PK at the end, the MS KEK, db, dbx don’t need to be signed – no SignerInfo must Capture One 21 Pro Crack + Keygen Patch & Torrent {Full} present. This is a shortcut.

  9. Testing Secure Boot: Execute any proprietary tests and Windows HCK tests as per instructions. See Appendix B – Secure Boot APIs.

  10. Ship platform: The PKpriv will likely never be used again, keep it safe.

  11. Servicing: Future firmware updates are securely signed with the Secure Firmware Update "private" key using the signing service.

3.1 Resources

Security Strategies White Paper -

Windows HCK Submission -

Appendix A – Secure Boot PKI checklist for manufacturing

Below is a high-level checklist summarizing the steps needed for enabling Secure Boot on non-Windows RT PCs.

Setting up Secure Boot

  1. Define security strategy (identify threats, define proactive and reactive strategy) as per the white paper in section 4.

  2. Identify security team as per the white paper in section 4.

  3. Establish a secure CA or identify a partner (recommended solution) to securely generate and store keys.

  4. Identify policy for how frequently you will be rekeying keys. This may depend on if you have any special customer requirements like governments or other agencies.

  5. Have a contingency plan in case the Secure Boot Key is compromised.

  6. Identify how many PK and other keys will you be generating as per section 1.3.3 and 1.5.

    This will be based on customer base, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, key storage solution and security of PCs.

    You can skip steps 7-8 if you are using the recommended solution of using a 3rd party for key management.

  7. Procure server and hardware for key management. – network or standalone HSM per section 2.2.1. Consider whether you will need one or several 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen for high availability and your key back up strategy.

  8. Identify at least 3-4 team members who will have an authentication token for authentication on HSM.

  9. Use HSM or 3rd party to pre-generate Secure Boot-related keys and certificates, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. The keys will depend on the PC type: SoC, Windows RT or non-Windows RT. For more info, see Sections 1.3 through 1.5.

  10. Populate the firmware with the appropriate keys.

  11. Enroll the Secure Boot Platform Key to enable Secure Boot. See Appendix B for more details.

  12. Execute any proprietary tests and HCK Secure Boot tests as per instructions. See Appendix B for more details.

  13. Ship the PC. The PKpriv will likely never be used again, keep it safe.

Servicing (Updating firmware)

You may need to update firmware for several reasons such as updating an UEFI component or fixing Secure Boot key compromise or periodic rekeying of Secure Boot keys.

For more info, see Section 1.3.5 and section 1.3.6.

Appendix B – Secure Boot APIs

  1. Secure Boot API

    The following APIs are related to UEFI/Secure Boot:

    1. GetFirmwareEnvironmentVariableEx: Retrieves the value of the specified firmware environment variable.

    2. SetFirmwareEnvironmentVariableEx: Sets the value of the specified firmware environment variable.

    3. GetFirmwareType: Retrieves the firmware type.

  2. Setting PK

    Use the Set-SecureBootUEFI cmdlet to turn on Secure Boot. After your code sets the PK, system enforcement of Secure Boot does not take effect until the next reboot. Prior to the reboot, your code could call GetFirmwareEnvironmentVariableEx() or the PowerShell cmdlet: Get-SecureBootUEFI to confirm the 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen of the Secure Boot databases.

  3. Verification

    You can use Msinfo32.exe or PowerShell cmdlets to check Secure Boot variable state, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. There is no WMI interface. You could also test by having someone insert an incorrectly-signed bootable USB stick (for example, from the Windows HCK Secure Boot Manual Logo Test) and verify that it fails to boot.

  4. Secure Boot Powershell Cmdlets

    • Confirm-SecureBootUEFI: Is UEFI Secure Boot "ON", True or False?

      SetupMode == 0 && SecureBoot == 1

    • Set-SecureBootUEFI: Set or Append authenticated SecureBoot UEFI variables

    • Get-SecureBootUEFI: Get authenticated SecureBoot UEFI variable values

    • Format-SecureBootUEFI: Creates EFI_SIGNATURE_LISTs & EFI_VARIABLE_AUTHENTICATION_2 serializations

  5. Windows HCK and Secure Boot Instructions

    The following steps apply to 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen tests and non-class driver PC tests.

    1. Disable Secure Boot protections.

      Enter your BIOS configuration and disable Secure Boot.

    2. Install the HCK Client software.

    3. Run all of the Windows HCK tests, except for the following:

      • BitLocker TPM and Recovery password tests with PCR[7]
      • BitLocker TPM and Recovery password tests for ARM PCs with Secure Boot
      • Secure Boot Logo Test
      • Secure Boot Manual Logo Test
    4. Enter your BIOS configuration, enable Secure Boot, and restore Secure Boot to the Default configuration.

    5. Run the following BitLocker and Secure Boot tests:

      • BitLocker TPM and Recovery password tests with PCR[7]
      • BitLocker TPM and Recovery password tests for ARM PCs with Secure Boot
      • Secure Boot Logo Test (automated)
    6. Enter the BIOS configuration and clear the Secure Boot configuration, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. This restores the PC to Setup Mode by deleting PK and other keys.


      Support for clearing is required for x86/x64 PCs.

    7. Run the Secure Boot Manual Logo Test.


      Secure Boot requires Windows HCK signed or VeriSign drivers on non-Windows RT PCs

  6. Windows HCK Secure Boot Logo Test (automated)

    This test will check for proper out-of-box Secure Boot configuration, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. This includes:

    • Secure Boot is Enabled.
    • The PK is not a known, test PK.
    • KEK contains the production Microsoft KEK.
    • db contains the production Windows CA.
    • dbx present.
    • Many 1kB variables are created/deleted.
    • A 32kB variable is created/deleted.
  7. Windows HCK Secure Boot manual test folder layout

    The Windows HCK Secure Boot Manual Logo test folder layout is described below:

    • folder has the following:

      • Manufacturing and Servicing Test
      • Programmatically Enable Secure Boot in test configuration
      • Servicing Tests
      • Append a cert to db, verify function
      • Append a hash to dbx, verify function
      • Append a cert to dbx, verify function
      • Append 600+ hashes to dbx, verify size
      • Programmatically change the PK
    • folder has scripts which show the following:

      • How test certificates were created

      • The test certificates and private keys are included

      • How all of the tests were created

      • Turning certificates and hashes into signed packages

      • You can run this yourself, substitute your own certificates

    • folder has all of the certificates you need to boot Windows:


      Please don’t use the methodology used in to generate keys and certificates. This is meant for Windows HCK test purposes only. It uses keys which are stored on disk which is very insecure and not recommended. This is not meant for use in a production environment.

  • folder has scripts which you can leverage for installation of Secure Boot on production PCs.

    The demonstrates how these examples were generated and have "TODO" sections when a partner can substitute their PK and other metadata.

  1. Windows HCK UEFI signing and submission

    The following links have more information:

Appendix C – Federal Bridge Certification Authority Certificate Policy Assurance Mappings

  1. Rudimentary

    This level provides the lowest degree of assurance concerning identity of the individual. One of the primary functions of this level is to provide data integrity to the information being signed. This level is relevant to environments in which the risk of malicious activity is considered to be low. It is not suitable for transactions requiring authentication, and is generally insufficient for transactions requiring confidentiality, but may be used for the latter where certificates having higher levels of assurance are unavailable.

  2. Basic

    This level provides a basic level of assurance relevant to environments where there are risks and consequences of data compromise, but they are not considered to be of major significance. This may include access to private information where the likelihood of malicious access is not high. It is assumed at this security level that users are not likely to be malicious.

  3. Medium

    This level is relevant to environments where risks and consequences of data compromise are moderate. This may include transactions having substantial monetary value or risk of fraud, or involving access to private information where the likelihood of malicious access is substantial.

  4. High

    This level is appropriate for use where the threats to data are high, or the consequences of the failure of security services are high. This may include very high value transactions or high Jitbit Macro Recorder Cracked Full Version [Mac/Win] Torrent Archives of fraud risk.

Related topics

Secure Boot Key Generation and Signing Using HSM (Example)

UEFI Validation Option ROM Validation Guidance

Secure Boot Overview

Источник: []

Windows 10

Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2015

This article is about the operating system for personal computers. For the related (now discontinued) operating system for mobile devices, see Windows 10 Mobile.

Not to be confused with Windows 1.0.

Windows 10 Logo.svg
Windows 10 Home Version 21H1 Desktop.png

Screenshot of Windows 10 version 21H1, showing the Start Menu and Action Center in light theme

Written in
OS familyMicrosoft Windows
Source model
Released to
July 15, 2015; 6 years ago (2015-07-15)
July 29, 2015; 6 years ago (2015-07-29)
Latest release21H2 (10.0.19044.1348) (November 16, 2021; 5 days ago (2021-11-16)[5]) [±]
Latest preview10.0.19044.1381 (November 18, 2021; 3 days ago (2021-11-18)[6]) [±]
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in110 languages[7][8] (Specific language packs included on the device depend on the mobile operator (for cellular connected devices) or device manufacturer. Additional language packs are available for download on the Microsoft Store, pursuant to manufacturer and carrier support.)

List of languages

Update method
PlatformsIA-32, x86-64, ARMv7,[9][10]ARM64[11][12][13]
Kernel typeHybrid (Windows NT kernel)
UserlandNative API
Windows API
.NET Framework
Universal Windows Platform
Windows Subsystem for Linux
NTVDM (IA-32 only)
user interface
Windows shell (graphical)
LicenseTrialware,[14]Microsoft Software Assurance, MSDN subscription, Microsoft Imagine
Preceded byWindows 8.1 (2013)
Succeeded byWindows 11 (2021)
All editions except "Enterprise 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen are supported until October 14, 2025 as long as they install the latest feature upgrades.[15][16] The Enterprise LTSB/LTSC editions are supported for 10 years after their release date. See § Support lifecycle for details.

Windows 10 is a major release of the Windows NToperating system developed by Microsoft. It is the successor to Windows 8.1, which was released nearly two years earlier, and itself was released to manufacturing on July 15, 2015, and broadly released for the general public on July 29, 2015.[17] Windows 10 was made available for download via MSDN and TechNet, as a free upgrade for retail copies of Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 users via the Windows Store, and to Windows 7 users via Windows Update. Windows 10 receives new builds on an ongoing basis, which are available at no additional cost to users, in addition to additional test builds of Windows 10, which are available to Windows Insiders. Devices in enterprise environments can receive these updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen only receive critical updates, such as security patches, over their ten-year lifespan of extended support.[18][19]

Windows 10 received generally positive reviews upon its original release. Critics praised Microsoft's decision to provide the desktop-oriented interface in line with previous versions of Windows, contrasting the tablet-oriented approach of Windows 8, although Windows 10's touch-oriented user interface mode was criticized for containing regressions upon the touch-oriented interface of its predecessor. Critics also praised the improvements to Windows 10's bundled software over Windows 8.1, Xbox Live integration, as well as the functionality and capabilities of the Cortana personal assistant and the replacement of Internet Explorer with Microsoft Edge. However, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen outlets have been critical of the changes to operating system behaviors, including mandatory update installation, privacy concerns over data collection performed by the OS for Microsoft and its partners, and adware-like tactics used to promote the operating system on its release.[20]

Microsoft initially aimed to have Windows 10 installed on over one billion devices within three years of its release;[18] that goal was ultimately reached almost five years after release on March 16, 2020.[21] By January 2018, Windows 10 surpassed Windows 7 as the most popular version of Windows worldwide.[22] As of June 2021[update], it is estimated that 79% of Windows PCs,[22] 58% of all PCs (the rest being older Windows versions and other operating systems such as macOS and Linux), and 24% of all devices (including mobile, tablet and console)[23] are running Windows 10. On June 24, 2021, Microsoft announced Windows 10's successor, Windows 11, which was released on October 5, 2021.[24]

Windows 10 is the final version of 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen which supports IA-32 and ARMv7-based processors (also known as 32-bit processors). Its successor, Windows 11, requires a 64-bit processor in any supported architecture (x86-64/AMD64 for x86 and ARMv8 for ARM).


At the Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference in 2011, Andrew Lees, the chief of Microsoft's mobile technologies, said that the company intended to have a single software ecosystem for PCs, phones, tablets, and other devices: "We won't have an ecosystem for PCs, and one for phones, and one for tablets‍—‌they'll all come together."[25][26]

In December 2013, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was working on an update to Windows 8 codenamed "Threshold", after a planet in its Halo franchise.[27] Similarly to "Blue" (which became Windows 8.1),[28] Foley described Threshold, not as a single operating system, but as a "wave of operating systems" across multiple Microsoft platforms and services, quoting Microsoft sources, scheduled for the second quarter of 2015. She also stated that one of the goals for Threshold was to create a unified application platform and development toolkit for Windows, Windows Phone and Xbox One (which all use a similar kernel based on Windows NT).[27][29]

At the Build Conference in April 2014, Microsoft's Terry Myerson unveiled an updated version of Windows 8.1 (build 9697) that added the ability to run Windows Store apps inside desktop windows and a more traditional Start menu in place of the Start screen seen in Windows 8. The new Start menu takes after Windows 7's design by using only a portion of the screen and including a Windows 7-style application listing in the first column. The second column displays Windows 8-style app tiles. Myerson said that these changes would occur in a future update, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, but did not elaborate.[30][31] Microsoft also unveiled the concept of a "universal Windows app", allowing Windows Store apps created for Windows 8.1 to be ported to Windows Phone 8.1 and Xbox One while sharing a common codebase, with an interface designed for different device form factors, and allowing user data and licenses Sketch windows Archives an app to be shared between multiple platforms. Windows Phone 8.1 would share nearly 90% of the common Windows Runtime APIs with Windows 8.1 on PCs.[30][32][33][34]

Screenshots of a Windows build purported to be Threshold were leaked in July 2014, showing the previously presented Start menu and windowed Windows Store apps,[35] followed by a further screenshot of a build identifying itself as "Windows Technical Preview", numbered 9834, in September 2014, showing a new virtual desktop system, a notification center, and a new File Explorer icon.[36]


"Windows 9" redirects here. For the Windows versions produced from 1995 to 2000, see Windows 9x.

On September 30, 2014, Microsoft officially announced that Threshold would be unveiled during a media event as Windows 10. Myerson said that Windows 10 would be Microsoft's "most comprehensive platform ever", providing a single, unified platform for desktop and laptop computers, tablets, smartphones, and all-in-one devices.[37][38][39] He emphasized that Windows 10 would take steps towards restoring user interface mechanics from Windows 7 to improve the experience for users on non-touch devices, Jogos de Combat Racing de Graça para Baixar criticism of Windows 8's touch-oriented interface by keyboard and mouse users.[40][41] Despite these concessions, Myerson noted that the touch-optimized interface would evolve as well on 10.[42]

In regards to Microsoft naming the new operating system Windows 10 instead of Windows 9, Terry Myerson said that 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen on the product that's coming, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen just how different our approach will be overall, it wouldn't be right to call it Windows 9."[43] He also joked that they could not call it "Windows One" (alluding to several recent Microsoft products with a similar brand, such as OneDrive, OneNote, and the Xbox One) because Windows 1.0 already existed.[44] At a San Francisco conference in October 2014, Tony Prophet, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Microsoft's Vice President of Windows Marketing, said that Windows 9 "came and went", and that Windows 10 would not be "an incremental step from Windows 8.1," but "a material step. We're trying to create one platform, one eco-system that unites as many of the devices from the small embedded Internet of Things, through tablets, through phones, through PCs and, ultimately, into the Xbox."

Further details surrounding Windows 10's consumer-oriented features were presented during another media event held on January 21, 2015, entitled "Windows 10: The Next Chapter". The keynote featured the unveiling of Cortana integration within the operating system, new Xbox-oriented features, Windows 10 Mobile, an updated Office Mobile suite, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Surface Hub‍—‌a large-screened Windows 10 device for enterprise collaboration based upon Perceptive Pixel technology,[46] along with HoloLens‑augmented reality eyewear and an associated platform for building apps that can render holograms through HoloLens.[47]

Additional developer-oriented details surrounding the "Universal Windows Platform" concept were revealed and discussed during Microsoft's Build developers' conference. Among them were the unveiling of "Islandwood", which provides a middlewaretoolchain for compiling Objective-C-based software (particularly iOS) to run as universal apps on Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile. A port of Candy Crush Saga made using the toolkit, which shared much of its code with the iOS version, was demonstrated, alongside the announcement that the King-developed game would be bundled with Windows 10 at launch.[48][49][50][51]

At the 2015 Ignite conference, Microsoft employee Jerry Nixon stated that Windows 10 would be the "last version of Windows", a statement that Microsoft confirmed was "reflective" of its view of the operating system being a "service" with new versions and updates to be released over time.[52][53][54] In 2021, however, Microsoft announced that Windows 10 would be succeeded on compatible hardware by Windows 11–and that Windows 10 support will end on October 14, 2025.[55][56]

Release and marketing[edit]

On June 1, 2015, Microsoft announced that Windows 10 would be released on July 29.[17] On July 20, 2015 Microsoft began "Upgrade Your World", an advertising campaign centering on Windows 10, with the premiere of television commercials in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The commercials focused on the tagline "A more human way to do", emphasizing new features and 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen supported by Windows 10 that sought to provide a more "personal" experience to users.[57][58] The campaign culminated with launch events in thirteen cities on July 29, 2015, which celebrated "the unprecedented role our biggest fans played in the development of Windows 10".[59]


Main article: Features new to Windows 10

See also: List of features removed in Windows 10

Windows 10 makes its user experience and functionality more consistent between different classes of device and addresses most of the shortcomings in the user interface that were introduced in Windows 8.[40][41][60]Windows 10 Mobile, the successor to Windows Phone 8.1, shared some user interface elements and apps with its PC counterpart.[61]

Windows 10 supports universal apps, an expansion of the Metro-style first introduced in Windows 8. Universal apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code‍—‌including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Mixed Reality. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices‍—‌particularly on 2-in-1 PCs, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, both interfaces include an updated Start menu which incorporates elements of Windows 7's traditional Start menu with the tiles of Windows 8. Windows 10 also introduced the Microsoft Edgeweb browser, a virtual desktop system, a window and desktop management 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen called Task View, support for fingerprint and face recognition login, new security features for enterprise environments, and DirectX 12.

The Windows Runtime app ecosystem was revised into the Universal Windows Platform (UWP).[32][62][63] These universal apps are made to run across multiple platforms and device classes, including smartphones, tablets, Xbox One consoles, and other devices compatible with Windows 10. Windows apps share code across platforms, have responsive designs that adapt to the needs of the device and available inputs, can synchronize data between Windows 10 devices (including notifications, credentials, and allowing cross-platform multiplayer for games), and are distributed through the Microsoft Store (rebranded from Windows Store since September 2017).[64] Developers can allow "cross-buys", where purchased licenses for an app apply to all of the user's compatible devices, rather than only the one they purchased on (e.g., a user purchasing an app on PC is also entitled to use the smartphone version at no extra cost).[33][65][66]

The ARM version of Windows 10 allows 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen applications for x86 processors through 32-bit software emulation.[67]

On Windows 10, Microsoft Store serves as a unified storefront for apps, video content, and eBooks.[68] Windows 10 also allows web apps and desktop software (using either Win32 or .NET Framework) to be packaged for distribution on Microsoft Store. Desktop software distributed through Windows Store is packaged using the App-V system to allow sandboxing.[69][70]

User interface and desktop[edit]

The "Task View" display is a new feature to Windows 10, allowing the use of multiple workspaces.

A new iteration of the Start menu is used on the Windows 10 desktop, with a list of places and other options on the left side, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, and tiles representing applications on the right. The menu can be resized, and expanded into a full-screen display, which is the default option in Tablet mode.[40][60][71] A new virtual desktop system was added by a feature known as Task View, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, which displays all open windows and allows users to switch 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen them, or switch between multiple workspaces.[40][60] Universal apps, which previously could be used only in full screen mode, can now be used in self-contained windows similarly to other programs.[40][60] Program windows can now be snapped to quadrants of the screen by dragging them to the corner. When a window is snapped to one side of the screen, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Task View appears and the user is prompted to choose a second window to fill the unused side of the screen (called "Snap Assist").[60] The Windows system icons were also changed.[71]

Charms have been removed; their functionality in universal apps is accessed from an App commands menu on their title bar.[40][60] In its place is Action Center, which displays notifications and settings toggles. It is accessed by clicking an icon in the notification area, or dragging from the right of the screen. Notifications can be synced between multiple devices.[61][71] The Settings app (formerly PC Settings) was refreshed and now includes more options that were previously exclusive to the desktop Control Panel.

Windows 10 is designed to adapt its user interface based on the type of device being used and available input methods. It offers two separate user interface modes: a user interface optimized for mouse and keyboard, and a "Tablet mode" designed for touchscreens. Users can toggle between these two modes at any time, and Windows can prompt or automatically switch when certain events occur, such as disabling Tablet mode on a tablet if a keyboard or mouse is plugged in, or when a 2-in-1 PC is switched to its laptop state. In Tablet mode, programs default to a maximized view, and the taskbar contains a back button and hides buttons for opened or pinned programs by mIRC 7.66 Crack With Registration Code Full Version Download Task View is used instead to switch between programs. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally.[41][74][75][76]

System security[edit]

Windows 10 incorporates multi-factor authentication technology based upon standards developed by the FIDO Alliance.[77] The operating system includes improved support for biometric authentication through the Windows Hello platform. Devices with supported cameras (requiring infrared illumination, such as Intel RealSense) allow users to log in with iris or face recognition, similarly to Kinect. Devices with supported readers allow users to log in through fingerprint recognition. Support was also added for palm-vein scanning through a partnership with Fujitsu in February 2018.[78] Credentials are stored locally and protected using asymmetric encryption.[79]

In 2017, researchers demonstrated that Windows Hello could be bypassed on fully-updated Windows 10 1703 with a color printout of a person's picture taken with an IR 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen In 2021, researchers were again able to bypass the Windows Hello functionalities by using custom hardware disguised as a camera, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, which presented an IR photo of the owner's face.[81]

In addition to biometric authentication, Windows Hello supports authentication with a PIN. By default, Windows requires a PIN to consist of four digits, but can be configured to permit more complex PINs. However, a PIN is not a simpler password. While passwords are transmitted to domain controllers, PINs are not. They are tied to one device, and if compromised, only one device is affected. Backed by a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip, Windows uses PINs to create strong asymmetric key pairs. As such, the authentication token transmitted to the server is 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen to crack. In addition, whereas weak passwords may be broken via rainbow tables, TPM causes the much-simpler Windows PINs to be resilient to brute-force attacks.[82]

When Windows 10 was first introduced, multi-factor authentication was provided by two components: Windows Hello and Passport (not to be confused with the Passport platform of 1998). Later, Passport was merged into Windows Hello.[83][79]

The enterprise edition of Windows 10 offers additional security features; administrators can set up policies for the automatic encryption of sensitive data, selectively block applications from accessing encrypted data, and enable Device Guard‍—‌a system which allows administrators to enforce a high-security environment by blocking the execution of software that is not digitally signed by a trusted vendor or Microsoft, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Device Guard is designed to protect against zero-day exploits, and runs inside a hypervisor so that its operation remains separated from the operating system itself.[77][84]

Command line[edit]

The console windows based on Windows Console (for any console app, not just PowerShell and Windows Command 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen can now be resized without any restrictions, can be made to cover the full screen by pressing +, and can use standard keyboard shortcuts, such as those for cut, copy, and paste. Other features such as word wrap and transparency were also added. These functions can be disabled to revert to the legacy console if needed.[85]

The Anniversary Update added Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL), which allows the installation of a user space environment from a supported Linuxdistribution that runs natively on Windows. The subsystem translates Linux system calls to those of the Windows NT kernel (only claims full system call compatibility as of WSL 2, included in a later Windows update). The environment can execute the Bash shell and 64-bit command-line programs (WSL 2 also supports 32-bit Linux programs and graphics, assuming supporting software installed,[86] and GPUs support for other uses[87]). Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa. Linux distributions for Windows Subsystem for Linux are obtained through Microsoft Store. The feature initially supported an Ubuntu-based environment; Microsoft announced in May 2017 that it would add Fedora and OpenSUSE environment options as well.[88][89][90][91][92][93][94]

Storage requirements[edit]

To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1.5 GB for 32-bit systems and 2.6 GB for 64-bit systems. The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs, which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance. Furthermore, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB. These functions replace the WIMBoot mode introduced on Windows 8.1 Update, which allowed OEMs to configure low-capacity devices with flash-based storage to use Windows system files out of the compressed WIM image typically used for installation and recovery.[95][96][97] Windows 10 also includes a function in its Settings app that allows users to view a breakdown of how their device's storage capacity is being used by different types of files, and determine whether certain types of files are saved to internal storage or an SD card by default.[98]

Online services and functionality[edit]

Windows 10 introduces Microsoft Edge, a new default web browser. It initially featured a new standards-compliant rendering engine derived from Trident, and also includes annotation tools and integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows 10.[99][100][101] Internet Explorer 11 is maintained on Windows 10 for compatibility purposes, but is deprecated in favor of Edge and will Virtual Reality Archives longer be actively developed.[102][103] In January 2020, the initial 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen of Edge was succeeded by a new iteration derived from the Chromium project and the Blink layout engine and the old Edge based on EdgeHTML is now called 'Microsoft Edge Legacy'.[104] The legacy 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen of Edge is currently being replaced by the new Chromium-based Edge via Windows Update, though this version can also be downloaded manually, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Every Windows 10 version from 20H2, which was released on October 20, 2020, will come with the new version of the browser preinstalled.[105] The Windows 10 October 2020 update added a price comparison tool to the Edge browser.[106]

Windows 10 incorporates a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed into a single button.[107][108] Previous versions featured Microsoft's intelligent personal assistant Cortana, which was first introduced with Windows Phone 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen in 2014, and supports both text and voice input. Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing, setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen or sending emails.[109][110][71] Since the November 2019 update, Microsoft has begun to downplay Cortana as part of a repositioning of the product towards enterprise use, with the May 2020 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen removing its Windows shell integration and consumer-oriented features.[111][112][107][113]

Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services. Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions. The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child's computer usage. Unlike previous versions of Windows, child accounts in a family must be associated with a Microsoft account‍—‌which allows these settings to apply across all Windows 10 devices that a particular child is using.[114][115]

Windows 10 also offers the Wi-Fi Sense feature originating from Windows Phone 8.1; users can optionally have their device automatically connect to suggested open hotspots, and share their home network's password with contacts (either via Skype, People, or Facebook) so they may automatically connect to the network on a Windows 10 device without needing to manually enter its password. Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers and sent to the devices of the selected contacts. Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network. Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on 802.1X-encrypted networks. Adding "_optout" at the end of the SSID will also block the corresponding network from being used for this feature.[116]

Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November 2015 update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile.[117][118]

Multimedia and gaming[edit]

See also: List of Xbox Live Games on Windows 10

Windows 10 provides greater integration with the Xbox ecosystem, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox Console Companion (formerly the Xbox app), which allows users to browse their game library (including both PC and Xbox console games), and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut, allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere.[119][120] Windows 10 also allows users to control and play games from an Xbox One console over a local network.[121] The Xbox Live SDK allows application developers to incorporate Xbox Live functionality into their apps, and future wireless Xbox One accessories, such as controllers, are supported on Windows with an adapter.[122] Microsoft also intends to allow cross-purchases and save synchronization between Xbox One and Windows 10 versions of games; Microsoft Studios games such as ReCore and Quantum Break are intended as being exclusive to Windows 10 and Xbox One.[123]

Candy Crush Saga and Microsoft Solitaire Collection are also automatically installed upon installation of Windows 10.[124][125]

Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen Bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the 4U.MP4.Video.Converter.v2.1.2 v2.1.2 crack serial keygen device.[126]

Windows 10 adds FLAC and HEVC codecs and support for the Matroska media container, allowing these formats to be opened in Windows Media Player and other applications.[127][128][129]

DirectX 12[edit]

Windows 10 includes DirectX 12, alongside WDDM 2.0.[130][131] Unveiled March 2014 at GDC, DirectX 12 aims to provide "console-level efficiency" with "closer to the metal" access to hardware resources, and reduced CPU and graphics driver overhead.[132][133] Most of the performance improvements are achieved through low-level programming, which allow developers to use resources more efficiently and reduce single-threaded CPU bottlenecking caused by abstraction through higher level APIs.[134][135] DirectX 12 will also feature support for vendor agnostic multi-GPU setups.[136] WDDM 2.0 introduces a new virtual memory management and allocation system to reduce workload on the kernel-mode driver.[130][137]


Main article: List of typefaces included with Microsoft Windows

Windows 10 adds three new default typefaces compared to Windows 8, but removes dozens of others. The removed typefaces are available in supplemental packs and may be added manually over a non-metered internet connection, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen.

Editions and pricing[edit]

Main article: Windows 10 editions

Windows 10 is available in five main editions for personal computing devices; the Home and Pro editions of which are sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Home is aimed at home users, while Pro is aimed at power users and small businesses. Each edition of Windows 10 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented RazorSQL Download 9.3.4 + Crack With License Key 2021 For Windows their market segments; for example, Pro adds additional networking and security features such as BitLocker, Device Guard, Windows Update for Business, and the ability to join a domain. Enterprise and Education, the other editions, contain additional features aimed towards business environments, and are only available through volume licensing.[138][139]

As part of Microsoft's unification strategies, Windows products that are based on Windows 10's common platform but meant for specialized platforms are marketed as editions of the operating system, rather than as separate product lines. An updated version of Microsoft's Windows Phone operating system for smartphones, and also tablets, was branded as Windows 10 Mobile.[140] Editions of Enterprise and Mobile will also be produced for embedded systems, along with Windows 10 IoT Core, which is designed specifically for use in small footprint, low-cost devices and Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios and is similar to Windows Embedded.[138][139]

On May 2, 2017, Microsoft unveiled Windows 10 S (referred to in leaks as Windows 10 Cloud), a feature-limited edition of Windows 10 which was designed primarily for devices in the education market (competing, in particular, with Chrome OS netbooks), such as the Surface Laptop that Microsoft also unveiled at this time, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. The OS restricts software installation to applications obtained from Microsoft Store; the device may be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro for a fee to enable unrestricted software installation. As a time-limited promotion, Microsoft stated that this upgrade would be free on the Surface Laptop until March 31, 2018.[141] Windows 10 S also contains a faster initial setup and login process, and allows devices to be provisioned using a USB drive with the Windows Intune for Education platform.[142][143][144][145][146] In March 2018, Microsoft announced that Windows 10 S would be deprecated because of market confusion and would be replaced by "S Mode", an OEM option wherein Windows defaults to only allowing applications to be installed from Microsoft Store, but does not require payment in order to disable these restrictions.[147][148]

Preview releases[edit]

See also: Windows Insider

A public beta program for Windows 10 known as the Windows Insider Program began with the first publicly available preview release on October 1, 2014. Insider preview builds are aimed towards enthusiasts and enterprise users for the testing and evaluation of updates and new features.[149] Users of the Windows Insider program receive occasional updates to newer preview builds of the operating system and will continue to be able to evaluate preview releases after general availability (GA) in July 2015‍—‌this is in contrast to previous Windows beta programs, where public preview builds were released less frequently and only during the months preceding GA.[40][42][150][151][152] Windows Insider builds continued being released after the release to manufacturing (RTM) of Windows 10.[153]

Public release[edit]

On July 29, 2015, Microsoft officially announced that Windows 10 would be released for retail purchase as a free upgrade from earlier versions of Windows. In comparison to previous Windows releases, which had a longer turnover between the release to manufacturing (RTM) and general release to allow for testing by vendors (and in some cases, the development of "upgrade kits" to prepare systems for installation of the new version), an HP executive explained that because it knew Microsoft targeted the operating system for a 2015 release, the company was able to optimize its then-current and upcoming products for Windows 10 in advance of its release, negating the need for such a milestone.[155][better source needed]

The general availability build of Windows 10, numbered 10240, was first released to Windows Insider channels for pre-launch testing on July 15, 2015, prior to its formal release.[156] Although a Microsoft official said there would be no specific RTM build of Windows 10, 10240 was described as an RTM build by media outlets because it was released to all Windows Insider members at once (rather than to users on the "Fast ring" first), it no longer carried pre-release branding and desktop watermark text, and its build number had mathematical connections to the number 10 in reference to the operating system's naming.[158][159][160][161][162][163] The Enterprise edition was released to volume licensing on August 1, 2015.[164]

Windows 10 is distributed digitally through the "Media Creation Tool", which is functionally identical to the Windows 8 online installer, and can also be used to generate an ISO image or USB install media.[165] In-place upgrades are supported from most editions of Windows 7 with Service Pack 1 and Windows 8.1 with Update 1, while users with Windows 8 must first upgrade to Windows 8.1. Changing between architectures (e.g., upgrading from 32-bit edition to a 64-bit 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen via in-place upgrades is not supported; a clean install is required.[166][167] In-place upgrades may be rolled back to the device's previous version of Windows, provided that 30 days have not passed since installation, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, and backup files were not removed using Disk Cleanup.

Windows 10 was available in 190 countries and 111 languages upon its launch, and as part of efforts to "re-engage" with users in China, Microsoft also announced that it would partner with Qihoo and Tencent to help promote and distribute Windows 10 in China, and that Chinese PC maker Lenovo would provide assistance at its 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen centers and retail outlets for helping users upgrade to Windows 10.[168][169][170] At retail, Windows 10 is priced similarly to editions of Windows 8.1, with U.S. prices set at $119 and $199 for Windows 10 Home and Pro respectively. A Windows 10 Pro Pack license allows upgrades from Windows 10 Home to Windows 10 Pro.[171][172] Retail copies only ship on USB flash drive media; however, system builder copies still ship as DVD-ROM media.[173] New devices shipping with Windows 10 were also released during the operating system's launch window.[174]

Windows RT devices cannot be upgraded to Windows 10.[167][175]

Free upgrade offer[edit]

Main article: Windows 10 editions § Free upgrade

During its first year of availability,[176] upgrade licenses for Windows 10 could be obtained at no charge for devices with a genuine license for an eligible edition of Windows 7 or 8.1.[172][177][178]

This offer did not apply to Enterprise editions, as customers under an active Software Assurance (SA) contract with upgrade rights are entitled to obtain Windows 10 Enterprise under their existing terms. All users running non-genuine copies of Windows, and those without an existing Windows 7 or 8 license, were ineligible for this promotion; although upgrades from a non-genuine version were possible, they result in a non-genuine copy of 10.[153][168][178][179][180]

On the general availability build of Windows 10 (version 1507), to activate and generate the "digital entitlement" for Windows 10, the operating system must have first been installed as an in-place upgrade. During the free upgrade, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, a file is created in the background and the system's motherboard details are registered with a Microsoft Product Activation server. Once installed, the operating system can be reinstalled on that particular system via normal means without a product key, and the system's license will automatically be detected via online activation - in essence, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, the Microsoft Product Activation Server will remember the system's motherboard and give it the green light for product re-activation.[166][181][182] Because of installation issues with Upgrade Only installs, the November Update (version 1511) included additional activation mechanisms. This build treated Windows 7 and Windows 8/8.1 product keys as Windows 10 product keys, meaning they could be entered during installation to activate the free license, without the need to upgrade first to "activate" the hardware with Microsoft's activation servers.[183] For major Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Windows 8/8.1 and Windows 10 OEM product keys are embedded in the firmware of the motherboard and if the correct edition of Windows 10 is present on the installation media, they are automatically inputted during installation. Since the release of the Fall Creators Update (version 1709), Microsoft decided to release multi-edition installation media, to alleviate installation and product activation issues users experienced because of accidentally installing the wrong edition of Windows 10.

The Windows Insider Preview version of Windows 10 automatically updated itself to the generally released version as part 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen the version progression and continues to be updated to new beta builds, as it had throughout the testing process. Microsoft explicitly stated that Windows Insider was not a valid upgrade path for those running a version of Windows that is ineligible for the upgrade offer; although, if it was not installed with a ZD Soft Screen Recorder torrent Archives carried over from an in-place upgrade to 10 Insider Preview from Windows 7 or 8, the Insider Preview does remain activated as long as the user does not exit the Windows Insider program.[153]

The offer was promoted and delivered via the "Get Windows 10" application (also known as GWX), which was automatically installed via Windows Update ahead of Windows 10's release, and activated on systems deemed eligible for the upgrade offer. Via a notification area icon, users could access an application that advertised Windows 10 and the free upgrade offer, check device compatibility, and "reserve" an automatic download of the operating system upon its release.[184][185] On July 28, a pre-download process began in which Windows 10 installation files were downloaded to some computers that had reserved it. Microsoft said that those who reserved Windows 10 would be able to install it through GWX in a phased rollout process, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. The operating system could alternatively be downloaded at any time using a separate "Media Creation Tool" setup program, that allows for the creation of DVD or USB installation media.[165][174][186][187]

In May 2016, Microsoft announced that the free upgrade offer would be extended to users of assistive technologies; however, Microsoft did not implement any means of certifying eligibility for this offer, which some outlets thereby promoted as being a loophole to fraudulently obtain a free Windows 10 upgrade. Microsoft said that the loophole is not intended to be used in this manner.[188][189][190] In November 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Microsoft announced that this program would end on December 31, 2017.[191]

However, another loophole was found that allowed Windows 7 and 8.1 users upgrade to Windows 10 using existing licenses, even though the free upgrade offers officially ended in 2017. No word from Microsoft was given whether it will be closed[192] and some outlets have continued to promote it as a free method of upgrading from the now-unsupported Windows 7.[193]


During upgrades, Windows 10 licenses are not tied directly to a product key. Instead, the license status of the system's current installation of Windows is migrated, and a "Digital license" ( known as "Digital entitlement" in version 1511 or earlier) is generated during the activation process, which is bound to the hardware information collected during the process. If Windows 10 is reinstalled cleanly and there have not been any significant hardware changes since installation (such as a motherboard change), the online activation process will automatically recognize the system's digital entitlement if no product key is entered during installations. However, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, unique product keys are still distributed within retail copies of Windows 10. As with previous non-volume-licensed variants of Windows, significant hardware changes will invalidate the digital entitlement, and require Windows to be re-activated.[166][181]

Updates and support[edit]

Main article: Windows 10 version history

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Update does not allow the selective installation of updates, and all updates (including patches, feature updates, and driver software) are downloaded and installed automatically. Users can only choose whether their system will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or be notified to schedule a reboot.[194][195] If a wireless network is designated as "Metered"—a function which automatically reduces the operating system's background network activity to conserve limits on Internet usage—most updates are not downloaded until the device is connected to a non-metered network. Version 1703 allows wired (Ethernet) networks Jogos de Esgrima de Graça para Baixar be designated as metered, but Windows may still download certain updates while connected to a metered network.[196][197]

In version 2004, by installing the August 2020 security update and later versions, driver and non-security updates pushed via Windows Update that are considered optional are no longer automatically downloaded and installed in their devices. Users can access them on Settings > Update & Security > Windows Update > View optional IObit Uninstaller Pro 10.6.0 Serial Key Final Crack (2021) can Search Results Web results CorelDRAW Graphics Suite FULL VERSION Archives compatibility or other problems; a Microsoft troubleshooter program allows bad updates to be uninstalled.[199][200]

Under the Windows end-user 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen agreement, users consent to the automatic installation of all updates, features and drivers provided by the service, and implicitly consent "without any additional notice" to the possibility of features being modified or removed.[201][202][203] The agreement also states, specifically for users of Windows 10 in Canada, that they may pause updates by disconnecting their device from the Internet.[204]

Windows Update can also use 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen peer to peer system for distributing updates; by default, users' bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers. Users Avast Cleanup 20.1.9940 Activation Code Premium Incl Crack (Latest) instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network.[205]

Support lifecycle[edit]

Mainstream supportVaries by version[206][207]
Extended supportOctober 14, 2025 (2025-10-14)[206][207]
Home, Pro, Pro for Workstations, S, Education, Pro Education, Enterprise, IoT Enterprise, IoT Core, Team, Enterprise 2015 LTSB, and IoT Enterprise 2015 LTSB.[208]
Windows 10 Mobile, Mobile Enterprise, and IoT MobileUnsupported as of January 14, IDM Crack 6.38 Build 17 Patch Serial Key Free Download [2021] 10 Enterprise and IoT Enterprise 2016 LTSBMainstream support ended on October 12, 2021[207]
Extended support until October 13, 2026[207]
Windows 10 Enterprise, IoT Enterprise, and IoT Core 2019 LTSCMainstream support until January 9, 2024[207]
Extended support until January 9, 2029[207]
Windows 10 Enterprise 2021 LTSCMainstream support until January 12, 2027[207]
Windows 10 IoT Enterprise and IoT Core 2021 LTSCMainstream support until January 12, 2027[207]
Extended support until January 13, 2032[207]

The original release of Windows 10 receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions. Microsoft's support lifecycle policy for the operating system notes that "Updates are cumulative, with each update built upon all of the updates that preceded it", that "a device needs to install the latest update to remain supported", and that a device's ability to receive future updates will depend on hardware compatibility, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, driver availability, and whether the device is within the OEM's "support period"‍—‌a new aspect not accounted for in lifecycle policies for previous versions.[210][178][211][212] This policy was first invoked in 2017 to block Intel Clover Trail devices from receiving the Creators Update, as Microsoft asserts that future updates "require additional hardware support to provide the best possible experience", and that Intel no longer provided support or drivers for the platform. Microsoft stated that these devices would no longer receive feature updates, but would still receive security updates through January 2023.[213] Microsoft will continue to support at least one standard Windows 10 semi-annual channel release until October 14, 2025.[15][16]

The following table collects current status of the aforementioned updating and support of different 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen of Windows 10:

Update branchMicrosoft internal channels
(more detail here)
Alpha software
Windows Insider Preview Branch
Beta software
Semi-Annual Channel
(formerly CB)
"End user"
Long-term Servicing channel
(formerly LTSB)
"Mission critical"
Enterprise Enterprise LTSC
Critical updates
Security patches and 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen updates
Continuous Continuous as made available
(choice of Beta, Dev, or Release Preview channel)
Automatic User can defer updates indefinitely
Feature upgrades
Non-critical functionality and feature updates
Automatic or defer[218]Only through LTSC in-place upgrades
Feature upgrades cadence Continuous Continuous as released Continuous, deferrable for 12 months at a time; once a deferral period is past, no further deferrals possible until latest updates are installed LTSC releases are stable 'snapshots' of SAC
Upgrade support Continuous updating, features come and go silently with new builds Continuous updating or in-place upgrade to supported LTSC builds 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen upgrade support for the three most Movavi Video Converter 19.0.2 Serial key Activation Code With Crack LTSC builds
Update support Only the latest build is supported 10 years (or until future builds require hardware support the old device doesn't have or ~4 months after a missed cumulative update made into SAC.)[210]10 years (or ~6 months from deferring build upgrade or until future builds require hardware support the old device doesn't have.) 5 years (for 21H2 and newer, non IoT) or 5 years mainstream + 5 years extended (for 2019 and older, all IoT versions)
Update methods Windows UpdateWindows Update
Windows Update for Business
Windows Server Update Services

Feature updates[edit]

Windows 10 is often described by Microsoft as being a "service", as it receives regular "feature updates" that contain new features and other updates and fixes.[178][219][220][221] In April 2017, Microsoft stated that these updates would be released twice a year every March and September in the future.[222] Mainstream builds of Windows 10, until and including 2004, were labeled "YYMM", with "YY" representing the two-digit year and "MM" representing the month of release. For example, version 1809 was released in September (the ninth month) of 2018. This was changed with the 20H2 release where "MM" represents the half of the year in which the update was released, for example H1 for the first half and H2 for the second half.[223]

The pace at which feature updates are received by devices is dependent on which release channel is used. The default branch for all users of Windows 10 Home and Pro is "Semi-Annual Channel (Targeted)" (formerly "Current Branch", or "CB"),[221] which receives 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen builds after they are publicly released by Microsoft. Each build of Windows 10 is supported for 18 months after its original release.[221] In enterprise environments, Microsoft officially intends that this branch is used for "targeted" deployments of newly-released stable versions so that they can be evaluated and tested on a limited number of devices before a wider deployment. Once a stable build is certified by Microsoft and its partners as being suitable for broad deployment, the build is then released on the "Semi-Annual Channel" (formerly "Current Branch for Business", or "CBB"), which is supported by the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows 10.[221][195][224] Semi-Annual Channel receives stable builds on a four-month delay from their release on the Targeted channel,[221] Administrators can also use 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen "Windows Update for Business" system, as well as existing tools such as WSUS and System Center Configuration Manager, to organize structured deployments of feature updates across their networks.[221][195]

The Windows Insider branches receive unstable builds as they are released; it is divided into two channels, "Dev" (which receives new builds immediately after their release), and "Beta" (whose releases are slightly delayed from their "Dev" release).[221]

Enterprise licensees may use the Windows 10 Enterprise LTSC (formerly LTSB) edition, where "LTSC" stands for "long-term servicing channel", 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, which only receive quality of life updates (i.e. security patches), and has a full, 5 or 10-year support lifecycle for each build.[221][224][217] This edition is designed for "special-purpose devices" that perform a fixed function (such as automated teller machines and medical equipment). For this reason, it excludes Cortana, Microsoft Store, and all bundled Universal Windows Platform apps (including but not limited to Microsoft Edge, hence these builds ship only with Internet Explorer as browser).[225][226][221][178][227][228] Microsoft director Stella Chernyak explained that "we have businesses [that] may have mission-critical environments where we respect the fact they want to Hex Editor Neo Full Version and stabilize the environment for a long time."[229] Four LTSC builds have been released, correlating with the 1507, 1607, 1809, and 21H2 versions of Windows 10, respectively.[230][231][232]

In July 2017, Microsoft announced changes in the terminology for Windows branches as part of its effort to unify the update cadence with that of Office 365 ProPlus and Windows Server 2016.[233][221] The branch system now defines two paces of upgrade deployment in enterprise environments, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, "targeted" initial deployment of a new version on selected systems immediately after its stable release for final testing, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, and "broad" deployment afterwards. Hence, "Current Branch" is now known as "Semi-Annual Channel (Targeted)", and "Current Branch for Business" for broad deployment is now referred to as "Semi-Annual Channel".[234][221]

In February 2019, Microsoft announced changes again in delivering updates in beginning of release of version 1903: a single SAC will be released and SAC-T will be retired, and users are no longer able to switch to different channels. Instead, these updates can be deferred from 30 to 90 days, or depending how the device was configured to deferred the updates.[235] In April 2019, it was announced that, in addition, feature updates will no longer be automatically pushed to users.[236] However after the release of version 2004, the update only pushed for those running a feature update version that is nearing end of service or it can be paused for up to 35 days.[237][238]

Feature updates prior to version 1909 are distributed solely as an in-place upgrade installation, requiring the download of a complete operating system package (approximately 3.5 GB in size for 64-bit systems). Unlike previous builds, version 1909 is designed primarily as an update rollup version of 1903, focusing primarily on minor feature additions and enhancements. For upgrades to 1909 from 1903, a new delivery method is used where its changes were delivered as part of the monthly cumulative update, but are left in a dormant state until the 1909 update "enablement" patch is installed. The full upgrade process is still used for those using builds prior to 1903.[239][240]

Features in development[edit]

In May 2017, Microsoft unveiled Fluent Design System (previously codenamed "Project Neon"), a revamp of Microsoft Design Language 2 that will include guidelines for the designs and interactions used within software designed for all Windows 10 devices and platforms. The new design language will include the more prominent use of motion, depth, and translucency effects. Microsoft stated that the implementation of this design language would be performed over time, and it had already started to implement elements of it in Creators Update and Fall Creators Update.[241]

On December 7, 2016, Microsoft announced that, as part of a partnership with Qualcomm, it planned to introduce support for running Win32 software on ARM architecture with a 32-bit x86 processor emulator, in 2017. Terry Myerson stated that this move would enable the production of Qualcomm Snapdragon-based Windows devices with cellular connectivity and improved power efficiency over Intel-compatible devices, and still capable of running the majority of existing Windows software (unlike the previous Windows RT, which was restricted to Windows Store apps). Microsoft is initially targeting this project towards laptops.[67] Microsoft launched the branding Always Connected PCs in December 2017 to market Windows 10 devices with cellular connectivity, which included two ARM-based 2-in-1 laptops from Asus and HP featuring the Snapdragon 835 system-on-chip, and the announcement of a partnership between AMD and Qualcomm to integrate its Snapdragon X16 gigabit LTE modem with AMD's Ryzen Mobile platform.[242][243]

In August 2019, Microsoft began testing changes to its handling of the user interface on convertible devices—downplaying the existing "Tablet Mode" option in favor of presenting the normal desktop with optimizations for touch when a keyboard is not present, such as increasing the space between taskbar buttons and displaying the virtual keyboard when text fields are selected.[244]

In April 2021, the ability to run Linux applications using a graphical user interface, such as Audacity, directly in Windows, was introduced as a preview.[245] This feature would later be included as part of the updated Windows Subsystem for Linux 2 for Windows 11 only.

System requirements[edit]

The basic hardware requirements to install Windows 10 were initially the same as those for Windows 8.1 and Windows 8, and only slightly higher than for Windows 7 and Windows Vista. As of the May 2019 update, the minimum disk space requirement has been increased to 32 GB. In addition, on new installations, Windows permanently reserves up to 7 GB of disk space in order to ensure proper installation of future feature updates.[247][248]

The 64-bit variants require a CPU that supports certain instructions.[249] Devices with low storage capacity must provide a USB flash drive or SD card with sufficient storage for temporary files during upgrades.[250]

Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen. Certified tablets must include, and keys; and keys are no longer required.[251]

As 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen Windows 8, all certified devices must ship with UEFI Secure Boot enabled by default. Unlike Windows 8, OEMs are no longer required to make Secure Boot settings user-configurable, meaning that devices may optionally be locked to run only Microsoft-signed operating systems.[252] A supported infrared-illuminated camera is required for Windows Hello face authentication, and a supported fingerprint reader is required for Windows Hello fingerprint authentication.[177] Device Guard requires a UEFI system with no third-party certificates loaded, and CPU virtualization extensions (including SLAT and IOMMU) enabled in firmware, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen.

Beginning with Intel Kaby Lake and AMD Bristol Ridge, Windows 10 is the only version of Windows that Microsoft will officially support on newer CPU microarchitectures.[253][254] Terry Myerson stated that Microsoft did not want to make further investments in optimizing older versions of Windows and associated software for newer generations of processors.[255][256] These policies were criticized by the media, who especially noted that Microsoft was refusing to support newer hardware (particularly Intel's Skylake CPUs, which was also originally targeted by the new policy with a premature end of support that was ultimately retracted)[257][258] on Windows 8.1, a version of Windows that was still in mainstream support until January 2018.[259][260] In addition, an enthusiast-created modification was released that disabled the check and allowed Windows 8.1 and earlier to continue to work on the platform.[261]

Windows 10 version 1703 and later do not support Intel Clover Trail system-on-chips, per Microsoft's stated policy of only providing updates for devices during their OEM support period.[213][262]

Starting with Windows 10 version 2004, Microsoft will require new OEM devices to use 64-bit processors, and will therefore cease the distribution of x86 (32-bit) variants of Windows 10 via OEM channels. The 32-bit variants of Windows 10 will remain available via non-OEM channels, and Microsoft will continue to "[provide] feature and security updates on these devices".[263] This would later be followed by Windows 11 dropping 32-bit hardware support altogether, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, and thus making Windows 10 the final version of Windows to have a 32-bit version.[264]


Main article: Criticism of Windows 10

Critics characterized the initial release of Windows 10 as being rushed, citing the incomplete state of some of the operating system's bundled software, such as the Edge web browser, as adobe acrobat pro dc as the stability of the operating system itself on launch.[265][266][267] However, TechRadar felt that it could be "the new Windows 7", citing the operating system's more familiar user interface, improvements to bundled apps, performance improvements, a "rock solid" search system, and the Settings app being more full-featured than its equivalents on 8 and 8.1. The Edge browser was praised for its performance, although it was not in a feature-complete state at launch. While considering them a "great idea in principle", concerns were shown for Microsoft's focus on the universal app ecosystem:

It's by no Adobe Photoshop CS v8.0 and Adobe ImageReady CS v8.0 crack keygen certain that developers are going to flock to Windows 10 from iOS and Android simply because they can convert their apps easily. It may well become a no-brainer for them, but at the moment a conscious decision is still required.[266]

Engadget was similarly positive, noting that the upgrade process was painless and that Windows 10's user interface had balanced aspects of Windows 8 with those of previous versions with a more mature aesthetic. Cortana's always-on voice detection was considered to be its "true strength", also citing its query capabilities and personalization features, but noting that it was not as pre-emptive as Google Now. Windows 10's stock applications were praised for being improved over their Windows 8 counterparts, and for supporting windowed modes. The Xbox app was also praised for its Xbox One streaming functionality, although recommending its use over a wired network 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen of inconsistent quality over Wi-Fi. In conclusion, it was argued that "Windows 10 delivers the most refined desktop experience ever from Microsoft, and yet it's so much more than that. It's also a decent tablet OS, and it's ready for a world filled with hybrid devices. And, barring another baffling screwup, it looks like a significant step forward for mobile. Heck, it makes the Xbox One a more useful machine."[268]

Ars Technica panned the new Tablet mode interface for removing the charms and app switching, making the Start button harder to use by requiring users to reach for the button on the bottom-left rather than at the center of the screen when swiping with a thumb, and for making application switching less instantaneous through the use of Task View. Microsoft Edge was praised for being "tremendously promising", and "a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was", but criticized it for its lack of functionality on-launch. In conclusion, contrasting Windows 8 as being a "reliable" platform albeit consisting of unfinished concepts, Windows 10 was considered "the best Windows yet", and was praised for having a better overall concept in its ability 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen be "comfortable and effective" across a wide array of form factors, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, but that it was buggier than previous versions of Windows were on-launch.[265]ExtremeTech felt that Windows 10 restricted the choices of users, citing its more opaque setting menus, forcing users to give up bandwidth for the peer-to-peer distribution of updates, and for taking away user control of specific functions, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, such as updates, explaining that "it feels, once again, as if Microsoft has taken the seed of a good idea, like providing users with security updates automatically, and shoved the throttle to maximum."[269] Windows 10 has also received criticism because of deleting files without 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen permission after auto updates.[270]

Critics have noted that Windows 10 heavily emphasizes freemium services, and contains various advertising facilities. Some outlets have considered these to be a hidden "cost" of the free upgrade offer.[271][272][273] Examples of these have included microtransactions in bundled games such as Microsoft Solitaire Collection,[274][271][275][276] default settings that display promotions of "suggested" apps in the Start menu, "tips" on the lock screen that may contain advertising,[272][273] ads displayed in File Explorer for Office 365 subscriptions on Creators' Update,[273] and various advertising notifications displayed by default which promote Microsoft Edge when it is not set as the default web browser (including, in a September 2018 build, nag pop-ups displayed to interrupt the installation process of competitors).[277][278]

Market share and sales[edit]

See also: Usage share of operating systems § Crossover to smartphones having majority share

Windows PC market share (of Windows) statistics
Windows 10

Windows 7

Windows 8.1

Windows 8

Windows XP

Windows Vista


"Desktop Windows Version Market Share Worldwide" according to StatCounter for October 2021.[279] Note, StatCounter tracks Windows vs. macOS, Linux etc. separately, and this statistic is only thereof Windows share.

Up to August 2016, Windows 10 usage was increasing, with it then plateauing,[280] while eventually in 2018, it became more popular than Windows 7[281][282] (though Windows 7 was still more used in some countries in Asia and Africa in 2019). As of March 2020[update], the operating system is running on over a billion devices, reaching the goal set by Microsoft two years after the initial deadline.[21]

Twenty-four hours after it was released, Microsoft announced that over 14 million devices were running Windows 10.[283] On August 26, Microsoft said over 75 million devices were running Windows 10, in 192 countries, and on over 90,000 unique PC or tablet models.[284] According to Terry Myerson, there were over 110 million devices running Windows 10 as of October 6, 2015.[285] On January 4, 2016, Microsoft reported that Windows 10 had been activated on over 200 million devices since the operating system's launch in July 2015.[286][287]

According to StatCounter, Windows 10 overtook Windows 8.1 in December 2015.[288][289]Iceland was the first country where Windows 10 was ranked first (not only on the desktop, but across all platforms),[290] with several larger European countries following. For one week in late November 2016, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, Windows 10 overtook first rank from Windows 7 in the United States, before losing it again.[291] By February 2017, Windows 10 was losing market share to Windows 7.[292]

In mid-January 2018, Windows 10 had a slightly higher global market share than Windows 7,[281] with it noticeably more popular on weekends,[293] 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen popularity varies widely by region, e.g. Windows 10 was then still behind in Africa[294] and far ahead in some other regions e.g. Oceania.[295]

Update system changes[edit]

Windows 10 Home is permanently set to download all updates automatically, including cumulative updates, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, security patches, and drivers, and users cannot individually select updates to install or not.[296] Microsoft offers a diagnostic tool that can be used to hide updates and prevent them from being reinstalled, but only after they had been already installed, then uninstalled without rebooting the system.[297][298] Tom Warren of The Verge felt that, given web browsers such as Google Chrome had already adopted such an automatic update system, such a requirement would help to keep all Windows 10 devices secure, and felt that "if you're used to family members calling you for technical support because they've failed to upgrade to the latest Windows service pack or some malware disabled Windows Update then those days will hopefully be over."[299]

Concerns were raised that because of these changes, users would be unable to skip the automatic installation of updates that are faulty or cause issues with certain system configurations—although build upgrades will also be subject to public beta testing via Windows Insider program.[297][299] There were also concerns that the forced installation 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen driver updates through Windows Update, where they were Sublime Text 4113 Crack License Key 2021 {Mac/Win} Download Update designated as "optional", could cause conflicts with drivers that were installed independently of Windows Update. An example of such a situation occurred prior to the general release of the operating system, when an Nvidiagraphics card driver that was automatically pushed to Windows 10 users via Windows Update caused issues that prevented the use of certain functions, or prevented their system from booting at all.[297]

Criticism was also directed towards Microsoft's decision to no longer provide specific details on the contents of cumulative updates for Windows 10.[300] On February 9, 2016, Microsoft retracted this decision and began to provide release notes for cumulative updates on the Windows website.[301]

Some users reported that during the installation of the November upgrade, some applications (particularly utility programs such as CPU-Z and Speccy) were automatically uninstalled during the upgrade process, and some default programs were reset to Microsoft-specified defaults (such as Photos app, 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen, and Microsoft Edge for PDF viewing), both without warning.[302][303]

Further issues were discovered upon the launch of the Anniversary Update ("Redstone"), including a bug that caused some devices to freeze (but addressed by cumulative update KB3176938, released on August 31, 2016),[304][305] and that fundamental changes to how Windows handles webcams had caused many to stop working.[306]

In June 2017, a Redstone 3 Insider build (RS_EDGE_CASE in PC and rs_IoT on Mobile) was accidentally released to both Insider and non-Insider users on all Windows 10 devices, but the update was retracted, with Microsoft apologizing and releasing a note on their Windows Insider Program blog describing how to prevent the build from being installed on their device.[307] According to Dona Sarkar, this was due to "an inadvertent deployment to the engineering system that controls which builds/which rings to push out to insiders."[308]

A Gartner analyst felt that Windows 10 Pro was becoming increasingly inappropriate for use in enterprise environments because of support policy changes by Microsoft, including consumer-oriented upgrade lifecycle length, and only offering extended support for individual builds to Enterprise and Education editions of Windows 10.[309]

Critics have acknowledged that Microsoft's update and testing practices had been affecting the overall quality of Windows 10. In particular, it was pointed out that Microsoft's internal testing departments had been prominently affected by a major round of layoffs undertaken by the company in 2014. Microsoft relies primarily on user testing and bug reports via the Windows Insider program (which may not always be of sufficient quality to identify a bug), as well as correspondence with OEMs and other stakeholders. In the wake of the known folder redirection data loss bug in the version 1809, it was pointed out that bug reports describing the issue had been present on the Feedback Hub app for several months prior to the public release. Following the incident, Microsoft updated Feedback Hub so that users may specify the severity of a particular bug report. When announcing the resumption of 1809's rollout, Microsoft stated that it planned to be more transparent in its handling of update quality in the future, through a series of blog posts that will detail its testing process and the planned development of a "dashboard" that will indicate the rollout progress of future updates.[310][311][312][313][314]

Distribution practices[edit]

Microsoft was criticized for the tactics that it used to promote its free upgrade campaign for Windows 10, including adware-like behaviors,[315] using deceptive user interfaces to coax users into installing the operating system,[316]

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Daily Snapshots Available

Daily snapshot builds of our upcoming release are available for testing and evaluation. Join us on our forum to discuss.

Daily SnapshotsDiscussion Forum

Download Guide

You can determine the files needed for your install by reading the rest of this page for guidance.

Architecture Options

AMD64 (64-bit)If you have a 64-bit capable CPU, use the amd64 version. The amd64 architecture (which works even on Intel 64-bit CPUs) can address more memory and may have other performance advantages, but requires a compatible CPU.
Netgate ADIThe Netgate ADI image only supports a serial installation from memstick and does not come with VGA option. If you purchased a Netgate product, refer to the product manual for your appliance to see which reinstall image you need.

Installer Options

USB Memstick The USB memstick image is meant to be written to disc before use and includes an installer that installs pfSense software to the hard drive on your system. This is the preferred means of running pfSense software. The entire hard drive will be overwritten, dual booting with another OS is 7 Download Services v3.2.4 crack serial keygen supported.
DVD Image (ISO)The DVD Image (ISO) Installer is used to create a DVD version used to install on virtual machines or systems with a DVD drive.

Filename Guide

pfSense-CE-memstick-serial-2.5.2-RELEASE-amd64.img.gzUSB memstick installer (Serial Console)
pfSense-CE-memstick-2.5.2-RELEASE-amd64.img.gzUSB memstick installer (VGA Console)
pfSense-CE-memstick-ADI-2.5.2-RELEASE-amd64.img.gzNetgate ADI installer
pfSense-CE-2.5.2-RELEASE-amd64.iso.gzDVD Image (ISO) installer
*.sha256SHA256 hash files for download verification against the .gz file
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