2-DG | All You Need To Know About The New Oral COVID-19 Drug Cleared By DCGI

DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, Efficacy, Price, Name

DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, Efficacy, Price, Name

2DG will work against variants too as it stops virus growth. Once the growth is inhibited, there will be no sudden rise in the demand of. The anti-Covid oral drug has been developed by DRDO's leading laboratory -- Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences -- in. The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved the emergency use of drug 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) developed by DRDO. DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, Efficacy, Price, Name

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What Is 2-DG, The New Anti-Covid Drug Made By DRDO And Given Emergency Use Approval In India?

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All you need to know about the new oral COVID-19 drug cleared by DCGI
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The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has cleared the 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) drug for emergency use, the Union government said on May 8. The new oral anti-COVID drug, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), expedites the recovery of hospitalised patients, reduces dependence on medical oxygen and caused no major side-effect in the clinical trials.

Here is all you need to know about the new oral anti-COVID drug:

How 2-DG drug is administered

"The drug comes in powder form in sachet, which is taken orally by dissolving it in water," the Ministry of Defence said in a statement that announced the clearance of the DRDO-developed drug for emergency use.

How it works in treating COVID-19 infection

The 2-DG drug accumulates in the virus-infected cells and prevents virus growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production. "Its selective accumulation in virally infected cells makes this drug unique," the ministry explained.

Reduces dependence on medical oxygen

According to the government, the clinical trials have shown that a significantly higher proportion of patients administered with the 2-DG drug "became free from supplemental oxygen dependence" by the third day of their treatment, in comparison to those who were not administered with the drug.

This indicated an "early relief from oxygen therapy/dependence", the Ministry of Defence noted in its statement.

Also Read: DCGI gives emergency approval to DRDO-developed 2-DG as adjunct therapy for COVID-19 patients

Reduces hospital stay period

The clinical trials established that a higher proportion of those administered with the DRDO-developed drug "improved symptomatically" by the third day of their treatment, as compared to those provided the standard treatment.

"In the ongoing second COVID-19 wave, a large number of patients are facing severe oxygen dependency and need hospitalisation. The drug is expected to save precious lives due to the mechanism of operation of the drug in infected cells. This also reduces the hospital stay of COVID-19 patients," the ministry said.

Image shared by government's press agency PIB Image shared by government's press agency PIB

INMAS behind drug development

The Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), a lab of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), developed the anti-COVID-19 therapeutic application of the drug 2-deoxy-D-glucose. The institute worked in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL), Hyderabad.

"In April 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, INMAS-DRDO scientists conducted laboratory experiments with the help of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad and found that this molecule works effectively against SARS-CoV-2 virus and inhibits the viral growth," the government said.

Efficacy established in clinical trials

Based on the results of INMAS-DRDO scientists' laboratory experiments, the regulatory authorities had granted permission for phase-II clinical trials in May 2020.

In Phase-II trials conducted from May to October 2020 on 110 patients, the "drug was found to be safe in COVID-19 patients" and showed significant improvement in their recovery, the government said.

"In efficacy trends, the patients treated with 2-DG showed faster symptomatic cure than Standard of Care (SoC) on various endpoints. A significantly favourable trend (2.5 days difference) was seen in terms of the median time to achieving normalisation of specific vital signs parameters when compared to SoC," the statement added.

Based on successful results, the DCGI further permitted the Phase-III clinical trials in November 2020, which was conducted on 220 patients.

"In 2-DG arm, significantly higher proportion of patients improved symptomatically and became free from supplemental oxygen dependence (42 percent vs 31 percent) by Day-3 in comparison to SoC, indicating an early relief from Oxygen therapy/dependence," the Ministry of Defence said.

This trend of recovery was also observed in patients aged more than 65 years who were administered with the drug, it added.
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DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, Efficacy, Price, Vaccine Name, Side Effects, Availability details are discussed here. DCGI – Drug Controller General of India was testing DRDO 2-DG medicine for Corona Virus. Finally on 9th May 2021, DCGI approved the emergency use of DRDO Anti Covid Drug. The medicine is developed by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences which is formally known as INMAS. INMAS is a lab of Defence Research and Development Organisation – DRDO. INMAS worked in collaboration with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories in Hyderabad to develop DRDO 2DG medicine.

DRDO Anti Covid Drug

During the first wave of Covid in April 2020, DRDO scientists in INMAS conducted some lab experiments with the collaboration of CCMB – Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad. In the Experiment, they found that DRDO 2-DG molecule works better against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and controls the growth of virus. In May 2020, DCGI gave permission to begin phase-II trials in clinics in Corona Patients.

The phase-II trials were conducted from May to October 2020. During this period, scientists found that this DRDO Anti Corona Drug is safe for Corona Patients and also shown noticeable recovery. The DRDO 2DG medicine phase-II and phase-IIb trials were conducted in 6 and 11 hospitals respectively across the nation.

After receiving positive responses in Phase-II and Phase-IIb trials, DCGI permitted 2DG phase-III trials in November 2020. A total of 220 patients were included in Phase-II trial which was conducted from December 2020 to March 2021. These patients were from 27 Covid-1 Hospitals of UP, West Bengal, Gujarat, Delhi, Maharashtra, Telangana, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Majority of the patients showed improvements and became independent from supplemental oxygen by Day 3.

DRDO Anti Covid Drug

Also check:

DRDO Anti Covid Drug Name

The Anti Covid Drug developed by DRDO is names 2-DG. 2-DG is short for 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose. INMAS developed this drug and then they proposed the name 2-DG based upon the composition of the drug.

DRDO 2DG Medicine

These are some questions that were asked to Dr. Sudhir Chandana who is the project director and the scientist of DRDO 2-DG Medicine. Here are the questions and answers.

DRDO 2DG Medicine

DRDO Anti Covid Drug Efficacy

As the public results of 2-DG medicine efficacy are not yet available, we trust the fact that DRDO has developed it and DCGI has approved it. On 8th May 2021, DRDO gave a statement about the efficacy of DRDO Covid drug. The statement is as follows:

Initial Clinical trials of 2DG has shown the faster recovery in the patients who are hospitalized. This molecule helps in the reduction of supplemental oxygen dependency. As it is a generic molecule and analogue of glucose, production of this medicine is easy and can be developed at large scale in limited time. Most of the Covid patient who were treated with DRDO 2DG medicine showed RT-PCR negative conversions.

Giving more details on DRDO 2GD Efficacy, The official added:

The patients who were given 2-DG medicine showed better and faster improvement than the Standard of Care (SoC). DRDO Anti Covid Drug comes in powdered form and can easily be taken by dissolving in the water. It treats the cells which are infected by the virus and avoids the growth of virus.

DRDO 2DG Covid Medicine Price

Dr Sudhir Chandna was asked about the DRDO Covid Drug Price and he said that the price will depend on the production and production details are available at Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories. Dr. Reddy’s Lab are the industry partner of DRDO in the development of 2DG drug.

As per the sources, the DRDO 2DG medicine price can range from 500-600 INR. It will be in the budget of people and government may come across some subsidy of that too.

DRDO 2-DG Drug availability

On 9th May 2021, DRDO Chief Mr. G. Satheesh Reddy that the DRDO Covid medicine is approved for emergency use it will be available by 11th May 2021. After the approval of the 2DG drug, the labs are given a go for the production and soon it will be available for the public in the required quantity.

Related Searches:

When being asked about the side effects of DRDO Anti Covid Drug, Dr. Sudhir Chandana said that the trials were done on all stages of corona patients including moderate and serious patients. All the patients got only the benefits and no side effects were noticed. So we can say that DRDO 2-DG does not have any side effects.

We hope that DRDO Anti Corona Medicine 2-DG will perform as expected and will bring an end to this pandemic. What are your thoughts on this, please leave a comment in the box below.

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Dr Reddy's DRDO-produced drug 2DG launches commercially: Cost, production, efficacy

Hyderabad pharma company Dr Reddy's Laboratories (RDL) has announced that it will now commercially sell the 2-deoxy-D-glucose drug under the name of 2DG.

The drug was developed and tested by the Defence Research and Development Organisation's (DRDO) Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences (INMAS) in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s.

The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) gave the drug its Emergency Use Approval (EUA) on 1 May and was officially launched on 8 May. On 17 May, Rajnath Singh, defence minister handed the first batch of drugs to the Union health minister Harsh Vardhan.

Dr Reddy’s will supply the 2DG drug to major government and private hospitals in metros and Tier 1 cities. Gradually, the company will increase supply to the rest of the country.

Dr G Satheesh Reddy, Secretary Department of Defence (R&D) and Chairman, DRDO said in a press release, “We are pleased to have worked closely with our long-term industry partner Dr Reddy's Laboratories, Hyderabad, for testing 2DG as therapeutic application in treatment of COVID-19 patients. DRDO has been contributing in fight against COVID-19 pandemic with its spin off technologies."

The drug comes in a sachet, in the powder form of 2.34 g. It needs to be dissolved in water and taken orally. According to an RDL statement, the maximum retail price of each sachet has been fixed at Rs 990. A subsidised rate will be offered to government institutions.

It works by accumulating in the virus-infected cells and preventing growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production. Its selective accumulation in virally infected cells makes this drug unique.

The drug is given to hospitalised COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe condition, under the prescription and supervision of a doctor. It is an adjunct or supplementary treatment to standard care and does not work independently.

Satish Reddy, Chairman, Dr Reddy’s said, “2DG is yet another addition to our COVID-19 portfolio that already covers the full spectrum of mild to moderate and severe conditions and includes a vaccine. We are extremely pleased to have partnered with DRDO in our collective fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clinical trials

According to a government press release, the phase 1 trials was a collaboration between INMAS-DRDO scientists along with the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad. Based on phase 1 results, the DCGI's Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) permitted them to conduct phase 2 clinical trials in people in May 2020.

The trials were done to compare the efficacy and safety of the drug with SoC verse just standard care. Male, female and transgender patients between the ages of 18-90 years of age were accepted into the trials after they were tested positive for the virus.

Phase 2 was split into phase 2a and phase 2b in six hospitals and 11 hospitals respectively. There were 110 patients from all over the country and the trials were conducted during the months of May to October 2020. They found that the drug was safe and patients showed significant improvement during their recovery. The drug was found to help patients get better faster by 2.5 days than Standard of Care (SoC).

Phase 3 trials were conducted from December 2020 to March 2021 in 220 patients at 27 different Indian hospitals. According to the press release, using the drug saw many patients improving and "became free from supplemental oxygen dependence by Day-3 in comparison to SoC, indicating an early relief from Oxygen therapy/dependence."

"The drug is expected to save precious lives due to the mechanism of operation of the drug in infected cells. This also reduces the hospital stay of COVID-19 patients," statesthe press release.

"During clinical trials, it has yielded an effective result in curing patients infected with COVID-19 . The medicine has gone through clinical trials on around 110 patients in the second phase. In the third phase, it was tried on 220 patients. It has shown better efficacy in phase two itself as compared to the standard care," ANIquoted Dr Sudhir Chandna, INMAS.

"This data has indicated that oxygen dependence reduced in a better way when we use this medicine along with standard care," he added.

However, recently The Wirereported that the results of phase 2 and 3 trials haven't been published as yet. The only information we have comes from what was made known in a government press release and from the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI). The company and the drug have received EUA despite not making the results public.

This is not the first time, during the coronavirus pandemic, that data of therapies to treat the virus hasn't been made public. Data of indigenously produced Bharat Biotech's COVAXIN vaccine has not yet been made public. It recieved the EUA based on interim results. The pharma company has also applied to get on the World Health Organisation's Emergency Use Listing (EUL) and recently had a meeting with the health agency.

Both Bharat Biotech and DRL have produced their therapies in collaboration with the government.

Production of the drug

The first batch of the 2DG drugs is already in circulation. Now the DRDO is looking for more partners to produce the anti-viral drug in both India and internationally. It issued an Expression of Interest (EoI) and is willing to transfer the technology to them in order to help them manufacture the drug. According to The Hindu, a transfer of technology (ToT) fee of Rs 25 lakh will have to be paid to DRDO at the time of signing of licensing agreement.

Updated Date: June 28, 2021 17:12:57 IST

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2-Deoxy-D-glucose

2-Deoxy-D-glucose
Names
IUPAC name

(4R,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol

Other names

2-Deoxyglucose
2-Deoxy-d-mannose
2-Deoxy-d-arabino-hexose
2-DG

Identifiers

CAS Number

3D model (JSmol)

ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard100.005.295Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number

IUPHAR/BPS

PubChemCID

UNII

InChI

  • InChI=1S/C6H12O5/c7-2-4-6(10)3(8)1-5(9)11-4/h3-10H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5?,6+/m1/s1 checkY
    Key: PMMURAAUARKVCB-CERMHHMHSA-N checkY

SMILES

  • O[C@H](C(CO)O[C@H](O)C1)[C@H]1O

Properties

Chemical formula

C6H12O5
Molar mass164.16 g/mol
Melting point 142 to 144 °C (288 to 291 °F; 415 to 417 K)

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Chemical compound

2-Deoxy-d-glucose is a glucosemolecule which has the 2-hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen, so that it cannot undergo further glycolysis. As such; it acts to competitively inhibit the production of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose at the phosphoglucoisomerase level (step 2 of glycolysis).[2] 2-Deoxyglucose labeled with tritium or carbon-14 has been a popular ligand for laboratory research in animal models, where distribution is assessed by tissue-slicing followed by autoradiography, sometimes in tandem with either conventional or electron microscopy.

2-DG is up taken by the glucose transporters of the cell.[3] Therefore, cells with higher glucose uptake, for example tumor cells, have also a higher uptake of 2-DG. Since 2-DG hampers cell growth, its use as a tumor therapeutic has been suggested, and in fact, 2-DG is in clinical trials.[4] It is not completely clear how 2-DG inhibits cell growth. The fact that glycolysis is inhibited by 2-DG, seems not to be sufficient to explain why 2-DG treated cells stop growing.[5] Because of its structural similarity to mannose, 2DG has the potential to inhibit N-glycosylation in mammalian cells and other systems, and as such induces ER stress and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathway.[6][7][8]

Use in optical imaging[edit]

2-DG has been used as a targeted optical imaging agent for fluorescent in vivo imaging.[9][10] In clinical medical imaging (PET scanning), fluorodeoxyglucose is used, where one of the 2-hydrogens of 2-deoxy-D-glucose is replaced with the positron-emitting isotope fluorine-18, which emits paired gamma rays, allowing distribution of the tracer to be imaged by external gamma camera(s). This is increasingly done in tandem with a CT function which is part of the same PET/CT machine, to allow better localization of small-volume tissue glucose-uptake differences.

Indian adoption for COVID-19 treatment[edit]

On May 8, 2021, the Drugs Controller General of India approved an oral formulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose for emergency use as adjunct therapy in moderate to severe coronavirus patients.[11][12] The drug was developed by the DRDO along with Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, who jointly claimed via a press release, that the drug "helps in faster recovery of hospitalised patients and reduces supplemental oxygen dependence".[12][13][14]The Wire as well as The Hindu noted that the approval was based on poor evidence; no journal publication (or preprint) concerning efficacy and safety are yet available.[13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2886.
  2. ^Wick, AN; Drury, DR; Nakada, HI; Wolfe, JB (1957). "Localization of the primary metabolic block produced by 2-deoxyglucose"(PDF). J Biol Chem. 224 (2): 963–969. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)64988-9. PMID 13405925.
  3. ^Laussel, Clotilde; Léon, Sébastien (December 2020). "Cellular toxicity of the metabolic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose and associated resistance mechanisms". Biochemical Pharmacology. 182: 114213. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114213.
  4. ^Pelicano, H; Martin, DS; Xu, RH; Huang, P (2006). "Glycolysis inhibition for anticancer treatment". Oncogene. 25 (34): 4633–4646. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209597. PMID 16892078.
  5. ^Ralser, M.; Wamelink, M. M.; Struys, E. A.; Joppich, C.; Krobitsch, S.; Jakobs, C.; Lehrach, H. (2008). "A catabolic block does not sufficiently explain how 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits cell growth". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (46): 17807–17811. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10517807R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803090105. PMC 2584745. PMID 19004802.
  6. ^Kurtoglu, M.; Gao, N.; Shang, J.; Maher, J. C.; Lehrman, M. A.; Wangpaichitr, M.; Savaraj, N.; Lane, A. N.; Lampidis, T. J. (2007-11-07). "Under normoxia, 2-deoxy-D-glucose elicits cell death in select tumor types not by inhibition of glycolysis but by interfering with N-linked glycosylation". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 6 (11): 3049–3058. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-07-0310. ISSN 1535-7163. PMID 18025288.
  7. ^Xi, Haibin; Kurtoglu, Metin; Liu, Huaping; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; You, Min; Liu, Xiongfei; Savaraj, Niramol; Lampidis, Theodore J. (2010-07-01). "2-Deoxy-d-glucose activates autophagy via endoplasmic reticulum stress rather than ATP depletion". Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 67 (4): 899–910. doi:10.1007/s00280-010-1391-0. ISSN 0344-5704. PMC 3093301. PMID 20593179.
  8. ^Defenouillère, Quentin; Verraes, Agathe; Laussel, Clotilde; Friedrich, Anne; Schacherer, Joseph; Léon, Sébastien (2019-09-03). "The induction of HAD-like phosphatases by multiple signaling pathways confers resistance to the metabolic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose"(PDF). Science Signaling. 12 (597): eaaw8000. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aaw8000. ISSN 1945-0877. PMID 31481524. S2CID 201829818.
  9. ^Kovar, Joy L.; Volcheck, William; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Simpson, Melanie A.; Olive, D. Michael (2009). "Characterization and performance of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose optical imaging agent for mouse cancer models". Analytical Biochemistry. 384 (2): 254–262. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2008.09.050. PMC 2720560. PMID 18938129.
  10. ^Cheng, Z., Levi, J., Xiong, Z., Gheysens, O., Keren, S., Chen, X., and Gambhir, S., Bioconjugate Chemistry, 17(3), (2006), 662-669
  11. ^What is 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and is it effective against Covid?, The Economic Times, 17 May 2021.
  12. ^ ab"DCGI approves anti-COVID drug developed by DRDO for emergency use". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 2021-05-08. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  13. ^ abBorana, Ronak (2021-05-12). "India's Drug Regulator Has Approved DRDO's New COVID Drug on Missing Evidence". The Wire Science. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  14. ^ abKoshy, Jacob (2021-05-11). "Questions remain on DRDO's COVID drug". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
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2GD of DRDO is a anti covid drug which is going to create antibodies in human body. its formula is 2-Deoxy-D-glucose. DRDO 2GD Medicine complete details at jbsa.org.

One more medicine used to treat covid19 has been approved by Drugs Controller General of India. The Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences , a lab of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) of the Government of India, together with Dr. Reddy Labs, has made an oral drug of Corona. DGCI has approved this drug named 2-deoxy-D-glucose for emergency use in the country. According to the results of clinical trials of the DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine, this medicine helps corona patients admitted to the hospital to recover quickly. Along with this, it also reduces the oxygen support of the patients.Test results have revealed that the reports of patients taking this drug have been negative in the RT-PCR test. In such a situation, this drug can prove to be very beneficial for the citizen of India who are facing the 2nd wave of epidemic.

DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine

In April 2020, the use of this medicine of Covid-19 was started and its initial results were very good, after which its clinical trials started in May in the year 2020 which were completed later in October. In the 3rd phase clinical trial, people were given doses of this drug, which got very good DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Medicine Usage Results. As per the DRDO scientists, these drugs will soon be available in the market for the treatment of Corona  patients. The anti-Corona virus drug made by the Defense Research and Development Organization has been approved for emergency use. This drug is named 2-deoxy-D-glucose and dear readers this medicine comes in a powder-like sachet.

On 8 May the Ministry of Defense has informed that this oral drug has been approved for use in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe symptoms of Covid-19. During research, large number of people using this drug have been found to be negative in RTPCR test.India has taken another important step in the fight against Corona by approving this drug. Overall DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine Efficacy is good. This drug has been found standing all over the medicut term. The government hopes that the use of this drug will reduce dependence on medical oxygen and help patients admitted to hospitals to recover.

Also Read:-

DRDO 2GD Anti Covid 19 Medicine 2021 Details

Drug Name2-Deoxy-D-Glucose
For virusCovid 19
Developed byThe Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (Inmas)
Under AuthorityDefense Research and Development Organization (DRDO)
Drug Administration ModeOral
BeneficiaryGeneral public
Approved byDrugs Controller General of India

DRDO Anti Covid Drug Medicine 2021 Usage

The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved the anti-COVID drug developed by DRDO for emergency use. The Ministry of Defense has given this information. This anti-covid drug 2-deoxy-D-glucose has been manufactured by DRDO in association with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories in Hyderabad.The MOD stated that the clinical trial revealed 2-DG drug helps hospitalized patients recover faster, as well as reducing oxygen need. DRDO anti-COViD drug 2-DG Usage is very simple as it comes in powder form in pouches. It is dissolved in water and drunk.The ministry stated that the 2-DG drug of DRDO accumulates in the virus-infected cell and prevents the virus from growing by inhibiting viral synthesis and energy production.

The drug has been formulated with the help of Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (Inmas) and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories of Hyderabad. Among the Covid-19 infected patients treated with 2-DG, the majority of RT-PCR test reports have been negative.In response to PM’s call for preparedness against the epidemic, Drugs Controller General of India took the initiative to develop a 2-DG anti-COViD drug and then in April 2020, when the 1st wave of pandemic occurred in India, scientists from DRDO’s laboratory, Inmas, conducted experiments with the help of the Hyderabad-based Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and found that these molecules are against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Works effectively and inhibits viral growth.

DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine: Price, Usage, Side Effects & Efficacy

DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine Efficacy

When the drug, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) enters the body, it accumulates inside the cells infected by the virus. Whose virus synthesis and energy production prevents infection from growing. DRDO states that its “virus-only accumulation in infected cells” makes it unique.The drug can speed up the recovery of hospitalized Covid-19 patients and also reduce their dependence on medical oxygen. Clinical trials have found that 42% of patients who are given 2 doses of this drug per day do not need oxygen support on the third day. Under standard treatment, 30 percent of the patients get oxygen support for 3 days.Phase IIa was conducted in 6 hospitals and Phase IIb (by dose) clinical trial was conducted in 11 hospitals across the nation and the second phase of the trial was conducted on 110 patients.

As per the reports Efficacy of DRDO 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose is great thats why Drugs Controller General of India has approved it.Based on these results, the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) approved a 2-DG Phase II clinical trial on Covid-19 patients in May 2020.DRDO then began a clinical trial with its industry partner Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories to test the safety and efficacy of the drug in patients with Covid-19.According to a report, the second phase of the phase between May and October 2020 In the trial, the drug was found safe in Covid-19 patients and there was a significant improvement in their recovery.

FAQ’s on DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine

How is the DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine consumed?

The 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) drug comes in a sachet like a powder, which is easily dissolved in water and drunk. But it will be used only on the advice of doctors and under the protocol of treatment.

How does DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine work?

Due to the ongoing second wave of Covid-19, a large number of patients require oxygen and hospitalization. Precious lives are expected to be saved from this drug because this drug works on infected cells. It also reduces the duration of hospitalization of Covid-19 patients. The 2-DG drug of DRDO accumulates in the virus-infected cell and stops the virus from growing.Working selectively on a virus-infected cell is what makes this medicine special.

Anything about DRDO 2GD Anti Covid Drug Medicine’s Side Effects and Price?

This has not yet revealed by Drugs Controller General of India and we will have to wait for sometime.

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Healthcare workers transfer the body of a person who died from COVID-19, at a hospital in Kolkata, May 12, 2021. Photo: Reuters/Rupak De Chowdhuri

Mumbai: On May 1, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) approved a drug called 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) for emergency use among people with moderate and severe COVID-19, to help manage the disease.

This drug was jointly developed by researchers at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, which falls under the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), and the pharmaceutical giant Dr Reddy’s Laboratories.

In line with the DCGI’s approval for favipiravir, itolizumab and Verafin, the approval for 2-DG is based on poor evidence.

2-DG is a modified glucose molecule that has been found to have some therapeutic value as an anticancer and antiviral agent. Research on 2-DG goes as far back as 1956, although it hasn’t been approved to treat any other diseases yet. It is currently mostly used in diagnostic testing and research-related activities.

The Wire Science couldn’t find any preprint or peer-reviewed research paper uploaded by the DRDO and Dr Reddy’s team on 2-DG clinical trials vis-à-vis COVID-19. Instead, we had to rely on publicly available information, like a press release – from the Ministry of Defence! – and clinical trial registrations, to access the quality of the evidence.

No promise of success

In news reports about the 2-DG approval, the most widely used image is from an in vitro study of 2-DG against SARS-CoV-2. In vitro refers to studies performed outside a biological entity – like the human body or humanised mice. Studies conducted inside a biological entity are called in vivo.

(As it happens, according to one preprint paper, members of the Patanjali Research Institute and others suggested the use of 2-DG last year. It was based, of all things, on a computer simulation – in silico.)

This image, which the government shared in a press release, shows that cell cultures in a laboratory without 2-DG had more viral plaques – clear spots indicating cell damage by the virus – compared to the ones with 2-DG. These studies were conducted at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad.

While these experiments show that 2-DG can inhibit viral growth, they tell us little about its efficacy in humans.

For example, a study published in August 2020 found that around 90 drugs that had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration had antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 – as did ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, doxycycline, azithromycin and lopinavir. But none of them has been found to have any meaningful effect in human trials with COVID-19 patients.

Setting targets after firing the gun

Based on the results from this in vitro trial, the national drug regulator had approved a phase 2 trial for 2-DG – possibly in May 2020.

According to the press release, “Phase 2a was conducted in six hospitals and Phase 2b (dose ranging) clinical trial was conducted at 11 hospitals all over the country. Phase-2 trial was conducted on 110 patients.”

The Wire Science couldn’t find the corresponding entries for any of these trials in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI). The reason for this discrepancy is unclear; emails to the principal investigators of both studies hadn’t elicited a response at the time of publishing this article. The only phase 2 trial registered for 2-DG involved 40 patients across 12 sites.

From 2009, the DCGI mandated all human clinical trials in the country to be registered on CTRI in advance. As such, if the 2-DG trials haven’t been registered, they would be in violation of the Indian Council of Medical Research’s ethics guidelines.

Along with making sure that a study has been approved by an ethics committee, registering a trial on the CTRI before it begins also ensures researchers declare what parameters they will be measuring in their study. This is a safeguard against unscrupulous researchers measuring many different parameters and only reporting the ones that support their hypothesis.

The DRDO and Dr Reddy’s conducted the 2-DG phase 3 trial in 220 patients at 26 sites around the country. (The DRDO is listed as the trial’s primary sponsor and Dr Reddy’s the secondary.) However, the CTRI registration of this trial does not mention which parameters the trial researchers plan to measure.

For example, the phase 2 registration says that the trial’s primary endpoint – the main objective of the study – would be to measure the improvement of trial participants on a 10-point scale. The secondary endpoint includes around 15 other measurements, like mortality, improvement in symptoms, time spent with supplemental oxygen, etc.

So the trial will be deemed to be successful only if the researchers measure a significant positive change on the primary endpoints – which in 2-DG’s case the researchers were marking on the 10-point scale.

The CTRI registration of the phase 3 trial, however, doesn’t disclose what the primary endpoints were.

According to the press release, in the phase 3 trial, the participants who got 2-DG had better ‘symptom improvement’ and spent less time receiving supplemental oxygen. But since we don’t know if these two parameters were primary endpoints of the phase 3 trial or just one of the many secondary endpoints, we can’t know if the trial was a success or if the release is only reporting the trial’s favourable findings. Also note that ‘symptom improvement’ and oxygen dependence were secondary endpoints in the phase 2 trial.

Dr S.P. Kalantri, a professor of medicine at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, told The Wire Science that failing to declare which analyses the researchers had decided to perform in advance destroys scientific rigour. “The data analysed in such studies is akin to a fishing expedition — trying to find out if something worthwhile emerges from the data. More often than not, such associations are by chance and are spurious.”

Room for prejudice

Next, consider the results from the phase 2 trial of 2-DG. The primary endpoint of this trial was the number of days required for the patients to score 4 or less on the WHO’s 10-point scale to measure a COVID-19 patient’s clinical status.

 

There are two problems. First, this is a surrogate measurement that has little clinical value for patients. “The study does not tell us if the drug is capable of preventing ICU admissions, the need for mechanical ventilation or reducing deaths,” Dr Kalantri said – and these are outcomes “that matter to the people”. Instead, the scale only tells us how a patient might do on a subjective scale.

“For a patient with severe disease, improvement in symptoms – like cough, fever – or reduction in oxygen use, is immaterial if the survival does not improve,” Dr Sahaj Rathi, of the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, said. “COVID-19 is a fatal but finite disease: one either survives it or not – the outcome is clear before discharge from hospital in nearly all cases. The outcomes which truly matter are mortality reduction in severe disease and preventing hospitalisation in mild disease.”

Second, this 10-point scale is highly, and famously, prone to bias. There is no one-to-one matching between a patient’s symptoms and their score on the scale. It’s up to the doctors involved in the trial: they decide who gets a 4 and who gets a 6. And when it’s not perfectly possible to justify each decision, there is ample room for prejudicial decision-making.

For example, clinicians who participate in trials that are sponsored by the companies making the drug are paid significant sums of money for their time. This compensation can in turn encourage them to undermine the results in favour of the company.

To shield trials from such bias, they are often blinded: the clinician recording the data doesn’t know which patients got the drug and which didn’t. Blinding is important when researchers are measuring a subjective parameter – like a patient’s score on a 10-point scale.

Both the phase 2 and phase 3 trials of 2-DG did not blind the clinicians.

The results

DRDO and Dr Reddy’s have not published any manuscripts describing the trials either in preprint repositories or scientific journals. The little information that we have about the efficacy of these drugs come from the government press release.

For phase 2, the press release says the researchers reported a “significantly favourable trend”: that the vital signs of those who received 2-DG returned to ‘normal’ 2.5 days sooner on average versus those who didn’t receive 2-DG. (We don’t know what is ‘normal’ here either.) There are two problems here.

First, normalisation of vital signs is one of the 15 secondary endpoints – not a primary endpoint. There is no information in the release about the primary endpoint nor the other 14 secondary endpoints.

Second, the word “significantly favourable” and “significantly higher” have been used to describe the results of the phase 2 and 3 results. The phrase ‘statistically significant’ can’t be a throwaway term. To be statistically significant means a particular measurement is too large to be the result of chance. And to claim a result is significant in this way, researchers typically perform specific statistical calculations to prove their point.

Without seeing these calculations, it’s impossible to say if the use of the term “significantly” in the press release alludes to significance of the statistical variety or the propagandist one. The press release also doesn’t use the word “statistically”.

Further, the DCGI relies on the recommendation of the Subject Expert Committee (SEC), a group of independent experts, to grant COVID-related approval. On October 29, 2020, the SEC asked1 Dr Reddy’s to add “mortality at 28 days” as one of the efficacy endpoints in the phase 3 trial. But while the press release says the drug was found to be efficacious in the phase 3 trial, it doesn’t say anything about the mortality endpoint.

Safety

Next, a drug’s efficacy is only as good as its safety profile. While there have been several human trials for 2-DG over the years, the drug hasn’t been approved for human use before this month.

According to the CTRI entries, 2-DG’s dosage in its phase 2 trial was 45 mg per kg of body weight in the morning and 18 mg/kg in the evening. But in phase 3, this was increased to 45 mg/kg in the morning and 45 mg/kg in the evening – for a total of 90 mg/kg per day.

A smaller study by researchers in the US, published in September 2010, tested the drug’s effects among 12 cancer patients. They found that 60 mg/kg of 2-DG per day was shown to cause QT prolongation – a severe cardiac condition. As Priyanka Pulla has reported earlier:

The electrical signal that contracts the heart muscles, thus allowing them to pump blood, passes through the heart once every heartbeat and shows up on an ECG as a series of waves labelled P,Q, R, S and T. When the time delay between the Q and T waves becomes longer than it should be, the condition is called long QT syndrome. This syndrome can render the heart beat chaotic in some people. This arrhythmia can in turn lead to a sudden cardiac arrest.

Another study, published in December 2012, found that ingesting 63-88 mg/kg of 2-DG per day could, among other things, increase the person’s blood sugar levels.

The press release also doesn’t say anything about the drug’s safety profile, as ascertained in the phase 2 or phase 3 trials. Phase 3 trials in particular are crucial to understanding any drug’s or vaccine’s long-term safety. (This is one of the reasons the DCGI’s approval for Covaxin without any data from its phase 3 trial proved so controversial.) And of course, it’s impossible to discover any rare side-effects in a trial with only 220 participants; tens of thousands had to have been enrolled instead.

From the in vitro experiments to the phase 3 trials, which were sponsored by DRDO, public money funded 2-DG’s development. And because the trials in particular were so poorly designed, and poorly reported too, 2-DG’s trajectory during the COVID-19 represents a waste of the country’s resources – and a betrayal of the people’s trust in their public institutions.

“There is minimal information about how the trials were conducted, as there is no data or publication in the public domain. This is not a new or proprietary molecule, and this is publicly funded research. The data should be in the public domain,” Dr Rathi said.

Requests for comment sent to the DCGI’s office, the DRDO and Dr Reddy’s hadn’t elicited replies at the time of publishing. This article will be updated as and when any of them respond.

Note: This article was updated at 10:30 am on May 13, 2021, to include Dr Sahaj Rathi’s comments, and at 1:07 pm on May 15, 2021, to include the SEC’s request to Dr Reddy’s.

Note: This article was updated at 6:13 pm on May 21, 2021, to note that 2-DG was approved on May 1. The previous version mistook the date of approval with the date of announcement of the approval.

Ronak Borana is a science communicator based in Mumbai. He tweets at @ronaklmno.

Ronak BoranaИсточник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

2-Deoxy-D-glucose

2-Deoxy-D-glucose
Names Name colspan="2">IUPAC name

(4R,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol

Other names

2-Deoxyglucose
2-Deoxy-d-mannose
2-Deoxy-d-arabino-hexose
2-DG

Identifiers

CAS Number

3D model (JSmol)

ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard100.005.295Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number

IUPHAR/BPS

PubChemCID

UNII

InChI

  • InChI=1S/C6H12O5/c7-2-4-6(10)3(8)1-5(9)11-4/h3-10H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5?,6+/m1/s1 checkY
    Key: PMMURAAUARKVCB-CERMHHMHSA-N checkY

SMILES

  • O[C@H](C(CO)O[C@H](O)C1)[C@H]1O

Properties

Chemical formula

C6H12O5
Molar mass164.16 g/mol
Melting point 142 to 144 °C (288 to 291 °F; 415 to 417 K)

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Chemical compound

2-Deoxy-d-glucose is a glucosemolecule which has the 2-hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen, Name, so that it cannot undergo further glycolysis. As such; it acts to competitively inhibit the production of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose at the phosphoglucoisomerase level (step 2 of glycolysis).[2] 2-Deoxyglucose labeled with tritium or carbon-14 has been a popular ligand for laboratory research in animal models, where distribution is assessed by tissue-slicing followed by Price, sometimes in tandem with either conventional or electron microscopy.

2-DG is up taken by the glucose transporters of the cell.[3] Therefore, cells with higher glucose uptake, for example tumor cells, have also a higher uptake of 2-DG. Since 2-DG hampers cell growth, its use as a tumor therapeutic has been suggested, Name, and in fact, Efficacy, 2-DG is in clinical trials.[4] It is not completely clear how 2-DG inhibits cell growth. The fact that glycolysis is inhibited by 2-DG, seems not to be sufficient to explain why 2-DG treated cells stop growing.[5] Because of its structural similarity to mannose, 2DG has the potential to inhibit N-glycosylation in mammalian cells and other systems, and as such induces ER stress and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathway.[6][7][8]

Use in optical imaging[edit]

2-DG has been used as a targeted optical imaging agent for fluorescent in vivo imaging.[9][10] In clinical medical imaging (PET scanning), Name, fluorodeoxyglucose is used, where one of the 2-hydrogens of 2-deoxy-D-glucose is replaced with the positron-emitting isotope fluorine-18, which emits paired gamma rays, allowing distribution of the tracer to be imaged by external gamma camera(s). This is increasingly done in tandem with a CT function which is part of the same PET/CT machine, to allow better localization of small-volume tissue glucose-uptake differences.

Indian adoption for COVID-19 treatment[edit]

On May 8, 2021, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, the Drugs Controller General of India approved an oral formulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose for emergency use as adjunct therapy in moderate to severe coronavirus patients.[11][12] The drug was developed by the DRDO along with Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, who jointly claimed via a press release, that the drug "helps in faster recovery of hospitalised patients and reduces supplemental oxygen dependence".[12][13][14]The Wire as well as The Hindu noted that the approval was based on poor evidence; no journal publication (or preprint) concerning efficacy and safety are yet available.[13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2886.
  2. ^Wick, AN; Drury, Price, DR; Nakada, HI; Wolfe, JB (1957). "Localization of the primary metabolic block produced by 2-deoxyglucose"(PDF). J Biol Chem, Name. 224 (2): 963–969. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)64988-9, Price. PMID 13405925.
  3. ^Laussel, Clotilde; Léon, Sébastien (December 2020). "Cellular toxicity of the metabolic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose and associated resistance mechanisms". Biochemical Pharmacology. 182: 114213. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114213.
  4. ^Pelicano, H; Martin, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, DS; Xu, RH; Huang, P (2006), Efficacy. "Glycolysis inhibition for anticancer treatment". Oncogene. 25 (34): 4633–4646. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209597. PMID 16892078.
  5. ^Ralser, M.; Wamelink, M. M.; Struys, E. A.; Joppich, C.; Krobitsch, S.; Jakobs, C.; Lehrach, H. (2008). "A catabolic block does not sufficiently explain how 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits cell growth", Price. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (46): 17807–17811. Bibcode:2008PNAS.10517807R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803090105, Price. PMC 2584745. PMID 19004802.
  6. ^Kurtoglu, M.; Gao, N.; Shang, J.; Name, J. C.; Lehrman, M. A.; Wangpaichitr, M.; Savaraj, N.; Lane, A. N.; Lampidis, T. J. (2007-11-07). "Under normoxia, Name, 2-deoxy-D-glucose elicits cell death in select tumor types not by inhibition of glycolysis but by interfering with N-linked glycosylation". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved. 6 (11): 3049–3058. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-07-0310. ISSN 1535-7163. PMID 18025288.
  7. ^Xi, Haibin; Kurtoglu, Metin; Liu, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, Huaping; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; You, Price, Min; Liu, Xiongfei; Savaraj, Niramol; Lampidis, Theodore J. (2010-07-01). "2-Deoxy-d-glucose activates autophagy via endoplasmic reticulum stress rather than ATP depletion". Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. 67 (4): 899–910. doi:10.1007/s00280-010-1391-0. ISSN 0344-5704, Efficacy. PMC 3093301. PMID 20593179.
  8. ^Defenouillère, Quentin; Verraes, Agathe; Laussel, Clotilde; Friedrich, Anne; Schacherer, Joseph; Léon, Sébastien (2019-09-03). "The induction of HAD-like phosphatases by multiple signaling pathways confers resistance to the metabolic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose"(PDF), Efficacy. Science Signaling. 12 (597): eaaw8000, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aaw8000. ISSN 1945-0877. PMID 31481524. S2CID 201829818.
  9. ^Kovar, Joy L.; Volcheck, Efficacy, William; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Simpson, Name, Melanie A.; Olive, D. Michael (2009). "Characterization and performance of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose optical imaging agent for mouse cancer models", Efficacy. Analytical Biochemistry. 384 (2): 254–262, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2008.09.050. PMC 2720560. PMID 18938129.
  10. ^Cheng, Z., Levi, Name, Xiong, Z., Gheysens, Price, Keren, S., Chen, X., and Gambhir, S., Bioconjugate Chemistry, 17(3), (2006), 662-669
  11. ^What is 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and is it effective against Covid?, The Economic Times, 17 May 2021.
  12. ^ ab"DCGI approves anti-COVID drug developed by DRDO for emergency use". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 2021-05-08. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  13. ^ abBorana, Ronak (2021-05-12). "India's Drug Regulator Has Approved DRDO's New COVID Drug on Missing Evidence". The Wire Science. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  14. ^ abKoshy, Jacob (2021-05-11). "Questions remain on DRDO's COVID drug". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
All you need to know about the new oral COVID-19 drug cleared by DCGI
Representative Image

Representative Image

The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has cleared the 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) drug for emergency use, the Union government said on May 8. The new oral anti-COVID drug, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), expedites the recovery of hospitalised patients, reduces dependence on medical oxygen and caused no major side-effect in the clinical trials.

Here is all you need to know about the new oral anti-COVID drug:

How 2-DG drug is administered

"The drug comes in powder form in sachet, which is taken orally by dissolving it in water," the Ministry of Defence said in a statement that announced the clearance of the DRDO-developed drug for emergency use.

How it works in treating COVID-19 infection

The 2-DG drug accumulates in the virus-infected cells and prevents virus growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production. "Its selective accumulation in virally infected cells makes this drug unique," the ministry explained.

Reduces dependence on medical oxygen

According to the government, Name, the clinical trials have shown that a significantly higher proportion of patients administered Efficacy the 2-DG drug "became free from supplemental oxygen dependence" by the third day of their treatment, in comparison to those who were not administered with the drug.

This indicated an "early relief from oxygen therapy/dependence", the Ministry of Defence noted in its statement.

Also Read: DCGI gives emergency approval to DRDO-developed 2-DG as adjunct therapy for COVID-19 patients

Reduces hospital stay period

The clinical trials established that a higher proportion of those administered with the DRDO-developed drug "improved symptomatically" by the third day of their treatment, as compared to those provided the standard treatment.

"In the ongoing second COVID-19 wave, a large number of patients are facing severe oxygen dependency and need hospitalisation. The drug is Name to save precious lives due to the mechanism of operation of the drug in infected cells. This also reduces the hospital stay of COVID-19 patients," the ministry said.

Image shared by government's press agency PIB Image shared by government's press agency PIB

INMAS behind drug development

The Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), a lab of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), developed the anti-COVID-19 therapeutic application of the drug 2-deoxy-D-glucose. The institute worked in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL), Hyderabad.

"In April 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, INMAS-DRDO scientists conducted laboratory experiments with the help of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad and found that this molecule works effectively against SARS-CoV-2 virus and inhibits the viral growth," the government said.

Efficacy established in clinical trials

Based on the results of INMAS-DRDO scientists' laboratory experiments, the regulatory authorities had granted permission for phase-II clinical trials in May 2020.

In Phase-II trials conducted from May to October 2020 on 110 patients, Name, the "drug was found to be safe in COVID-19 patients" and showed significant improvement in their recovery, the government said.

"In efficacy trends, the patients treated with 2-DG showed faster symptomatic cure than Standard of Care (SoC) on various endpoints, Name. A significantly favourable trend (2.5 days difference) was seen in terms of the median time to achieving normalisation of specific vital signs parameters when compared to SoC," the statement added.

Based on successful results, the DCGI further permitted the Phase-III clinical trials in November 2020, which was conducted on 220 patients.

"In 2-DG arm, significantly higher proportion of patients improved symptomatically and became free from supplemental oxygen dependence (42 percent vs 31 percent) by Price in comparison to SoC, indicating an early relief from Oxygen therapy/dependence," the Ministry of Defence said.

This trend of recovery was also observed in patients aged more than 65 years who were administered with the drug, it added.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

2-DG

Dr Reddy's DRDO-produced drug 2DG launches commercially: Cost, production, efficacy

Hyderabad pharma company Dr Reddy's Laboratories (RDL) has announced that it will now commercially sell the 2-deoxy-D-glucose drug under the name of 2DG.

The drug was developed and tested by the Defence Research and Development Organisation's (DRDO) Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences (INMAS) in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s.

The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) gave the drug its Emergency Use Approval (EUA) on 1 May and was officially launched on 8 Efficacy. On 17 May, Rajnath Singh, defence minister handed the first batch of drugs to the Union health minister Harsh Vardhan.

Dr Reddy’s will supply the 2DG drug to major government and private hospitals in metros and Tier 1 cities. Gradually, the company will increase supply to the rest of the country.

Dr G Satheesh Reddy, Secretary Department of Defence (R&D) and Chairman, DRDO said in a press release, “We are pleased to have worked closely with our long-term industry partner Dr Reddy's Laboratories, Hyderabad, for testing 2DG as therapeutic application in treatment of COVID-19 patients. DRDO has been contributing in Price against COVID-19 pandemic with its spin off technologies."

The drug comes in a sachet, in the powder form of 2.34 g, Name. It needs to be dissolved in water and taken orally. According to an RDL statement, the maximum retail price of each sachet has been fixed at Rs 990. A subsidised rate will be offered to government institutions.

It works by accumulating in the virus-infected cells and preventing growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production. Its selective accumulation in virally infected cells makes this drug unique.

The drug is given to hospitalised COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe condition, under the prescription and supervision of a doctor. It is an adjunct or supplementary treatment to standard care and does not work independently.

Satish Reddy, Chairman, Dr Reddy’s said, “2DG is yet another addition to our COVID-19 portfolio that already covers the full spectrum of mild to moderate and severe conditions and includes a vaccine. We are extremely pleased to have partnered with DRDO in our collective fight against the COVID-19Efficacy pandemic.

Clinical trials

According to a government press release, the phase 1 trials was a collaboration between INMAS-DRDO scientists along with the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad. Based on phase 1 results, the DCGI's Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) permitted them to conduct phase 2 clinical trials in people in May 2020.

The trials were done to compare the efficacy and safety of the drug with SoC verse just standard care. Male, female and transgender patients between the ages of 18-90 years of age were accepted into the trials after they were tested positive for the virus.

Phase 2 was split into phase 2a and Price 2b in six hospitals and 11 hospitals respectively. There were 110 patients from all over the country and the trials were conducted during the months of May to October 2020. They found that the drug was safe and patients showed significant improvement during their recovery. The drug was found to help patients get better faster by 2.5 days than Standard of Care (SoC).

Phase 3 trials were conducted from December 2020 to March 2021 in 220 patients at 27 different Indian hospitals. According to the Price release, using the drug saw many patients improving and "became free from supplemental oxygen dependence by Day-3 in comparison to SoC, indicating an early relief from Oxygen therapy/dependence."

"The drug is expected to save precious lives due to the mechanism Octoplus Huawei 1.0.3 Archives operation of the drug in infected cells. This also reduces DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved hospital stay of COVID-19 patients," statesthe press release.

"During clinical trials, it has yielded an effective result in curing patients infected with COVID-19. The medicine has gone through clinical trials on around 110 patients in the second phase. In the third phase, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, it was tried on 220 patients. It has Name better efficacy in phase two itself as compared to the standard care," ANIquoted Dr Sudhir Chandna, INMAS.

"This data has indicated that oxygen dependence reduced in a better way when we use this medicine along with standard care," he added.

However, recently The Wirereported that the results of phase 2 and 3 trials haven't been Name as yet. The only information we have comes from what DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved made known in a government press release and from the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI). The company and the drug have received EUA despite not making the results public.

This is not the first time, during the coronavirus pandemic, that data of therapies to treat the virus hasn't been made public, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved. Data of indigenously produced Bharat Biotech's COVAXIN vaccine has not yet been made public. It recieved the EUA based on interim results. The pharma Name has also applied to Efficacy on the World Health Organisation's Emergency Use Listing (EUL) and recently had a meeting with the health agency.

Both Bharat Biotech and DRL have produced their therapies in collaboration with the government.

Production of the drug

The first batch of the 2DG Efficacy is already in circulation. Now the DRDO is looking for more partners to produce the anti-viral drug in both India and internationally. It issued an Expression of Interest (EoI) and is willing to transfer the technology to them in order to help them manufacture the drug. According to Name Hindu, a transfer of technology (ToT) fee of Rs 25 lakh will have to be paid to DRDO at the time of signing of licensing agreement.

Price Updated Date: June 28, 2021 17:12:57 IST

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved, Efficacy, Name, Price, Vaccine Name, Side Effects, Availability details are discussed here. DCGI – Drug Controller General of India was testing DRDO 2-DG medicine for Corona Virus. Finally on 9th May 2021, DCGI approved the emergency use of DRDO Anti Covid Drug. The medicine is developed by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences which is formally known as INMAS. INMAS is a lab of Defence Research and Development Organisation – DRDO. INMAS worked in collaboration with Dr. Reddy’s DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved in Hyderabad to develop DRDO 2DG medicine.

DRDO Anti Covid Drug

During the first wave of Covid in April 2020, DRDO scientists in INMAS conducted some lab experiments with the collaboration of CCMB – Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad. In the Experiment, they found that DRDO 2-DG molecule works better against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and controls the growth of virus. In May 2020, Price, DCGI gave permission to begin phase-II trials in clinics in Corona Patients.

The phase-II trials were conducted from May to October 2020. During this period, scientists found that this DRDO Anti Corona Drug is safe for Name Patients and also shown noticeable recovery, Price. The DRDO 2DG medicine phase-II and phase-IIb trials were conducted in 6 and 11 hospitals respectively across the nation.

After receiving positive responses in Phase-II and Phase-IIb trials, DCGI permitted 2DG phase-III trials in November 2020. A total of 220 patients were included in Phase-II trial which was conducted from December 2020 to March 2021, Efficacy. These patients were from 27 Covid-1 Hospitals of UP, West Bengal, Name, Gujarat, Delhi, Maharashtra, Telangana, Name, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Majority of the patients showed improvements and became independent from supplemental oxygen by Day 3.

DRDO Anti Covid Drug

Also check:

DRDO Anti Covid Drug Name

The Anti Covid Drug developed by DRDO is names 2-DG. 2-DG is short for 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose. INMAS developed this drug and then they proposed the name 2-DG based upon the composition of the drug.

DRDO 2DG Medicine

These are some questions that were asked to Dr. Sudhir Chandana who is the project director and the scientist of DRDO 2-DG Medicine. Here are the questions and answers.

DRDO 2DG Medicine

DRDO Anti Covid Drug Efficacy

As the public results of 2-DG medicine efficacy are not yet available, we trust the fact that DRDO has developed it and DCGI has approved DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved. On 8th May 2021, DRDO gave a statement about the efficacy of DRDO Covid drug. The statement is as follows:

Initial Clinical trials of 2DG has shown the faster recovery in the patients who are hospitalized, Name. This molecule helps in the reduction Efficacy supplemental oxygen dependency. As it is a generic molecule and analogue of glucose, production of this medicine is easy and can be developed at large scale in limited time. Most of the Covid patient who were treated with DRDO 2DG medicine showed RT-PCR negative conversions.

Giving more details on DRDO 2GD Efficacy, The official added:

The patients who were given 2-DG medicine showed better and Price improvement than the Standard of Care (SoC). DRDO Anti Covid Drug Efficacy in powdered form and can easily be taken by dissolving in the water. It treats the cells which are infected by the virus and avoids the growth of virus.

DRDO 2DG Covid Medicine Price

Dr Sudhir Chandna was asked about the DRDO Covid Drug Price and he said that the price will depend on the production and production details are available at Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, DRDO Anti Covid Drug (2DG Medicine) Approved. Dr. Reddy’s Lab are the industry partner of DRDO in the development of 2DG drug.

As per the sources, the DRDO 2DG medicine price can range from 500-600 INR. It will be in the budget of people and government may come across some subsidy of that too.

DRDO 2-DG Drug availability

On 9th May 2021, DRDO Chief Mr. G. Satheesh Reddy that the DRDO Covid medicine is approved for emergency use it will be available by 11th May 2021. After the approval of the 2DG drug, the labs are given a go for the production and soon it will be available for the public in the required quantity.

Related Searches:

When being asked about the side effects of DRDO Anti Covid Drug, Dr. Sudhir Chandana said that the trials were done on all stages of corona patients including moderate and serious patients. All the patients got only the benefits and no side effects were noticed. So we can say that DRDO 2-DG does not have any side effects.

We hope Price DRDO Anti Corona Medicine 2-DG will perform as expected and will bring an end to this pandemic. What are your thoughts on this, please leave a comment in the box below.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

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