Java Edition version history – Minecraft Wiki

Full Version Archives

Full Version Archives

PubMed Central® (PMC) is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National. We highly recommend upgrading to either an LTS or current stable version. ZF 2.4.13. Released 2017-07-13. Full zip, tar.gz. Minimal. Explore Android's ongoing evolution with this visual timeline of versions, But back when it was still everywhere, being able to access the full web.

Similar video

Archive - Versions: Remixed [Full Album]

Full Version Archives - something

Android version history

History of the mobile operating system Android by Google

The version history of the Androidmobile operating system began with the public release of the Android beta on November 5, 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.

Overview

See also: Android software development

The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005.[1] There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released.[2][3] The beta was released on November 5, 2007,[4][5] while the software development kit (SDK) was released on November 12, 2007.[6] Several public beta versions of the SDK were released.[7] These releases were done through software emulation as physical devices did not exist to test the operating system.

The first public release of Android 1.0 occurred with the release of the T-Mobile G1 (aka HTC Dream) in October 2008.[8] Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names. The code names "Astro Boy" and "Bender" were tagged internally on some of the early pre-1.0 milestone builds and were never used as the actual code names of the 1.0 and 1.1 releases of the OS.[9]

The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived using a confectionery-themed naming scheme for public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake. Google announced in August 2019 they were ending the confectionery theming scheme to use numerical ordering for future versions.[10] The first release under the numerical order format was Android 10, which was released September 2019.

In 2017, Google announced that Google Play would begin to require apps to target a recent Android version.[11] Initially the minimum requirement was Android 8, released in the second half of 2017, for which support would be required for new apps by August 2018, and for updates to existing apps by November 2018. This pattern has continued in subsequent years.[12][13] In November 2020, Google announced new apps will need to target Android 10 by August 2021 and any updates to existing apps will need to target Android 10 by November 2021.[14]

Name Internal codename Version number(s) Initial stable
release date
Supported
(security fixes)
API level References
Android 1.0N/A 1.0 September 23, 2008 No 1 [9][15]
Android 1.1Petit Four 1.1 February 9, 2009 No 2 [9][15][16]
Android CupcakeCupcake 1.5 April 27, 2009 No 3 [15][17]
Android DonutDonut 1.6 September 15, 2009 No 4 [15][18]
Android EclairEclair 2.0 October 27, 2009 No 5 [15][19][20]
2.0.1 December 3, 2009 No 6
2.1 January 11, 2010 No 7 [21]
Android FroyoFroyo 2.2 – 2.2.3 May 20, 2010 No 8 [15][22]
Android GingerbreadGingerbread 2.3 – 2.3.2 December 6, 2010 No 9 [15][23]
2.3.3 – 2.3.7 February 9, 2011 No 10
Android HoneycombHoneycomb 3.0 February 22, 2011 No 11 [15][24]
3.1 May 10, 2011 No 12
3.2 – 3.2.6 July 15, 2011 No 13
Android Ice Cream SandwichIce Cream Sandwich 4.0 – 4.0.2 October 18, 2011 No 14 [15][25]
4.0.3 – 4.0.4 December 16, 2011 No 15
Android Jelly BeanJelly Bean 4.1 – 4.1.2 July 9, 2012 No 16 [15][26]
4.2 – 4.2.2 November 13, 2012 No 17
4.3 – 4.3.1 July 24, 2013 No 18
Android KitKatKey Lime Pie 4.4 – 4.4.4 October 31, 2013 No 19 [15][27]
4.4W – 4.4W.2 June 25, 2014 No 20
Android LollipopLemon Meringue Pie 5.0 – 5.0.2 November 4, 2014 No 21 [15][28][29]
5.1 – 5.1.1 March 2, 2015 No 22 [30]
Android MarshmallowMacadamia Nut Cookie 6.0 – 6.0.1 October 2, 2015 No 23 [15][31][32]
Android NougatNew York Cheesecake 7.0 August 22, 2016 No 24 [15][33][34][35][36]
7.1 – 7.1.2 October 4, 2016 No 25
Android OreoOatmeal Cookie 8.0 August 21, 2017 No 26 [15][37][38]
8.1 December 5, 2017 No 27 [15][39]
Android Pie9 August 6, 2018 Yes 28 [15][40]
Android 10Quince Tart 10 September 3, 2019 Yes 29 [15][41][42][43]
Android 11Red Velvet Cake 11 September 8, 2020 Yes 30 [15][44]
Android 12Snow Cone 12 October 4, 2021 Yes 31 [15][45][46]
Android 12L Un­known Un­known Q1 2022 Presupported 32 [47]

Version history

The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface (API) levels.

Android 1.0

Android 1.0 (API 1)
Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on September 23, 2008.[48] The first commercially available Android device was the HTC Dream.[49] Android 1.0 incorporated the following features:
Version Release dateFeatures
1.0 September 23, 2008
  • Android Market, allowing application downloads and updates through the Market application.
  • Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows ("cards").[50][51]
  • Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc.[52]
  • Folders allowing the grouping of a number of application icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen.[53]
  • Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP.[51]
  • Gmail synchronization with the Gmail application.
  • Google Contacts synchronization with the People application.
  • Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar application.
  • Google Maps with Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local businesses and obtain driving directions using GPS.[52]
  • Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar.
  • Google Search, allowing users to search the Internet and phone applications, contacts, calendar, etc.
  • Google Talk instant messaging.
  • Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS.
  • Media Player, enabling management, importing, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support.[51][52]
  • Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration alerts.[50][51][54]
  • Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number.[51]
  • Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets.
  • YouTube video player.[55]
  • Other applications include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings.
  • Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support.

Android 1.1

Android 1.1 (API 2)
On February 9, 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as "Petit Four" internally, though this name was not used officially.[9][56] The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API and added a number of features:[57]
Version Release dateFeatures
1.1 February 9, 2009
  • Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps.
  • Longer in-call screen timeout by default when using the speakerphone, plus the ability to show/hide the dialpad.
  • Ability to save attachments in messages.
  • Support added for marquee in system layouts.

Android 1.5 Cupcake

Android 1.5 Cupcake (API 3)
On April 27, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27.[58][59] This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item ("Cupcake"), a theme used for all releases until Android Pie, with Android 10 using a number-only system. The update included several new features and UI amendments:[60]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
1.5 April 27, 2009[58]
  • Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and a user dictionary for custom words.
  • Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates.[61]
  • Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats.
  • Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles).
  • Copy and paste features in web browser.
  • User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts.
  • Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from a call log event.
  • Animated screen transitions.
  • Auto-rotation option.
  • New stock boot animation.
  • Ability to upload videos to YouTube.
  • Ability to upload photos to Picasa.
  • Ability to check phone usage history.[62]
Android Cupcake home screen.jpg
Android 1.5 home screen

Android 1.6 Donut

Android 1.6 Donut (API 4)
On September 15, 2009, Android 1.6 – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29.[63][64][65] Included in the update were numerous new features:[63]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
1.6 September 15, 2009[64]
  • Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web.
  • Ability for developers to include their content in search results.
  • Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text.
  • Easier searching and the ability to view app screenshots in Android Market.
  • Gallery, Camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access.
  • Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion.
  • Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine.
  • Support for WVGA screen resolutions.
  • Speed improvements in searching and camera applications.
  • Expanded Gesture framework and a new GestureBuilder development tool.
Android 1.6 on the Android SDK.png
Android 1.6 home screen

Android 2.0 Eclair

Android 2.0 Eclair (API 5)
On October 27, 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29 and codenamed Eclair.[66] Changes include the ones listed below.[67]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
2.0 October 27, 2009[20]
  • Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of an email and contacts.
  • Microsoft Exchange email support, with a combined inbox to browse an email from multiple accounts in one page.
  • Bluetooth 2.1 support.
  • Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person.
  • Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with the added ability to delete the oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached.
  • Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus.
  • Improved typing speed on a virtual keyboard, with a smarter dictionary that learns from word usage and includes contact names as suggestions.
  • Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and support for HTML5.
  • Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and the ability to invite new guests to events.
  • Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI.
  • Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio.
  • Improved Google Maps 3.1.2.
  • MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events.[68]
  • Pressure-sensitive touch support in API, even though no according hardware existed at that time.[69][70]
  • Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movement.

Android 2.0.1 Eclair

Android 2.0.1 Eclair (API 6)
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
2.0.1 December 3, 2009[71]
  • Minor API changes, bug fixes and framework behavioral changes.

Android 2.1 Eclair

Android 2.2 Froyo

Android 2.2 Froyo (API 8)
On May 20, 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Froyo, short for frozen yogurt) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.[73]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
2.2 May 20, 2010
  • Speed, memory, and performance optimizations.[74]
  • Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation.[75]
  • Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application.
  • Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, enabling push notifications.
  • Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe.[76]
  • Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications.
  • USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality[77]
  • Option to disable data access over a mobile network.
  • Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features.[74]
  • Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries.
  • Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks.
  • Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords.
  • Support for file upload fields in the Browser application.[78]
  • The browser now shows all frames of animated GIFs instead of just the first frame only.
  • Support for installing applications to expandable memory.
  • Adobe Flash support.[79]
  • Support for high-PPI displays (up to 320 ppi), such as four-inch 720p screens.[80]
  • Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture.
Android 2.2 Froyo home.png
Android 2.2 home screen
2.2.1 September 27, 2010[81]
  • Bug fixes, security updates and performance improvements.
2.2.2 January 21, 2011[82]
2.2.3 November 21, 2011[84]

Android 2.3 Gingerbread

Android 2.3 Gingerbread (API 9)
On December 6, 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35.[85][86] Changes included:[85]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
2.3 December 6, 2010[86]
  • Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed.
  • Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher).[80]
  • Native support for SIPVoIP internet telephones.
  • Faster, more intuitive text input on a virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode.
  • Enhanced copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press-holding, copying, and pasting.
  • Support for Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement.
  • New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost.
  • New Download Manager, giving users easy access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application.
  • Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available.
  • Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding.
  • Improved power management with a more active role in managing applications that are keeping the device awake for too long.
  • Enhanced support for native code development.
  • Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices.[87][88]
  • Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers.
  • Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance.
  • Native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers).
  • First Android version to feature an Easter egg. It was an image of the Bugdroid standing next to a zombie gingerbread man, with many more zombies in the background.
Android screenshot.png
Android 2.3 home screen
2.3.1 December 22, 2010[89]
  • Improvements and bug fixes for the Nexus S.
2.3.2 January 21, 2011[90]
  • Improvements and bug fixes for the Nexus S.

Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread

Android 3.0 Honeycomb

Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API 11)
On February 22, 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first tablet-only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36.[103][104][105][106] The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on February 24, 2011.[107] The update's features included:[103]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
3.0 February 22, 2011[105]
  • Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface (removed again the following year with version 4.2).[108]
  • New Easter egg, an image of a Tron-themed bumblebee.
  • Added System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen.
  • Added the Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen.
  • Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Applications in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one application to another.
  • Redesigned the keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes
  • Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface.
  • Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto-fill and a new “incognito” mode allowing somewhat anonymous browsing.
  • Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera features.
  • Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos.
  • New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts.
  • New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages.
  • Hardware acceleration.
  • Support for multi-core processors.
  • Ability to encrypt all user data.
  • HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication (SNI).
  • Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE; kernel module).
  • Disallows applications from having to write access to secondary storage (memory cards on devices with internal primary storage) outside of designated, application-specific directories. Full access to primary internal storage is still allowed through a separate application-level permission.[109][110]
Android3.0.png
Android 3.0 home screen

Android 3.1 Honeycomb

Android 3.1 Honeycomb (API 12)
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
3.1 May 10, 2011[111]
  • UI refinements.
  • Connectivity for USB accessories (USB On-The-Go).
  • Expanded Recent Applications list.
  • Resizable Home screen widgets.
  • Support for external keyboards and pointing devices.
  • Support for joysticks and gamepads.
  • Support for FLAC audio playback.[112][113]
  • High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when the device screen is off.
  • Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point.

Android 3.2 Honeycomb

Android 3.2 Honeycomb (API 13)
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
3.2 July 15, 2011[114]
  • Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets.
  • Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, e.g. for synchronization.
  • Compatibility display mode for applications that have not been optimized for tablet screen resolutions.
  • New display support functions, giving developers more control over display appearance on different Android devices.[115]
3.2.1 September 20, 2011
  • Bug fixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements.
  • Update to Android Market with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Conditions text.
  • Update to Google Books.
  • Improved Adobe Flash support in browser.
  • Improved Chinese handwriting prediction.
3.2.2 September 30, 2011
  • Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G.
3.2.4 December 15, 2011
  • Pay As You Go for 3G and 4G tablets.
3.2.6 February 15, 2012
  • Fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of Airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom.

Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich

Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich (API 14)
The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1,[116] was publicly released on October 19, 2011.[117] Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time.[118] The source code for Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011.[119] Ice Cream Sandwich was the last version to officially support Adobe Systems' Flash player.[120] The update introduced numerous new features:[121][122][123]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
4.0 October 18, 2011[121]
  • Major refinements to the "Holo" interface with the new Roboto font family.
  • Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for use on phones.
  • Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar manner to applications.
  • Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style.
  • Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages.
  • Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the Calendar.
  • Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons).
  • Improved error correction on the keyboard.
  • Ability to access applications directly from the lock screen.
  • Improved copy-and-paste functionality.
  • Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech-to-text dictation.
  • Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software.[108]
  • Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks.
  • Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded.
  • Ability to shut down applications from the recent apps list with a swipe.[124]
  • Improved camera application with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording.
  • Built-in photo editor.
  • New gallery layout, organized by location and person.
  • Refreshed the "People" application with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images.
  • Android Beam, a near-field communication feature allowing the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data.[108]
  • Support for the WebP image format.[112]
  • Hardware acceleration of the UI.[125]
  • Wi-Fi Direct.[126]
  • 1080p video recording for stock Android devices.
  • Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (but not TAP) kernel module. Prior to 4.0, VPN software required a rooted Android device.
Android 4.0.png
Android 4.0 home screen
4.0.1 October 19, 2011
  • Fixed minor bugs for the Samsung Galaxy Nexus.
4.0.2 November 28, 2011
  • Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, the US launch of which was later delayed until December 2011.[b]

Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich

Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich (API 15)
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
4.0.3 December 16, 2011[129]
  • Numerous bug fixes and optimizations.
  • Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality.
  • New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts provider.
  • Calendar provider enhancements.
  • New camera applications enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution.
  • Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers.[130]
4.0.4 March 28, 2012
  • Stability improvements.
  • Better camera performance.
  • Smoother screen rotation.
  • Improved phone number recognition.[131]

Android 4.1 Jelly Bean

Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API 16)
Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the Google I/O conference on June 27, 2012. Based on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering, extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to create a fluid and "buttery-smooth" UI.[132] Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on July 9, 2012,[133] and the Nexus 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
4.1 July 9, 2012
  • Smoother user interface:
    • Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh.
    • Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline.
    • CPU input boost.
    • Synchronizing touch to vsync timing.
  • Enhanced accessibility.
  • Bi-directional text and other language support.
  • User-installable keyboard maps.
  • Expandable notifications.
  • TLS v1.1 and v1.2 support added.
  • Ability to turn off notifications on an application-specific basis.
  • Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens.
  • Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam.
  • Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones.[134]
  • Improved camera application.
  • Multichannel audio.[132]
  • The Fraunhofer FDK AAC codec becomes standard in Android, adding AAC 5.1 channel encoding/decoding.
  • USB audio (for external sound DACs).[132]
  • Audio chaining (also known as gapless playback).[132][135][136]
  • Ability for other launchers to add widgets from the application drawer without requiring root access.
Android 4.1 on the Galaxy Nexus.jpeg
Android 4.1 home screen
4.1.1 July 9, 2012[137]
  • Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application.
4.1.2 October 9, 2012[138]
  • Lock/home screen rotation support.[139]
  • One-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications.[140]
  • Bug fixes and performance enhancements.

Android 4.2 Jelly Bean

Android 4.2 Jelly Bean (API 17)
Google was expected to announce Jelly Bean 4.2 at an event in New York City on October 29, 2012, but the event was cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy.[141] Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with a press release, under the slogan "A new flavor of Jelly Bean". Jelly Bean 4.2 was based on Linux kernel 3.4.0, and debuted on Google's Nexus 4 and Nexus 10, which were released on November 13, 2012.[142][143]
Version Release dateFeatures
4.2 November 13, 2012[144]
  • Lock screen improvements, including widget support (removed again in 2014)[108] and the ability to swipe directly to the camera.[145]
  • Notification power controls ("Quick Settings").
  • "Daydream" screensavers, showing information when idle or docked (later renamed to "screen saver" following the launch of the unrelated Google Daydream VR platform in 2016).[108]
  • Multiple user accounts (tablets only).
  • Rewritten Bluetooth stack, switching from Bluez to Broadcom open source BlueDroid,[146] allowing improved support for multiple displays and wireless display (Miracast).
  • Native right-to-left, always-on VPN and application verification.[147] A new NFC stack was added at the same time.[146]
  • Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users.
  • New clock application with a built-in world clock, stop watch and timer.
  • All devices now use the same interface layout, previously adapted from phones on 4.1 for smaller tablets (with centered software buttons, the system bar at the top of the screen, and a home screen with a dock and centered application menu), regardless of screen size.
  • Increased number of extended notifications and Actionable Notifications for more applications, allowing users to respond to certain notifications within the notification bar and without launching the application directly.
  • SELinux support.
  • Premium SMS confirmation.[148]
  • Group Messaging support.
4.2.1 November 27, 2012[149][150]
  • Fixed a bug in the People application where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact.[151]
  • Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported HIDs (Human interface devices).
4.2.2 February 11, 2013[152]
  • Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs.[153]
  • Long-pressing the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth icons in Quick Settings now toggles the on/off state.
  • New download notifications, which now show the percentage and estimated time remaining for active application downloads.
  • New sounds for wireless charging and low battery.
  • New Gallery application animation allows faster loading.
  • USB debug whitelist.
  • Bug fixes and performance enhancements.

Android 4.3 Jelly Bean

Android 4.3 Jelly Bean (API 18)
Google released Jelly Bean 4.3 under the slogan "An even sweeter Jelly Bean" on July 24, 2013, during an event in San Francisco called "Breakfast with Sundar Pichai". Most Nexus devices received the update within a week, although the second-generation Nexus 7 tablet was the first device to officially ship with it.[154] A minor bug fix update was released on August 22, 2013.[155]
Version Release dateFeatures
4.3 July 24, 2013[156]
4.3.1 October 3, 2013[165]

Android 4.4 KitKat

Android 4.4 KitKat (API 19)
Google announced Android 4.4 KitKat on September 3, 2013. Although initially under the "Key Lime Pie" ("KLP") codename, the name was changed because "very few people actually know the taste of a key lime pie."[167] Some technology bloggers also expected the "Key Lime Pie" release to be Android 5.[168] KitKat debuted on Google's Nexus 5 on October 31, 2013, and was optimized to run on a greater range of devices than earlier Android versions, having 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum; those improvements were known as "Project Svelte" internally at Google.[169] The required minimum amount of RAM available to Android is 340 MB, and all devices with less than 512 MB of RAM must report themselves as "low RAM" devices.[170]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
4.4 October 31, 2013[171][172]
  • Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue.
  • Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin. The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers.
  • Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars.[173]
  • Ability for applications to use "immersive mode" to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction.[174]
  • Action overflow menu buttons are always visible, even on devices with a "Menu" key, which was officially deprecated by Android 4.0.[175]
  • Write access disabled for user-installed applications on external storage (i.e. MicroSD), except for their own directories inside .[176][177]
  • Purging of app data directories in user storage (internal user storage and MicroSD) upon uninstallation[177]
  • Optimizations for performance on devices with lower specifications, including zRAM support and "low RAM" device API.[169]
  • Wireless printing capability.[169]
  • NFC host card emulation, enabling a device to replace smart cards.[169]
  • WebViews are now based on the Chromium engine (feature parity with Chrome for Android 30).
  • Expanded functionality for notification listener services.[169]
  • Public API for developing and managing text messaging clients.[178]
  • Storage Access Framework, an API allowing apps to retrieve files in a consistent manner. As part of the framework, a new system file picker allows users to access files from various sources (including those exposed by apps, such as online storage services).[109]
  • New framework for UI transitions.
  • Sensor batching, step detector and counter APIs.[169]
  • Settings application now makes it possible to select default text messaging and the home (launcher) application.
  • Audio tunneling, audio monitoring and loudness enhancer.[179]
  • Built-in screen recording feature (primarily for developers, as usage of ADB is required).[180]
  • Native infrared blaster API.
  • Verified boot.
  • Enforcing SELinux.
  • Expanded accessibility APIs and system-level closed captioning settings.
  • Android Runtime (ART) introduced as a new experimental application runtime environment, not enabled by default, as a replacement for the Dalvik virtual machine.[181]
  • Bluetooth Message Access Profile (MAP) support.[182]
  • Disabled access to battery statistics by third-party applications.[183]
  • Settings application no longer uses a multi-pane layout on devices with larger screens.
  • Wi-Fi and mobile data activity (TX/RX) indicators are moved to quick settings.[184]
  • Disables text wrapping in the WebView browser component.[185]
Nexus 5 (Android 4.4.2) Screenshot.jpg
Android 4.4 home screen
4.4.1 December 5, 2013[186][187]
  • Better application compatibility for the experimental Android Runtime (ART).
  • Camera application now loads Google+ Photos instead of Gallery when swiping away from the camera view.
  • Miscellaneous improvements and bug fixes.
4.4.2 December 9, 2013[188]
  • Further security enhancements and bug fixes.
  • Removal of the "App Ops" application permissions control system, introduced in Android 4.3.[189]
4.4.3 June 2, 2014[190][191]
  • Refreshed the Dialer app's interface.[192]
  • Updated the Chromium-based WebView to version 33 (screencasting to DevTools, HTML5 Canvas hardware acceleration performance improvements, vibration API, HTML5 form validation, and an HTML5 datalist).[193]
  • Miscellaneous improvements and bug fixes.
4.4.4 June 19, 2014[194]

Android 4.4W KitKat, with wearable extensions

Android 5.0 Lollipop

Android 5.0 Lollipop (API 21)
Android 5.0 "Lollipop" was unveiled under the codename "Android L" on June 25, 2014, during Google I/O. It became available as an official over-the-air (OTA) update on November 12, 2014, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google, including Nexus and Google Play edition devices. Its source code was made available on November 3, 2014.[200][201]

Lollipop features a redesigned user interface built around a responsive design language referred to as "material design". Other changes include improvements to the notifications, which can be accessed from the lockscreen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners. Furthermore, Google made internal changes to the platform, with the Android Runtime (ART) officially replacing Dalvik for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage, known internally as Project Volta.[202][203][204][205]

Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
5.0[206]November 4, 2014[28]
  • Android Runtime (ART) with ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation and improved garbage collection (GC), replacing Dalvik that combines bytecode interpretation with trace-based just-in-time (JIT) compilation.[206][207]
  • Support for 64-bit CPUs.
  • OpenGL ES 3.1 and Android Extension Pack (AEP) on supported GPU configurations.
  • Recent activities screen with tasks instead of applications, up to a configured maximum of tasks per application.
  • Vector drawables, which scale without losing definition.
  • Support for print previews.
  • Material design, bringing a restyled user interface and “ripple effect” for buttons.
  • Refreshed lock screen, no longer supporting widgets.[208]
  • Refreshed notification tray and quick settings pull-down.
  • Project Volta, for battery life improvements.
  • Searches can be performed within the system settings for quicker access to particular settings.
  • Lock screen provides shortcuts to application and notification settings.[209]
  • Guest logins and multiple user accounts are available on more devices, such as phones.[210]
  • Audio input and output through USB devices.
  • Third-party applications regain the ability to read and modify data located anywhere on external storage, such as on SD cards. However, those must be adapted to the storage access framework of Android API level 21 or higher.[211][212]
  • Pinning of an application's screen for restricted user activity.[209]
  • Recently used applications are remembered even after restarting the device.[209]
  • WebViews receive updates independently through Google Play for security reasons, instead of relying on system-wide vendor updates.[213]
  • Addition of 15 new languages: Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Chinese (Hong Kong), Galician, Icelandic, Kannada, Kyrgyz, Macedonian, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Sinhala, Tamil and Telugu.[214]
  • Tap and Go allows users to quickly migrate to a new Android device, using NFC and Bluetooth to transfer Google Account details, configuration settings, user data and installed applications.[209]
  • A flashlight-style application is included, working on supported devices with a camera flash.[209]
  • User-customizable priorities for application notifications.[215]
  • Smart lock feature.[216]
  • SELinux in enforcing mode for all domains.
  • Updated emoji.[217]
  • Improved accessibility support (e.g. switch access support).[218]
  • Block-based over-the-air (OTA) updates for new devices.[219]
  • Task listing access disabled for third-party applications.[220]
Android 5.0-en.png
Android 5.0 home screen
5.0.1 December 2, 2014[221]
  • A few bug fixes, including resolving issues with video playback and password failures handling.
5.0.2 December 19, 2014[222]
  • Fixes a bug with TRIM support (introduced in Version 4.3), which prevented devices from running on-charger cleanups of file system allocations if the device was turned off at midnight, or if it was charged only when in use.[223]
  • Changes how alarms wake the CPU, and how alarms compete for system resources.[224]

Android 5.1 Lollipop

Android 6.0 Marshmallow

Android 6.0 Marshmallow (API 23)
Android 6.0 "Marshmallow" was unveiled under the codename "Android M" during Google I/O on May 28, 2015, for the Nexus 5 and Nexus 6 phones, Nexus 9 tablet, and Nexus Player set-top box, under the build number MPZ44Q.[230] The third developer preview (MPA44G) was released on August 17, 2015 for the Nexus 5, Nexus 6, Nexus 9 and Nexus Player devices,[231] and was updated to MPA44I that brought fixes related to Android for Work profiles.[232]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
6.0 October 2, 2015[31][233]
  • Precluded rudimentary file manager (package name: ), accessible from storage settings.[234]
  • Memory card mounted to rather than , with a hexadecimal volume serial number in place of the wildcard the question marks.[235]
  • Contextual search from keywords within apps.[236]
  • Introduction of Doze mode, which reduces CPU speed while the screen is off in order to save battery life.[237]
  • App Standby feature.
  • Alphabetically accessible vertical application drawer.[238]
  • Application search bar and favorites.
  • Native fingerprint reader support.
  • Direct Share feature for target-specific sharing between apps.[239]
  • Renamed "Priority" mode to "Do Not Disturb" mode.
  • App Linking for faster instinctive opening of links with corresponding applications.[240][241]
  • Larger Application folders with multiple pages.
  • Post-install/run-time permission requests.
  • USB-C support.
  • Demo Mode feature for screenshot-capture usage.[242]
  • Automatic full data backup and restore for apps.[243]
  • 4K display mode for apps.[244]
  • Adoptable External storage to behave like Internal Storage.[245][246]
  • MIDI support for musical instruments.[247]
  • Experimental multi-window feature.[248][249]
  • Support for actions by third-party apps in the text selection menu.[108]
  • App permissions now granted individually at run-time, not all-or-nothing at install time. Similar to App Ops.[250]
  • Miracast support dropped.[108]
  • Many new essential commands supported by Android's Linux shell(/bin/sh).
  • No screen rotation during touch.
Android 6.0-en.png
Android 6.0 home screen
6.0.1 December 7, 2015[251]

Android 7.0 Nougat

Android 7.0 Nougat (API 24)
Android "Nougat" (codenamed N in-development) is the seventh major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview on March 9, 2016, with factory images for supported Nexus devices, as well as with the new "Android Beta Program" which allows supported devices to be upgraded directly to the Android Nougat beta via an over-the-air update. The final release was on August 22, 2016. The final preview build was released on July 18, 2016,[253] with the build number NPD90G.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
7.0 August 22, 2016[254]
  • Support for file-based encryption.[255]
  • Unicode 9.0emoji and skin tone modifier support (and exposes a subset of ICU4J APIs).[256]
  • Ability to display color calibration.
  • Ability to zoom in the screen.
  • Ability to switch to the last opened app by double-tapping the overview button.
  • Added an Emergency information part.
  • Added the "Clear All" button to the Overview screen.
  • Another system partition, which gets updated when not in use, allowing for seamless system updates.
  • Daydream virtual reality platform (VR interface).
  • Improved Doze functionality, which aims to prolong battery life.
  • Improvements to the file browser.
  • Ability to move files added to Storage Access Framework[257]
  • More Quick Settings options.
  • Multi-window support, which supports floating apps on a desktop layout.
  • New Data Saver mode, which can force apps to reduce bandwidth usage.
  • New JIT Compiler, making for 75 percent faster app installations and a 50 percent reduction in compiled code size.
  • Just in Time (JIT) compiler with code profiling to ART, which lets it constantly improve the performance of Android apps as they run.[258]
  • Picture-in-picture support for Android TV.
  • Redesigned notification shade, featuring instant access to certain settings.
  • Redesigned Overview screen.
  • Replaced notification cards with notification sheets.
  • Settings app navigation drawer.
  • Vulkan 3D rendering API.
  • Multiple Device Locales[259]
  • Discontinuation of Android Camera V1 API[260]
  • Restricted file system access[261]
Android 7.0-en.png
Android 7.0 home screen

Android 7.1 Nougat

Android 7.1 Nougat (API 25)
On October 19, 2016, Google released Android 7.1.1 as a developer preview for the Nexus 5X, Nexus 6P and the Pixel C. A second preview became available on November 22, 2016, before the final version was released to the public on December 5, 2016.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
7.1 October 4, 2016[262]
  • Rearranged notification shade.
  • "Restart" option added to power button menu[263]
  • Touch/display performance improvements.
  • Moves (Fingerprint swipe down gesture – opt-in).
  • Opt-in with new hardware required:
    • Seamless A/B system updates.
    • Daydream VR mode.
  • Developer features:
    • Shortcut manager APIs.
    • Circular app icons support.
    • Keyboard image insertion.
    • Fingerprint sensor gesture to open/close notification shade.
    • Manual storage manager Intent for apps.
    • Improved VR thread scheduling.
    • Enhanced wallpaper metadata.
    • Multi-endpoint call support.
    • Support for various MNO requirements.
      • PCDMA voice privacy property.
      • Source type support for Visual Voicemail.
      • Carrier config options for managing telephone videos.
  • Manual storage manager – identifies files and apps using storage.
Android Nougat screenshot 20170116-070000.png
Android 7.1 home screen
7.1.1[264]December 1, 2016[265]
  • New set of emojis adding different skin tones and haircuts to existing ones.
  • Send GIFs directly from the default keyboard.
  • App shortcuts: Launch actions on apps by long-pressing the app icon.
  • Developer Options: Show CPU Usage feature removed.
7.1.2[266][267]April 2, 2017[268]

Android 8.0 Oreo

Android 8.0 Oreo (API 26)
Android Oreo is the eighth major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview, codenamed Android O, on March 21, 2017, with factory images for supported Nexus and Pixel devices. The final developer preview was released on July 24, 2017, with the stable version released in August 2017.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
8.0[269]August 21, 2017
  • Project Treble, the biggest change to the foundations of Android to date: a modular architecture that makes it easier and faster for hardware makers to deliver Android updates.
  • Picture-in-picture support.
  • Support for Unicode 10.0 emoji (5.0) and replacement of all blob-shaped emojis by round ones with gradients and outlines.
  • Redesigned Quick Settings and Settings with a white background and respectively black and Accent font colors.
  • Restructured Settings by regrouping sections into similar entries.
  • Adaptive icons
  • Notification improvements.
    • Notification channels.
    • Notification dots (badges).
    • Notification snoozing.
    • Notification shade multi-colors (for music album art, messengers, etc.).
  • System-wide Autofill framework.
  • Support for AAC, Sony's LDAC and Qualcomm's aptX and aptX HD codecs.[270]
  • App-specific unknown sources.
  • Multi-display support.
  • 2 times faster boot time compared to Nougat according to Google, testing on their Pixel devices.[269]
  • Apps background execution and location limits.
  • Google Play Protect.
  • Downloadable fonts.
  • Integrated printing support.
  • Color management (deep color and wide color gamut).
  • Wi-Fi Assistant.
Android 8.0 Oreo Pixel.png
Android 8.0 home screen

Android 8.1.0 Oreo

Android 8.1.0 Oreo (API 27)
Android 8.1 Oreo is the sixteenth minor release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview on October 25, 2017, with factory images for current Nexus and Pixel devices. A second developer preview was made available on November 27, 2017, for Nexus and Pixel devices, before the stable version was released on December 5, 2017.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
8.1.0[271][272]December 5, 2017[273][274]
  • Neural networks API.
  • Shared memory API.
  • WallpaperColors API.
  • Bluetooth battery level for connected devices, accessible in Quick Settings.
  • Android Oreo Go Edition, a lightweight distribution of Android that runs better than normal Android on devices with less than 1 GB of RAM.[275]
  • Autofill framework updates.
  • Programmatic Safe Browsing actions.
  • Navigation buttons dim when not in use.
  • Visual changes to 'Power Off' and 'Restart', including a new screen and floating toolbar.
  • Toast messages are now white with the same existing transparency.
  • Automatic light and dark themes.
  • New Easter egg in the form of an official Oreo cookie picture.[276]
Android Oreo 8.1 screenshot.png
Android 8.1 home screen

Android 9 Pie

Android 9 Pie (API 28)
Android Pie is the ninth major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on March 7, 2018, and the first developer preview was released on the same day. The second preview, considered beta quality, was released on May 8, 2018. The final beta of Android Pie (fifth preview, also considered as a "Release Candidate") was released on July 25, 2018. The first official release was released on August 6, 2018.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
9 August 6, 2018
  • New user interface for the quick settings menu.[277]
  • The clock has moved to the left of the notification bar.[278]
  • The "dock" now has a semi-transparent background.[278]
  • Battery Saver no longer shows an orange overlay on the notification and status bars.[277]
  • A "screenshot" button has been added to the power options.[278]
  • A new "Lockdown" mode which disables biometric authentication once activated.
  • Rounded corners across the UI.
  • New transitions for switching between apps, or activities within apps.
  • Richer messaging notifications, where a full conversation can be seen within a notification, full-scale images, and smart replies akin to Google's new app, Reply.
  • Support for display cutouts.
  • Redesigned volume slider.
  • Battery percentage now shown in Always-On Display.
  • Lock screen security changes include the possible return of an improved NFC Unlock.
  • Experimental features (which are currently hidden within a menu called Feature Flags) such as a redesigned About Phone page in settings, and automatic Bluetooth enabling while driving.
  • DNS over TLS.[279]
  • A new optional gesture-based system interface, allowing users to navigate the OS using swipes more often than the traditional UI.
  • Redesigned multitask app switcher with the Google search bar and app drawer built-in.
  • Android Dashboard, which tells the user how much time they are spending on their device and in apps, and allows the user to set time limits on apps.
  • "Shush", an enhanced version of Do Not Disturb mode activated by placing the phone face down, which mutes standard notifications.
  • "Adaptive Battery" prediction, which makes use of Doze to hibernate user apps the OS determines the user will not use.
  • Auto-Brightness feature modifies screen brightness based on user habits.
  • Wind Down option lets Android users set a specific bedtime that enables Do Not Disturb and turns the entire phone's interface gray to discourage further use at night.
  • Vulkan 1.1 support.
  • Call recording options fully disabled[280]
Android Pie.png
Android 9 home screen

Android 10

Android 10 (API 29)
Android 10 is the tenth major version of the Android operating system. The stable version of Android 10 was released on September 3, 2019.
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
10 September 3, 2019
  • Revamped full-screen gesture navigation with new app open/close animations.[281][282][283]
  • Scoped storage restrictions[284]
  • New permissions required to access location in background and to access photo, video and audio files.[285]
  • Background apps can no longer jump into the foreground.[285]
  • Limited access to non-resettable device identifiers.[285]
  • Background (idle) access to camera, microphone and sensors disabled for more privacy protection with the side effect of disabling antitheft software.[286][287][288]
  • Sharing shortcuts, which allow sharing content with a contact directly.[285]
  • Floating settings panel, that allows changing system settings directly from apps.[285]
  • Dynamic depth format for photos, which allow changing background blur after taking a photo.[285]
  • Support for the AV1 video codec, the HDR10+ video format and the Opus audio codec.[285]
  • Support for aptX Adaptive, LHDC, LLAC, CELT and AAC LATM codecs[289][290]
  • A native MIDI API, allowing interaction with music controllers.[285]
  • Better support for biometric authentication in apps.[285]
  • Support for the WPA3 Wi-Fi security protocol.[285]
  • Support for foldable phones.[285]
  • Support for Notification Bubbles.[291][292]
  • New system-wide dark theme/mode[293][294]
  • TLS v1.3 support added.
  • Project Mainline, allows core OS components to be updated via the Google Play Store, without requiring a complete system update[295]
Android 10 screenshot.png
Android 10 home screen

Android 11

Android 11 (API 30)
Android 11 is the eleventh major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on February 19, 2020, and the first developer preview released on the same day.[296][297]

Android 11 Beta was postponed from being launched on June 3, 2020 to June 10, 2020.[298]

Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
11 September 8, 2020
  • Chat bubbles.
  • Screen recorder.
  • Notification history.
  • New permissions controls.
  • API distinction between standalone 5G NR and non-standalone 5G.
  • One-time permission[299]
  • Permissions auto-reset.[299]
  • Wireless Android Auto on devices with 5GHz Wi-Fi.[300]
  • Increased number of updatable core OS components in Google Play from 12 to 21.[299][301]
  • Enterprise work profile privacy protections now apply on company-owned devices.[302]
  • Independent left and right edge sensitivity for gesture navigation.[303]
Pixel 4a Android 11 Launcher.png
Android 11 home screen

Android 12

Android 12 (API 31)
Android 12 is the twelfth major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on February 18, 2021, and the first developer preview released on the same day.[304][305]
Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
12 October 4, 2021 Android 12 homescreen 2.png
Android 12 home screen with themed icons and widgets

Hardware requirements

See also: Android (operating system) § Hardware

The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture (ARMv7 and ARMv8-A architectures; formerly also ARMv5), with x86[c] and MIPS[d] architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android, but MIPS support has since been deprecated and support was removed in NDK r17.[319]

Android 1.0 through 1.5 required a 2 megapixel camera with autofocus camera. This was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera with Android 1.6.[320]

In 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones[321] and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64.[322][323] Since Android 5.0 Lollipop, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants.

Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 7.1 depend on screen size and density and type of CPU, ranging from 816 MB–1.8 GB for 64-bit and 512 MB–1.3 GB for 32-bit meaning in practice 1 GB for the most common type of display (while minimum for Android watch is 416 MB).[324][e] The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM,[325] while for "low RAM" devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor.[170] Android 4.4 requires a 32-bitARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor,[326] together with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit (GPU).[327] Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2 and since Android 7.0 Vulkan (and version 1.1 available for some devices[328]). Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications.[327] In 2021, Android was ported to RISC-V.[329] In 2021, Qualcomm said it will support more updates.[330]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^The 2.3.6 update had the side-effect of impairing the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality of many Canadian Nexus S phones. Google acknowledged this problem and fixed it in late September.[101][102]
  2. ^For Canadian consumers, 4.0.2 reportedly created a bug on the Galaxy Nexus that crashed the application market when users attempted to view details of any Android application. It also inadvertently reduced the NFC capabilities of the Nexus phone.[127][128]
  3. ^Lowest supported x86 generation is the P6 microarchitecture, also called i686.[317]
  4. ^Supported is revision 1 of MIPS32[318] and revision 6 for 64-bit MIPS64[317]
  5. ^Disk-based memory (hard drives), solid state disk devices such as USB drives, DVD-based storage, bit rates, bus speeds, and network speeds, are specified using decimal meanings for K (10001), M (10002), G (10003), etc.

References

  1. ^Elgin, Ben (August 17, 2005). "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
  2. ^"Dianne Hackborn". Google+. September 1, 2012. Archived from the original on June 12, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  3. ^"Dan Morrill". Google+. January 2, 2013. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  4. ^"Google Launches Android, an Open Mobile Platform". Google Operating System. November 5, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011.
  5. ^"Live Google's gPhone Open handset alliance conference call"(transcript). Gizmodo. November 5, 2007. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  6. ^"Google releases Android SDK". MacWorld. November 12, 2007. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  7. ^"SDK Archives". Android Developers. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  8. ^"The history of Android: Android 1.0—introducing Google Apps and actual hardware". Ars Technica. June 16, 2014. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  9. ^ abcd"A History of Pre-Cupcake Android Codenames". Android Police. September 17, 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  10. ^"A pop of color and more: updates to Android's brand". Google. August 22, 2019.
  11. ^Cunningham, Edward (December 19, 2017). "Improving app security and performance on Google Play for years to come". Android Developers Blog. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  12. ^"Upload an app". Play Console Help. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  13. ^Cunningham, Edward (February 21, 2019). "Expanding target API level requirements in 2019". Android Developers Blog. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  14. ^Lam, Hoi (November 19, 2020). "New Android App Bundle and target API level requirements in 2021". Android Developers Blog. Google. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  15. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrst"Codenames, Tags, and Build Numbers". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  16. ^"Android 1.1 Version Notes". Android Developers. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  17. ^"What is Android". Android. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  18. ^"Android – History". Android. Archived from the original on May 14, 2017.
  19. ^"Android – History". Android. Archived from the original on May 14, 2017.
  20. ^ ab
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
to syntax functionality in WinApp2
  • Fixed occasional missing information in the Licence Information screen


  • v5.68.7820 (22 Jun 2020)

    This version of CCleaner brings improved cleaning to Firefox and Chromium browsers.

    Cleaning

    • Fixed browser extensions not being shown in Firefox and Chrome
    • Fixed cleaning of ‘Last Download Location’ in Chromium browsers

    Health Check

    • Users can now provide a comment with their rating

    Software Updater

    • Software Updater displays a message when offline and a ‘Try Again’ button


    v5.67.7763 (27 May 2020)

    This version of CCleaner brings more cleaning to Firefox, improvements in the delivery of our Professional trial guided experience, and some stability fixes for Windows 7 users.

    Cleaning

    • Added optional cleaning of Firefox crash reports

    General

    • Fixed a potential crash when CCleaner Professional, Business or Tech Editions launch on Windows 7
    • Fixes to the Professional trial to improve the delivery of its guided experience


    v5.66.7716 (30 Apr 2020)

    In this version of CCleaner we have added full cleaning support for the Brave and Vivaldi browsers! Please note we have patched the 5.66.7705 version to 5.66.7716 to fix a stability issue in the CCleaner Professional Trial flow.

    Cleaning

    • Brave browser can now be cleaned independently - Vivaldi browser can now be cleaned independently

    Health Check

    • Fixed an issue where 'Cookies' was also deleting internet history and was incorrectly reporting large numbers of trackers
    • Internet history is now deleted via the ‘History’ Privacy category, which also includes download history and recently typed URLs

    Pro Trial

    • Starting a CCleaner Professional trial now gives you a guided experience to its features


    v5.65.7632 (24 Mar 2020)

    In this version of CCleaner we have focused on adding new cleaning improvements and improving our new Health Check feature so it’s running smoothly for all of you.

    Better Cleaning

    • Added new areas in Internet Explorer’s LocalAppData
    • Improved Internet Explorer cache cleaning

    Smart Cleaning

    • Browser Smart Cleaning now supports Edge Chromium

    Health Check

    • Health Check no longer shows a connection error incorrectly (thanks nukecad!)
    • Improved wording around connection errors to avoid unnecessary confusion
    • Fixed Health Check freezing in some cases when CCleaner is launched (thanks APMichael!)

    Localization

    • CCleaner is now translated into Bengali and Urdu
    • Made improvements to various translations
    • Fixed a bug where the Estonian language option was showing Slovenian

    Bug Fixes & Minor Changes

    • Fixed a bug where erroneous data was being added to the .ini file (thanks larryg1516!)


    v5.64.7613 (03 Mar 2020)

    This release includes a brand new feature, plus lots of user-focused improvements and changes. On top of that, we now support Microsoft’s new Edge Chromium browser.

    We really value our users’ feedback, which is why we’ve set up a new Ideas Board. To help shape the future of CCleaner and submit suggestions for what you’d like to see next, head over to ideas.ccleaner.com to take part in the conversation!

    Introducing… ‘Health Check’

    • Health Check brings together CCleaner’s most popular tools in a new user-friendly interface to help users to easily maintain their PC
    • In just a few clicks, users of any technical ability can clean, update and disable unnecessary startup apps in one go, to save space and boost speed, privacy and security
    • Health Check replaces Easy Clean, following feedback from users on how it could be enhanced

    Edge Chromium & browser cleaning improvements

    • Added full support for Microsoft’s new Edge Chromium browser
    • Fixed a bug in Google Earth cache cleaning
    • If requested, CCleaner can now disable ‘Preloading’ in old Edge (allows complete cleaning)

    User-friendly improvements to installer offers

    • Offers for Avast and CCleaner products are now presented in a separate step in the installer
    • Offers for Avast and CCleaner products are no longer checked by default

    Farewell to Windows XP & Vista (;_;)

    • Version 5.64.7577 is the final planned build for Windows XP and Vista
    • This version will only receive critical security updates
    • Read our FAQs for further information and assistance

    Other minor improvements

    • Improved country embargo checks to reduce false positives
    • Fixed a UI bug in Scheduling interface
    • Fixed a bug where ‘OK’ button missing from some dialogue messages
    • Removed Google Plus from the ‘About’ screen


    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    VLC for Windows

    Large Orange VLC media player Traffic Cone Logo

    VLC is a free and open source cross-platform multimedia player and framework that plays most multimedia files as well as DVDs, Audio CDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols.

    VLC is a free and open source cross-platform multimedia player and framework that plays most multimedia files, and various streaming protocols.

    Version 3.0.16 • Windows • 38 MB

    Windows requirements

    VLC runs on all versions of Windows, from Windows XP SP3 to the last version of Windows 10.

    VLC for Windows 95/98/Me

    Please install KernelEx or take an old version of VLC

    Older versions

    Older versions can be found by browsing our archives

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Declaration of Independence: A Transcription

    Note: The following text is a transcription of the Stone Engraving of the parchment Declaration of Independence (the document on display in the Rotunda at the National Archives Museum.) The spelling and punctuation reflects the original.


    In Congress, July 4, 1776

    The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

    We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

    He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

    He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

    He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

    He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

    He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

    He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

    He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

    He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

    He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

    He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

    He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

    He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

    He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

    For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

    For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

    For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

    For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

    For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

    For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

    For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

    For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

    For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

    He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

    He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

    He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

    He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

    He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

    In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

    Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

    We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


    Back to Main Declaration Page

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Version History

    v5.87.9306 (16 Nov 2021)

    Better cleaning

    • We’ve improved Microsoft Edge Chromium cache cleaning
    • We’ve added new cleaning for Windows Event Trace Log (ETL) files

    A more helpful Driver Updater

    • The feature icon now tells you when there are driver updates available
    • We’ve fixed an issue that meant that some drivers would not update on the first attempt
    • We've fixed visual bugs that occur on high DPI screens or high zoom settings
    • Long driver names now display correctly in the app

    Easier subscription management

    • We've added a new menu where you can manage your CCleaner subscription and discover other CCleaner products

    Additional bug fixes

    • We've fixed an issue in Software Updater where some 32-bit software was incorrectly claiming updates were available
    • We've fixed some non-English display issues in Health Check


    v5.86.9258 (20 Oct 2021)

    Shh! CCleaner!

    • We’ve fixed a bug where cleaning and update notifications were interrupting fullscreen applications
    • Note: a notifications bug remains for users of Razor Cortex - we’re in contact with Razor and a fix is in progress

    Clearer information

    • We’ve made improvements to Smart Cleaning notifications to make them easier to understand
    • We’ve updated some text in Health Check to reduce confusion
    • We’ve fixed a bug where using a VPN connection would show certain parts of Health Check as ‘offline’
    • We’ve fixed a bug in the icon menu that was hiding the ‘Exit’ button beneath the Taskbar

    Speaking your language

    • We’ve fixed some Chinese character display issues in Health Check
    • We’ve improved how assistive technology reads out your current position in a list, in non-English languages

    Far out, man!

    • We’ve fixed some drivers thinking they were born in the 1970s!


    v5.85.9170 (14 Sep 2021)

    Managing notifications

    • We’ve made it easier to switch off a Smart Cleaning alert if you don’t find it helpful

    Keeping your drivers updated

    • CCleaner now automatically scans for new drivers once per week
    • To reduce confusion caused by different vendors’ version numbering, drivers now display date published instead of version (the version info is still in the Driver Details screen)
    • Small accessibility and usability improvements

    Getting started with CCleaner

    • We’ve added a short intro to the product to give newcomers a bit of guidance

    Smoother CCleaner experience 

    • We’ve fixed a crash that occurs when we try to clean Firefox that was installed with a non-admin Windows user account
    • We’ve added a warning when trying to register the paid product while not logged into an administrator account


    v5.84.9143 (08 Sep 2021)

    Stability

    • We have resolved a bug that was creating excessive load on our infrastructure.


    v5.84.9126 (18 Aug 2021)

    Improving your CCleaner experience

    • Smart Clean no longer prompts you to clean certain browsers if they are closed via an automated process (addresses some ‘ghost’ cleaning notifications)
    • We’ve made it even simpler to use Health Check in subsequent visits to CCleaner

    Driver Updater

    • We’ve made it easier for you to know which drivers to revert if an update causes a problem
    • This new revert flow will also help us to understand where improvements to driver compatibility is most needed

    General

    • The PC info section now detects Windows 11 correctly
    • An indicator in the app now tells you when your subscription is nearing expiry
    • Fixed some uncommon bugs in license registration
    • Fixed some Chinese character display issues


    v5.83.9050 (20 Jul 2021)

    Cleaning improvements

    • New support for Windows 10 Snip & Sketch temporary files
    • Improved cleaning of Microsoft OneDrive logs

    Driver Updater

    • Improved error handling messages and options
    • Fixed a bug where driver categories were not displaying correctly
    • Fixed a bug causing UI issues when navigating between tabs
    • Fixed a bug causing the program to hang when scanning for drivers to update 


    v5.82.8950 (17 Jun 2021)

    New PRO Feature: Driver Updater!

    • Our mission at CCleaner is to make our customers’ lives easier by simplifying their relationship with digital technology. Today, we’re bringing safe and reliable driver updates to CCleaner Professional, with no need to break the bank on an additional app. Our new Driver Updater finds more drivers than built-in solutions, saves you time and stress from having to find drivers on the web, and delivers drivers that are safe and reliable. Improve media performance, reduce crashes and bugs, and enjoy a better PC experience today!


    v5.81.8895 (08 Jun 2021)

    Health Check

    • Fixed a crash if using Health Check without an internet connection

    Driver Updater Beta

    • Released to a limited group for initial feedback
    • You can use the ‘Give Feedback’ button within the feature to share your thoughts
    • Not yet suitable for users of assistive technologies (it will be when fully released)
    • We expect to make it available to everyone very soon! :)

    General

    • Minor bug fixes
    • Minor UI improvements


    v5.80.8743 (25 May 2021)

    Disk Analyzer

    • Fixed a bug where files were not shown when viewing scan results by file type

    General

    • Minor improvements to Trial experience


    v5.79.8704 (29 Apr 2021)

    Cleaning

    • Added new cleaning of Slack cache (this optional setting does not wipe message history)
    • We have re-enabled the ‘Wipe Free Space’ feature with new diagnostics information to catch a bug that was reported but not reproduced in our thorough testing
    • We have added optional debug logging to try to catch a rare ‘rule duplication’ bug

    Security

    • We fixed some instances where the app was using HTTP instead of HTTPS


    v5.78.8558 (25 Mar 2021)

    Cleaning Settings

    • Restored support for local domains to the ‘Cookies To Keep’ whitelist (e.g. ‘localhost’, ‘desktop2’) 
    • We have disabled the ‘Wipe Free Space’ feature while we investigate reports of erroneous data erasure

    Cleaning Automation

    • You can now choose to use standard cleaning rules or Custom Clean for scheduled cleans
    • Fixed a bug where unchecking Smart Cleaning did not uncheck its child options

    New Onboarding Flow

    • We've added a new quick start guide called Help Hub that is active during a trial for some users (currently EN only)

    Accessibility

    • The new CCleaner onboarding experience fully supports NVDA screen reader and meets WCAG AA requirements
    • Tab navigation order through different sections of the app window is now more consistent
    • Improved Search Field labelling for NVDA
    • Fixed an issue where Disk Analyzer would hang at the end of analysis if NVDA was running


    v5.77.8521 (04 Mar 2021)

    This version resolves a crash when cycling quickly through the Options menu. We will roll out this change to everyone over the coming days.

    Stability

    • CCleaner no longer becomes unresponsive when cycling quickly through the Options menu


    v5.77.8448 (18 Feb 2021)

    This version includes improvements to cleaning and improved visual design for product updates.

    Note: We want everyone to enjoy using the latest and safest version of CCleaner, including people who may not have updated in some time. In the coming days and weeks, we will continue to bring customers on very old versions up to date so they can clean their machines safely. (Find out more)

    Cleaning

    • Added Download History cleaning for Avast Secure Browser

    Updates

    • Updated the visual design of the product update sequence
    • Fixed a bug where the system tray icon was displaying when it shouldn’t
    • Fixed a rare bug where Update Notifications would be shown when they shouldn’t

    General

      • Improved support for screen readers in the purchase flow
      • Fixed a bug where the license information could be reset and lost


    v5.76.8269 (13 Jan 2021)

    This version includes improvements to cleaning, accessibility, and usability.

    Cleaning

    • We now prevent invalid data from being imported to the ‘Cookies to Keep’ list
    • We now clean up any of our dump files created more than 14 days ago when you run CCleaner

    Accessibility

    • We’ve made many improvements to NVDA screen reader support in Health Check
    • We’ve improved NVDA support for reading checkbox lists and checkbox statuses

    General

    • We resolved a permissions error when enabling the ‘Save files to INI’ option
    • We fixed an error when enabling the ‘Skip UAC’ option
    • We fixed a rare bug where an update could unregister CCleaner Professional
    • We’ve made some text labels clearer 


    v5.75.8238 (10 Dec 2020)

    This version includes improvements to cleaning, stability, and usability

    Cleaning

    • The ‘Cookies to Keep’ list can now import any text file (‘Options’ → ‘Updates’)
    • Chrome cleaning now includes Chrome Beta (as it did before)

    General

    • We fixed a silent crash when closing CCleaner
    • We’ve made it clearer how Smart Cleaning settings interact with each other
    • We’ve added a note to explain that Smart Cleaning uses the Custom Clean settings
    • We’ve improved the wording of ‘Run CCleaner at startup’ to ‘Launch CC app windows each time the computer starts’
    • The language list now lists languages in their native tongue (‘Options’ → ‘Settings’ )
    • We’ve fixed some text translations throughout the app


    v5.74.8198 (11 Nov 2020)

    This version comes jam-packed full of exciting improvements for all our users!

    Cleaning

    • This release contains an essential session cleaning compatibility update for Chromium browsers such as CCleaner Browser, Google Chrome, Edge, Brave, Opera, Opera GX, Avast Secure Browser and Vivaldi.

    Automatic Updates

    • Updates to CCleaner will now be applied automatically in CCleaner Free.
    • You can review your Update Preferences in the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu.
    • If automatic updates are enabled, CCleaner will run in the background and check for them twice daily (if you run CCleaner it will always check for an update first).

    Update Preferences

    • We have simplified the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu down to two settings: one for controlling automatic updates and another for controlling update notifications.

    CCleaner Professional

    • If your license has expired, we will occasionally show you a reminder when you run CCleaner.

    General

    • We fixed a bug where text in warning message boxes was highlighted.


    v5.74.8184 (09 Nov 2020)

    This version comes jam-packed full of exciting improvements for all our users!

    Cleaning

    • This release contains an essential session cleaning compatibility update for Chromium browsers such as CCleaner Browser, Google Chrome, Edge, Brave, Opera, Opera GX, Avast Secure Browser and Vivaldi.

    Automatic Updates

    • Updates to CCleaner will now be applied automatically in CCleaner Free.
    • You can review your Update Preferences in the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu.
    • If automatic updates are enabled, CCleaner will run in the background and check for them twice daily (if you run CCleaner it will always check for an update first).

    Update Preferences

    • We have simplified the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu down to two settings: one for controlling automatic updates and another for controlling update notifications.

    CCleaner Professional

    • If your license has expired, we will occasionally show you a reminder when you run CCleaner.

    General

    • We fixed a bug where text in warning message boxes was highlighted.


    v5.73.8130 (26 Oct 2020)

    This release brings a design update that makes it easier to see the status of your CCleaner Professional license in the app. We’ve also made it easier to renew your license and reactivate it.

    License Management

    • The status of a CCleaner license is now clearer in the UI
    • Disabled or expired licenses can now be reactivated from the app

     Accessibility

    • Improved screen reader navigation on the Cookies, Registry & Users screens


    v5.72.7994 (22 Sep 2020)

    This release brings many improvements to accessibility in CCleaner and also a cleaning fix in Firefox.

    Cleaning

    • Fixed Saved Passwords not being cleaned in Firefox v80

    Accessibility

    • Greatly improved support for NVDA and JAWS screen readers so that people with visual impairment who use assistive technology can navigate quickly and intuitively through the app
    • Updated color contrast throughout the user interface to make text, icons, and buttons more readable for people with color vision deficiency
    • Fixed certain message boxes not having focus when they appear


    v5.69.7865 (20 Jul 2020)

    This version of CCleaner brings all-new cleaning for Opera GX browser and bug fixes.

    Cleaning

    • Added cleaning support for Opera GX gaming browser

    General

    • Minor UI improvements
    • Fixed DetectOS from

      "Update" redirects here. For other uses, see Update (disambiguation).

      "Patch" redirects here. For the terrain feature, see Random patch.

      This page links to the version history lists for different development stages and editions of Minecraft.

      Java Edition[]

      • Version history
        • Pre-classic (May 10 – May 16, 2009)
        • Classic (May 16 – November 10, 2009)
        • Indev (December 23, 2009 – February 23, 2010)
        • Infdev (February 27 – June 30, 2010)
        • Alpha (June 30 – December 3, 2010)
        • Beta (December 20, 2010 – November 11, 2011)
        • Official Release, or Java Edition (November 18, 2011 – present)
      • Development versions (September 9, 2011 – present)

      Bedrock Edition[]

      New Nintendo 3DS Edition[]

      Education Edition[]

      Pi Edition[]

      Minecraft Earth[]

      Minecraft Dungeons[]

      Minecraft Launcher[]

      Legacy Console Edition[]

      • Version history
        • Xbox 360 Edition (May 9, 2012 – April 30, 2019)
        • Xbox One Edition (September 5, 2014 – December 3, 2019)
        • PlayStation 3 Edition (December 17, 2013 – April 15, 2020)
        • PlayStation 4 Edition (September 4, 2014 – September 9, 2019)
        • PlayStation Vita Edition (October 14, 2014 – April 15, 2020)
        • Wii U Edition (December 17, 2015 – March 19, 2019)
        • Nintendo Switch Edition (May 11, 2017 – June 21, 2018)
      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
      Full Version Archives

      Full Version Archives - above told

      Use the latest browser recommended by Microsoft

      Get speed, security, and privacy with Microsoft Edge .

      Try it now

      There are several types of files you can download from the web—documents, pictures, videos, apps, extensions and toolbars for your browser, among others. When you select a file to download, Internet Explorer will ask what you want to do with the file. Here are some things you can do, depending on the type of file you're downloading:

      • Open the file to view it, but don't save it to your PC.

      • Save the file on your PC in the default download location. After Internet Explorer runs a security scan and finishes downloading the file, you can choose to open the file, the folder it's stored in, or view it in Download Manager.

      • Save as a different file name, type, or download location on your PC.

      • Run the app, extension, or other file type. After Internet Explorer runs a security scan, the file will open and run on your PC.

      • Cancel the download and go back to browsing the web.

      You can also save smaller files—like single pictures—to your PC. Right-select the picture, link, or file you want to save, and then choose Save picture or Save target as.

      Find files you’ve downloaded on your PC

      Download Manager keeps track of pictures, documents, and other files you download from the web. Files you've downloaded are automatically saved in the Downloads folder. This folder is usually located on the drive where Windows is installed (for example, C:\users\your name\downloads). You can always move downloads from the Downloads folder to other places on your PC.

      To view files you've downloaded while using Internet Explorer, open Internet Explorer, select the Tools button, and then select View downloads. You'll be able to see what you've downloaded from the web, where these items are stored on your PC, and choose actions to take on your downloads.

      Change the default download folder on your PC

      1. Open Internet Explorer, select the Tools button, and then select View downloads.

      2. In the View Downloads dialog box, select Options in the lower-left.

      3. Choose a different default download location by selecting Browse and then selecting OK when you're done.

      Why some files won't open in Internet Explorer

      Internet Explorer uses add-ons such as Adobe Reader to view some files in the browser. If a file that needs an add-on won't open, you might have an older version of the add-on, which needs to be updated.

      About download and security warnings

      When you download a file, Internet Explorer checks for clues that the download is malicious or potentially harmful to your PC. If Internet Explorer identifies a download as suspicious, you'll be notified so you can decide whether or not to save, run, or open the file. Not all files you're warned about are malicious, but it's important to make sure you trust the site you're downloading from, and that you really want to download the file.

      If you see a security warning that tells you the publisher of this program couldn't be verified, this means that Internet Explorer doesn't recognize the site or organization asking you to download the file. Make sure you recognize and trust the publisher before you save or open the download.

      There are always risks to downloading files from the web. Here are some precautions you can take to help protect your PC when you download files:

      • Install and use an antivirus program.

      • Only download files from sites that you trust.

      • If the file has a digital signature, make sure that the signature is valid and the file is from a trusted location. To see the digital signature, select the publisher link in the security warning dialog box that opens when you first download the file.

      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

      Version History

      v5.87.9306 (16 Nov 2021)

      Better cleaning

      • We’ve improved Microsoft Edge Chromium cache cleaning
      • We’ve added new cleaning for Windows Event Trace Log (ETL) files

      A more helpful Driver Updater

      • The feature icon now tells you when there are driver updates available
      • We’ve fixed an issue that meant that some drivers would not update on the first attempt
      • We've fixed visual bugs that occur on high DPI screens or high zoom settings
      • Long driver names now display correctly in the app

      Easier subscription management

      • We've added a new menu where you can manage your CCleaner subscription and discover other CCleaner products

      Additional bug fixes

      • We've fixed an issue in Software Updater where some 32-bit software was incorrectly claiming updates were available
      • We've fixed some non-English display issues in Health Check


      v5.86.9258 (20 Oct 2021)

      Shh! CCleaner!

      • We’ve fixed a bug where cleaning and update notifications were interrupting fullscreen applications
      • Note: a notifications bug remains for users of Razor Cortex - we’re in contact with Razor and a fix is in progress

      Clearer information

      • We’ve made improvements to Smart Cleaning notifications to make them easier to understand
      • We’ve updated some text in Health Check to reduce confusion
      • We’ve fixed a bug where using a VPN connection would show certain parts of Health Check as ‘offline’
      • We’ve fixed a bug in the icon menu that was hiding the ‘Exit’ button beneath the Taskbar

      Speaking your language

      • We’ve fixed some Chinese character display issues in Health Check
      • We’ve improved how assistive technology reads out your current position in a list, in non-English languages

      Far out, man!

      • We’ve fixed some drivers thinking they were born in the 1970s!


      v5.85.9170 (14 Sep 2021)

      Managing notifications

      • We’ve made it easier to switch off a Smart Cleaning alert if you don’t find it helpful

      Keeping your drivers updated

      • CCleaner now automatically scans for new drivers once per week
      • To reduce confusion caused by different vendors’ version numbering, drivers now display date published instead of version (the version info is still in the Driver Details screen)
      • Small accessibility and usability improvements

      Getting started with CCleaner

      • We’ve added a short intro to the product to give newcomers a bit of guidance

      Smoother CCleaner experience 

      • We’ve fixed a crash that occurs when we try to clean Firefox that was installed with a non-admin Windows user account
      • We’ve added a warning when trying to register the paid product while not logged into an administrator account


      v5.84.9143 (08 Sep 2021)

      Stability

      • We have resolved a bug that was creating excessive load on our infrastructure.


      v5.84.9126 (18 Aug 2021)

      Improving your CCleaner experience

      • Smart Clean no longer prompts you to clean certain browsers if they are closed via an automated process (addresses some ‘ghost’ cleaning notifications)
      • We’ve made it even simpler to use Health Check in subsequent visits to CCleaner

      Driver Updater

      • We’ve made it easier for you to know which drivers to revert if an update causes a problem
      • This new revert flow will also help us to understand where improvements to driver compatibility is most needed

      General

      • The PC info section now detects Windows 11 correctly
      • An indicator in the app now tells you when your subscription is nearing expiry
      • Fixed some uncommon bugs in license registration
      • Fixed some Chinese character display issues


      v5.83.9050 (20 Jul 2021)

      Cleaning improvements

      • New support for Windows 10 Snip & Sketch temporary files
      • Improved cleaning of Microsoft OneDrive logs

      Driver Updater

      • Improved error handling messages and options
      • Fixed a bug where driver categories were not displaying correctly
      • Fixed a bug causing UI issues when navigating between tabs
      • Fixed a bug causing the program to hang when scanning for drivers to update 


      v5.82.8950 (17 Jun 2021)

      New PRO Feature: Driver Updater!

      • Our mission at CCleaner is to make our customers’ lives easier by simplifying their relationship with digital technology. Today, we’re bringing safe and reliable driver updates to CCleaner Professional, with no need to break the bank on an additional app. Our new Driver Updater finds more drivers than built-in solutions, saves you time and stress from having to find drivers on the web, and delivers drivers that are safe and reliable. Improve media performance, reduce crashes and bugs, and enjoy a better PC experience today!


      v5.81.8895 (08 Jun 2021)

      Health Check

      • Fixed a crash if using Health Check without an internet connection

      Driver Updater Beta

      • Released to a limited group for initial feedback
      • You can use the ‘Give Feedback’ button within the feature to share your thoughts
      • Not yet suitable for users of assistive technologies (it will be when fully released)
      • We expect to make it available to everyone very soon! :)

      General

      • Minor bug fixes
      • Minor UI improvements


      v5.80.8743 (25 May 2021)

      Disk Analyzer

      • Fixed a bug where files were not shown when viewing scan results by file type

      General

      • Minor improvements to Trial experience


      v5.79.8704 (29 Apr 2021)

      Cleaning

      • Added new cleaning of Slack cache (this optional setting does not wipe message history)
      • We have re-enabled the ‘Wipe Free Space’ feature with new diagnostics information to catch a bug that was reported but not reproduced in our thorough testing
      • We have added optional debug logging to try to catch a rare ‘rule duplication’ bug

      Security

      • We fixed some instances where the app was using HTTP instead of HTTPS


      v5.78.8558 (25 Mar 2021)

      Cleaning Settings

      • Restored support for local domains to the ‘Cookies To Keep’ whitelist (e.g. ‘localhost’, ‘desktop2’) 
      • We have disabled the ‘Wipe Free Space’ feature while we investigate reports of erroneous data erasure

      Cleaning Automation

      • You can now choose to use standard cleaning rules or Custom Clean for scheduled cleans
      • Fixed a bug where unchecking Smart Cleaning did not uncheck its child options

      New Onboarding Flow

      • We've added a new quick start guide called Help Hub that is active during a trial for some users (currently EN only)

      Accessibility

      • The new CCleaner onboarding experience fully supports NVDA screen reader and meets WCAG AA requirements
      • Tab navigation order through different sections of the app window is now more consistent
      • Improved Search Field labelling for NVDA
      • Fixed an issue where Disk Analyzer would hang at the end of analysis if NVDA was running


      v5.77.8521 (04 Mar 2021)

      This version resolves a crash when cycling quickly through the Options menu. We will roll out this change to everyone over the coming days.

      Stability

      • CCleaner no longer becomes unresponsive when cycling quickly through the Options menu


      v5.77.8448 (18 Feb 2021)

      This version includes improvements to cleaning and improved visual design for product updates.

      Note: We want everyone to enjoy using the latest and safest version of CCleaner, including people who may not have updated in some time. In the coming days and weeks, we will continue to bring customers on very old versions up to date so they can clean their machines safely. (Find out more)

      Cleaning

      • Added Download History cleaning for Avast Secure Browser

      Updates

      • Updated the visual design of the product update sequence
      • Fixed a bug where the system tray icon was displaying when it shouldn’t
      • Fixed a rare bug where Update Notifications would be shown when they shouldn’t

      General

        • Improved support for screen readers in the purchase flow
        • Fixed a bug where the license information could be reset and lost


      v5.76.8269 (13 Jan 2021)

      This version includes improvements to cleaning, accessibility, and usability.

      Cleaning

      • We now prevent invalid data from being imported to the ‘Cookies to Keep’ list
      • We now clean up any of our dump files created more than 14 days ago when you run CCleaner

      Accessibility

      • We’ve made many improvements to NVDA screen reader support in Health Check
      • We’ve improved NVDA support for reading checkbox lists and checkbox statuses

      General

      • We resolved a permissions error when enabling the ‘Save files to INI’ option
      • We fixed an error when enabling the ‘Skip UAC’ option
      • We fixed a rare bug where an update could unregister CCleaner Professional
      • We’ve made some text labels clearer 


      v5.75.8238 (10 Dec 2020)

      This version includes improvements to cleaning, stability, and usability

      Cleaning

      • The ‘Cookies to Keep’ list can now import any text file (‘Options’ → ‘Updates’)
      • Chrome cleaning now includes Chrome Beta (as it did before)

      General

      • We fixed a silent crash when closing CCleaner
      • We’ve made it clearer how Smart Cleaning settings interact with each other
      • We’ve added a note to explain that Smart Cleaning uses the Custom Clean settings
      • We’ve improved the wording of ‘Run CCleaner at startup’ to ‘Launch CC app windows each time the computer starts’
      • The language list now lists languages in their native tongue (‘Options’ → ‘Settings’ )
      • We’ve fixed some text translations throughout the app


      v5.74.8198 (11 Nov 2020)

      This version comes jam-packed full of exciting improvements for all our users!

      Cleaning

      • This release contains an essential session cleaning compatibility update for Chromium browsers such as CCleaner Browser, Google Chrome, Edge, Brave, Opera, Opera GX, Avast Secure Browser and Vivaldi.

      Automatic Updates

      • Updates to CCleaner will now be applied automatically in CCleaner Free.
      • You can review your Update Preferences in the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu.
      • If automatic updates are enabled, CCleaner will run in the background and check for them twice daily (if you run CCleaner it will always check for an update first).

      Update Preferences

      • We have simplified the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu down to two settings: one for controlling automatic updates and another for controlling update notifications.

      CCleaner Professional

      • If your license has expired, we will occasionally show you a reminder when you run CCleaner.

      General

      • We fixed a bug where text in warning message boxes was highlighted.


      v5.74.8184 (09 Nov 2020)

      This version comes jam-packed full of exciting improvements for all our users!

      Cleaning

      • This release contains an essential session cleaning compatibility update for Chromium browsers such as CCleaner Browser, Google Chrome, Edge, Brave, Opera, Opera GX, Avast Secure Browser and Vivaldi.

      Automatic Updates

      • Updates to CCleaner will now be applied automatically in CCleaner Free.
      • You can review your Update Preferences in the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu.
      • If automatic updates are enabled, CCleaner will run in the background and check for them twice daily (if you run CCleaner it will always check for an update first).

      Update Preferences

      • We have simplified the ‘Options’ → ‘Updates’ menu down to two settings: one for controlling automatic updates and another for controlling update notifications.

      CCleaner Professional

      • If your license has expired, we will occasionally show you a reminder when you run CCleaner.

      General

      • We fixed a bug where text in warning message boxes was highlighted.


      v5.73.8130 (26 Oct 2020)

      This release brings a design update that makes it easier to see the status of your CCleaner Professional license in the app. We’ve also made it easier to renew your license and reactivate it.

      License Management

      • The status of a CCleaner license is now clearer in the UI
      • Disabled or expired licenses can now be reactivated from the app

       Accessibility

      • Improved screen reader navigation on the Cookies, Registry & Users screens


      v5.72.7994 (22 Sep 2020)

      This release brings many improvements to accessibility in CCleaner and also a cleaning fix in Firefox.

      Cleaning

      • Fixed Saved Passwords not being cleaned in Firefox v80

      Accessibility

      • Greatly improved support for NVDA and JAWS screen readers so that people with visual impairment who use assistive technology can navigate quickly and intuitively through the app
      • Updated color contrast throughout the user interface to make text, icons, and buttons more readable for people with color vision deficiency
      • Fixed certain message boxes not having focus when they appear


      v5.69.7865 (20 Jul 2020)

      This version of CCleaner brings all-new cleaning for Opera GX browser and bug fixes.

      Cleaning

      • Added cleaning support for Opera GX gaming browser

      General

      • Minor UI improvements
      • Fixed DetectOS from

        Declaration of Independence: A Transcription

        Note: The following text is a transcription of the Stone Engraving of the parchment Declaration of Independence (the document on display in the Rotunda at the National Archives Museum.) The spelling and punctuation reflects the original.


        In Congress, July 4, 1776

        The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

        We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

        He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

        He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

        He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

        He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

        He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

        He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

        He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

        He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

        He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

        He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

        He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

        He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

        He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

        For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

        For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

        For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

        For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

        For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

        For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

        For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

        For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

        For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

        He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

        He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

        He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

        He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

        He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

        In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

        Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

        We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


        Back to Main Declaration Page

        Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

        Android versions: A living history from 1.0 to 12

        What a long, strange trip it's been.

        From its inaugural release to today, Android has transformed visually, conceptually and functionally — time and time again. Google's mobile operating system may have started out scrappy, but holy moly, has it ever evolved.

        Here's a fast-paced tour of Android version highlights from the platform's birth to present. (Feel free to skip ahead if you just want to see what’s new in Android 11 or Android 12.)

        Android versions 1.0 to 1.1: The early days

        Android made its official public debut in 2008 with Android 1.0 — a release so ancient it didn't even have a cute codename.

        Things were pretty basic back then, but the software did include a suite of early Google apps like Gmail, Maps, Calendar, and YouTube, all of which were integrated into the operating system — a stark contrast to the more easily updatable standalone-app model employed today.

        Android version 1.0 on early smartphonesT-Mobile

        Android version 1.5: Cupcake

        With early 2009's Android 1.5 Cupcake release, the tradition of Android version names was born. Cupcake introduced numerous refinements to the Android interface, including the first on-screen keyboard — something that'd be necessary as phones moved away from the once-ubiquitous physical keyboard model.

        Cupcake also brought about the framework for third-party app widgets, which would quickly turn into one of Android's most distinguishing elements, and it provided the platform's first-ever option for video recording.

        Android version 1.5 CupcakeAndroid Police(CC BY-SA 4.0)

        Android version 1.6: Donut

        Android 1.6, Donut, rolled into the world in the fall of 2009. Donut filled in some important holes in Android's center, including the ability for the OS to operate on a variety of different screen sizes and resolutions — a factor that'd be critical in the years to come. It also added support for CDMA networks like Verizon, which would play a key role in Android's imminent explosion.

        Android version 1.6 DonutGoogle

        Android versions 2.0 to 2.1: Eclair

        Keeping up the breakneck release pace of Android's early years, Android 2.0, Eclair, emerged just six weeks after Donut; its "point-one" update, also called Eclair, came out a couple months later. Eclair was the first Android release to enter mainstream consciousness thanks to the original Motorola Droid phone and the massive Verizon-led marketing campaign surrounding it.

        The release's most transformative element was the addition of voice-guided turn-by-turn navigation and real-time traffic info — something previously unheard of (and still essentially unmatched) in the smartphone world. Navigation aside, Eclair brought live wallpapers to Android as well as the platform's first speech-to-text function. And it made waves for injecting the once-iOS-exclusive pinch-to-zoom capability into Android — a move often seen as the spark that ignited Apple's long-lasting "thermonuclear war" against Google.

        android versions 2.0 2.1 2.2 EclairGoogle

        Android version 2.2: Froyo

        Just four months after Android 2.1 arrived, Google served up Android 2.2, Froyo, which revolved largely around under-the-hood performance improvements.

        Froyo did deliver some important front-facing features, though, including the addition of the now-standard dock at the bottom of the home screen as well as the first incarnation of Voice Actions, which allowed you to perform basic functions like getting directions and making notes by tapping an icon and then speaking a command.

        Android version 2.2 FroyoGoogle

        Notably, Froyo also brought support for Flash to Android's web browser — an option that was significant both because of the widespread use of Flash at the time and because of Apple's adamant stance against supporting it on its own mobile devices. Apple would eventually win, of course, and Flash would become far less common. But back when it was still everywhere, being able to access the full web without any black holes was a genuine advantage only Android could offer.

        Android version 2.3: Gingerbread

        Android's first true visual identity started coming into focus with 2010's Gingerbread release. Bright green had long been the color of Android's robot mascot, and with Gingerbread, it became an integral part of the operating system's appearance. Black and green seeped all over the UI as Android started its slow march toward distinctive design.

        Android version 2.3 GingerbreadJR Raphael / IDG

        Android 3.0 to 3.2: Honeycomb

        2011's Honeycomb period was a weird time for Android. Android 3.0 came into the world as a tablet-only release to accompany the launch of the Motorola Xoom, and through the subsequent 3.1 and 3.2 updates, it remained a tablet-exclusive (and closed-source) entity.

        Under the guidance of newly arrived design chief Matias Duarte, Honeycomb introduced a dramatically reimagined UI for Android. It had a space-like "holographic" design that traded the platform's trademark green for blue and placed an emphasis on making the most of a tablet's screen space.

        Android versions 3.0 3.1 3.2 HoneycombJR Raphael / IDG

        While the concept of a tablet-specific interface didn't last long, many of Honeycomb's ideas laid the groundwork for the Android we know today. The software was the first to use on-screen buttons for Android's main navigational commands; it marked the beginning of the end for the permanent overflow-menu button; and it introduced the concept of a card-like UI with its take on the Recent Apps list.

        Android version 4.0: Ice Cream Sandwich

        With Honeycomb acting as the bridge from old to new, Ice Cream Sandwich — also released in 2011 — served as the platform's official entry into the era of modern design. The release refined the visual concepts introduced with Honeycomb and reunited tablets and phones with a single, unified UI vision.

        ICS dropped much of Honeycomb's "holographic" appearance but kept its use of blue as a system-wide highlight. And it carried over core system elements like on-screen buttons and a card-like appearance for app-switching.

        Android version 4.0 Ice Cream SandwichJR Raphael / IDG

        Android 4.0 also made swiping a more integral method of getting around the operating system, with the then-revolutionary-feeling ability to swipe away things like notifications and recent apps. And it started the slow process of bringing a standardized design framework — known as "Holo" — all throughout the OS and into Android's app ecosystem.

        Android versions 4.1 to 4.3: Jelly Bean

        Spread across three impactful Android versions, 2012 and 2013's Jelly Bean releases took ICS's fresh foundation and made meaningful strides in fine-tuning and building upon it. The releases added plenty of poise and polish into the operating system and went a long way in making Android more inviting for the average user.

        Visuals aside, Jelly Bean brought about our first taste of Google Now — the spectacular predictive-intelligence utility that's sadly since devolved into a glorified news feed. It gave us expandable and interactive notifications, an expanded voice search system, and a more advanced system for displaying search results in general, with a focus on card-based results that attempted to answer questions directly.

        Multiuser support also came into play, albeit on tablets only at this point, and an early version of Android's Quick Settings panel made its first appearance. Jelly Bean ushered in a heavily hyped system for placing widgets on your lock screen, too — one that, like so many Android features over the years, quietly disappeared a couple years later.

        Android versions 4.1 4.2 4.3 Jelly BeanJR Raphael / IDG

        Android version 4.4: KitKat

        Late-2013's KitKat release marked the end of Android's dark era, as the blacks of Gingerbread and the blues of Honeycomb finally made their way out of the operating system. Lighter backgrounds and more neutral highlights took their places, with a transparent status bar and white icons giving the OS a more contemporary appearance.

        Android 4.4 also saw the first version of "OK, Google" support — but in KitKat, the hands-free activation prompt worked only when your screen was already on and you were either at your home screen or inside the Google app.

        The release was Google's first foray into claiming a full panel of the home screen for its services, too — at least, for users of its own Nexus phones and those who chose to download its first-ever standalone launcher.

        Android version 4.4 KitKatJR Raphael / IDG

        7 inconvenient truths about the hybrid work trend

        Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
        to syntax functionality in WinApp2
      • Fixed occasional missing information in the Licence Information screen


      v5.68.7820 (22 Jun 2020)

      This version of CCleaner brings improved cleaning to Firefox and Chromium browsers.

      Cleaning

      • Fixed browser extensions not being shown in Firefox and Chrome
      • Fixed cleaning of ‘Last Download Location’ in Chromium browsers

      Health Check

      • Users can now provide a comment with their rating

      Software Updater

      • Software Updater displays a message when offline and a ‘Try Again’ button


      v5.67.7763 (27 May 2020)

      This version of CCleaner brings more cleaning to Firefox, improvements in the delivery of our Professional trial guided experience, and some stability fixes for Windows 7 users.

      Cleaning

      • Added optional cleaning of Firefox crash reports

      General

      • Fixed a potential crash when CCleaner Professional, Business or Tech Editions launch on Windows 7
      • Fixes to the Professional trial to improve the delivery of its guided experience


      v5.66.7716 (30 Apr 2020)

      In this version of CCleaner we have added full cleaning support for the Brave and Vivaldi browsers! Please note we have patched the 5.66.7705 version to 5.66.7716 to fix a stability issue in the CCleaner Professional Trial flow.

      Cleaning

      • Brave browser can now be cleaned independently - Vivaldi browser can now be cleaned independently

      Health Check

      • Fixed an issue where 'Cookies' was also deleting internet history and was incorrectly reporting large numbers of trackers
      • Internet history is now deleted via the ‘History’ Privacy category, which also includes download history and recently typed URLs

      Pro Trial

      • Starting a CCleaner Professional trial now gives you a guided experience to its features


      v5.65.7632 (24 Mar 2020)

      In this version of CCleaner we have focused on adding new cleaning improvements and improving our new Health Check feature so it’s running smoothly for all of you.

      Better Cleaning

      • Added new areas in Internet Explorer’s LocalAppData
      • Improved Internet Explorer cache cleaning

      Smart Cleaning

      • Browser Smart Cleaning now supports Edge Chromium

      Health Check

      • Health Check no longer shows a connection error incorrectly (thanks nukecad!)
      • Improved wording around connection errors to avoid unnecessary confusion
      • Fixed Health Check freezing in some cases when CCleaner is launched (thanks APMichael!)

      Localization

      • CCleaner is now translated into Bengali and Urdu
      • Made improvements to various translations
      • Fixed a bug where the Estonian language option was showing Slovenian

      Bug Fixes & Minor Changes

      • Fixed a bug where erroneous data was being added to the .ini file (thanks larryg1516!)


      v5.64.7613 (03 Mar 2020)

      This release includes a brand new feature, plus lots of user-focused improvements and changes. On top of that, we now support Microsoft’s new Edge Chromium browser.

      We really value our users’ feedback, which is why we’ve set up a new Ideas Board. To help shape the future of CCleaner and submit suggestions for what you’d like to see next, head over to ideas.ccleaner.com to take part in the conversation!

      Introducing… ‘Health Check’

      • Health Check brings together CCleaner’s most popular tools in a new user-friendly interface to help users to easily maintain their PC
      • In just a few clicks, users of any technical ability can clean, update and disable unnecessary startup apps in one go, to save space and boost speed, privacy and security
      • Health Check replaces Easy Clean, following feedback from users on how it could be enhanced

      Edge Chromium & browser cleaning improvements

      • Added full support for Microsoft’s new Edge Chromium browser
      • Fixed a bug in Google Earth cache cleaning
      • If requested, CCleaner can now disable ‘Preloading’ in old Edge (allows complete cleaning)

      User-friendly improvements to installer offers

      • Offers for Avast and CCleaner products are now presented in a separate step in the installer
      • Offers for Avast and CCleaner products are no longer checked by default

      Farewell to Windows XP & Vista (;_;)

      • Version 5.64.7577 is the final planned build for Windows XP and Vista
      • This version will only receive critical security updates
      • Read our FAQs for further information and assistance

      Other minor improvements

      • Improved country embargo checks to reduce false positives
      • Fixed a UI bug in Scheduling interface
      • Fixed a bug where ‘OK’ button missing from some dialogue messages
      • Removed Google Plus from the ‘About’ screen


      Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
      to syntax functionality in WinApp2
    • Fixed occasional missing information in the Licence Information screen


    v5.68.7820 (22 Jun 2020)

    This version of Full Version Archives brings improved cleaning to Firefox and Chromium browsers.

    Cleaning

    • Fixed browser extensions not being shown in Firefox and Chrome
    • Fixed cleaning of ‘Last Download Location’ in Chromium browsers

    Health Check

    • Users can now provide a comment with their rating

    Software Updater

    • Software Updater displays a message when offline and a ‘Try Again’ button


    v5.67.7763 (27 May 2020)

    This version of Full Version Archives brings more cleaning to Firefox, improvements in the delivery of our Professional trial guided experience, and some stability fixes for Windows 7 users.

    Cleaning

    • Added optional cleaning of Firefox crash reports

    General

    • Fixed a potential crash when CCleaner Professional, Business or Tech Editions launch on Windows 7
    • Fixes to the Professional trial to improve the delivery of its guided experience


    v5.66.7716 (30 Apr 2020)

    In this version of CCleaner we Full Version Archives added full cleaning support for the Brave and Vivaldi browsers! Please note we have patched the 5.66.7705 version to 5.66.7716 to fix a stability issue in the CCleaner Professional Trial flow.

    Cleaning

    • Brave browser can now be cleaned independently - Vivaldi browser can now be cleaned independently

    Health Check

    • Fixed an issue where 'Cookies' was also deleting internet history and was incorrectly reporting large numbers of trackers
    • Internet history is now Full Version Archives via the ‘History’ Privacy category, which also includes download history and recently typed URLs

    Pro Trial

    • Starting a CCleaner Professional trial now gives you a guided experience to its features


    v5.65.7632 (24 Mar 2020)

    In this version of CCleaner we have focused on adding new cleaning improvements and improving our new Health Check feature so it’s running smoothly for all of you.

    Better Cleaning

    • Added new areas in Internet Explorer’s LocalAppData
    • Improved Internet Explorer cache cleaning

    Smart Cleaning

    • Browser Smart Cleaning now supports Edge Chromium

    Health Check

    • Health Full Version Archives no longer shows a connection error incorrectly (thanks nukecad!)
    • Improved wording around connection errors to Palmer Performance ScanXL Pro 3.x.x crack serial keygen unnecessary confusion
    • Fixed Health Check freezing in some cases when Full Version Archives is launched (thanks APMichael!)

    Localization

    • CCleaner is now translated into Bengali and Urdu
    • Made improvements to various translations
    • Fixed a bug where the Estonian language option was showing Slovenian

    Bug Fixes & Minor Changes

    • Fixed a bug where erroneous data was being added to the .ini file (thanks larryg1516!)


    v5.64.7613 (03 Mar 2020)

    This release includes a brand new feature, plus lots of user-focused improvements and changes. On top of that, we now support Microsoft’s new Edge Chromium browser.

    We really value our users’ feedback, which is why we’ve set up a new Ideas Board. To help shape the future of CCleaner and submit suggestions for what you’d like to see next, head over to ideas.ccleaner.com to take part in the conversation!

    Introducing… ‘Health Check’

    • Health Check brings together CCleaner’s most popular tools in a new user-friendly interface to help users to Full Version Archives maintain their PC
    • In just a few clicks, users of any technical ability can clean, update and disable unnecessary startup apps in one go, to save space and boost speed, privacy and security
    • Health Check replaces Easy Clean, following feedback from users on how it could be enhanced

    Edge Chromium & browser cleaning improvements

    • Added full support for Microsoft’s new Edge Chromium browser
    • Fixed a bug in Google Earth cache cleaning
    • If requested, CCleaner can now disable ‘Preloading’ in old Edge (allows complete cleaning)

    User-friendly improvements to installer offers

    • Offers for Avast and CCleaner products are now presented in a separate step in the installer
    • Offers for Avast and CCleaner products are no longer checked by default

    Farewell to Windows XP & Vista (;_;)

    • Version 5.64.7577 is the final planned build for Windows XP and Vista
    • This version will only receive critical security updates
    • Read our FAQs for further information and assistance

    Other minor improvements

    • Improved country embargo checks to reduce false positives
    • Fixed a UI bug in Scheduling interface
    • Fixed a bug Full Version Archives ‘OK’ button missing from some dialogue messages
    • Removed Google Plus from the ‘About’ screen


    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Android version history

    History of the mobile operating system Android by Google

    The version history of the Androidmobile operating system began with the public release of the Android beta on November 5, 2007, Full Version Archives. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.

    Overview

    See also: Full Version Archives software development

    The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005.[1] There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released.[2][3] The beta was released on November 5, 2007,[4][5] while the software development kit Full Version Archives was released on November 12, 2007.[6] Several public beta versions of the SDK were released.[7] These releases were done through software emulation as physical devices did not exist to test the operating system.

    The first public release of Android 1.0 occurred with the release of the T-Mobile G1 (aka HTC Dream) in October 2008.[8] Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names. The code names "Astro Boy" and "Bender" were tagged internally on some of the early pre-1.0 milestone builds and were never used as the actual code names of the 1.0 and 1.1 releases of the OS.[9]

    The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived using a confectionery-themed naming scheme for public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake. Google announced in August 2019 they were ending the confectionery theming scheme to use numerical ordering for future versions.[10] The first release under the numerical order format was Android 10, which was released September 2019.

    In 2017, Google announced Full Version Archives Google Play would begin to require apps to target a recent Android version.[11] Initially the minimum requirement was Android 8, Full Version Archives, released in the second half of 2017, for which support would be required for new apps by August 2018, and for updates to existing apps by November 2018. This pattern has continued in subsequent years.[12][13] In November 2020, Google announced Full Version Archives apps will need to target Android 10 by August 2021 and any updates to existing apps will need to target Android 10 by November 2021.[14]

    Name Internal codename Version number(s) Initial stable
    release date
    Supported
    (security fixes)
    API level References
    Android 1.0N/A 1.0 September 23, Full Version Archives, 2008 No 1 [9][15]
    Android 1.1Petit Four 1.1 February 9, 2009 No 2 [9][15][16]
    Android CupcakeCupcake 1.5 April 27, 2009 No 3 [15][17]
    Android DonutDonut 1.6 September 15, 2009 No 4 [15][18]
    Android EclairEclair 2.0 October 27, 2009 No 5 [15][19][20]
    2.0.1 December 3, 2009 No 6
    2.1 January 11, Full Version Archives, 2010 No 7 [21]
    Android FroyoFroyo 2.2 – 2.2.3 May 20, Adobe Photoshop Lightroom Classic 2021 v10.0 + Crack Download Archives - Patch Cracks No 8 [15][22]
    Android GingerbreadGingerbread 2.3 – 2.3.2 December 6, 2010 No 9 [15][23]
    2.3.3 – 2.3.7 February 9, 2011 No 10
    Android HoneycombHoneycomb 3.0 February 22, 2011 No 11 [15][24]
    3.1 May 10, 2011 No 12
    3.2 – 3.2.6 July 15, 2011 No 13
    Android Ice Cream SandwichIce Cream Sandwich 4.0 – 4.0.2 October 18, 2011 No 14 [15][25]
    4.0.3 – 4.0.4 December 16, 2011 No 15
    Android Jelly BeanJelly Bean 4.1 – 4.1.2 July 9, 2012 No 16 [15][26]
    4.2 – 4.2.2 November 13, Full Version Archives, Full Version Archives No 17
    4.3 – 4.3.1 July 24, 2013 No 18
    Android KitKatKey Lime Pie 4.4 – 4.4.4 October 31, 2013 No 19 [15][27]
    4.4W – 4.4W.2 June 25, 2014 No 20
    Android LollipopLemon Meringue Pie 5.0 – 5.0.2 November 4, 2014 No 21 [15][28][29]
    5.1 – 5.1.1 March 2, 2015 No 22 [30]
    Android MarshmallowMacadamia Nut Cookie 6.0 – 6.0.1 October 2, 2015 No Full Version Archives [15][31][32]
    Android NougatNew York Cheesecake 7.0 August 22, 2016 Full Version Archives 24 [15][33][34][35][36]
    7.1 – 7.1.2 October 4, 2016 No 25
    Android OreoOatmeal Cookie 8.0 August 21, 2017 No 26 [15][37][38]
    8.1 December 5, 2017 No 27 [15][39]
    Android Pie9 August 6, 2018 Yes 28 [15][40]
    Android 10Quince Tart 10 September 3, 2019 Yes 29 [15][41][42][43]
    Android 11Red Velvet Cake 11 September 8, 2020 Yes 30 [15][44]
    Android 12Snow Cone 12 October 4, 2021 Yes 31 [15][45][46]
    Android 12L Un­known Un­known Q1 2022 Presupported 32 [47]

    Version history

    The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface (API) levels.

    Android 1.0

    Android 1.0 (API 1)
    Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on September 23, 2008.[48] The first commercially available Android device was the HTC Dream.[49] Android 1.0 incorporated the following features:
    Version Release dateFeatures
    1.0 September 23, 2008
    • Android Market, allowing application downloads and updates through the Market application.
    • Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows ("cards").[50][51]
    • Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc.[52]
    • Folders allowing the grouping of a number of application icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen.[53]
    • Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP.[51]
    • Gmail synchronization with the Gmail application.
    • Google Contacts synchronization with the People application.
    • Google Calendar synchronization with Full Version Archives Calendar application.
    • Google Maps with Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local businesses and obtain driving directions using GPS.[52]
    • Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar.
    • Google Search, Full Version Archives, allowing users to search the Internet and phone applications, contacts, calendar, etc.
    • Google Talk instant messaging.
    • Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS.
    • Media Player, enabling management, importing, Full Version Archives, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support.[51][52]
    • Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration alerts.[50][51][54]
    • Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number.[51]
    • Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets.
    • YouTube video player.[55]
    • Other applications include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings.
    • Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support.

    Android 1.1

    Android 1.1 (API 2)
    On February 9, 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, Full Version Archives, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as "Petit Four" internally, though this name was DriverPack Solution 2021 Crack v17.11.44 With Serial Keys [Latest] used officially.[9][56] The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API and added a number of features:[57]
    Version Release dateFeatures
    1.1 February 9, 2009
    • Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps.
    • Longer in-call screen timeout by default when using the speakerphone, Full Version Archives, plus the ability to show/hide the dialpad.
    • Ability to save attachments in messages.
    • Support added for marquee in system layouts.

    Android 1.5 Cupcake

    Android 1.5 Cupcake (API 3)
    On April 27, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27.[58][59] This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item ("Cupcake"), a theme used for all releases until Android Pie, with Android 10 using a number-only system. The update included several new features and UI amendments:[60]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    1.5 April 27, 2009[58]
    • Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and a user dictionary for custom words.
    • Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates.[61]
    • Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats.
    • Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles).
    • Copy and paste features in web browser.
    • User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts.
    • Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from a call log event.
    • Animated screen transitions.
    • Auto-rotation option.
    • New stock boot animation.
    • Ability to upload videos to YouTube.
    • Ability to upload photos to Picasa.
    • Ability to check phone usage history.[62]
    Android Cupcake home screen.jpg
    Android 1.5 home screen

    Android 1.6 Donut

    Android 1.6 Donut (API 4)
    On September 15, 2009, Android 1.6 – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29.[63][64][65] Included in the update were numerous new features:[63]
    Version Full Version Archives dateFeatures Image(s)
    1.6 September 15, 2009[64]
    • Voice and text entry search Full Version Archives to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web.
    • Ability for developers to include their content in search results.
    • Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text.
    • Easier searching and the ability to view app screenshots in Android Market.
    • Gallery, Camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access.
    • Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion.
    • Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine.
    • Support for WVGA screen resolutions.
    • Speed improvements in searching and camera applications.
    • Expanded Gesture framework and a new GestureBuilder development tool.
    Android 1.6 on the Android SDK.png
    Android 1.6 home screen

    Android 2.0 Eclair

    Android 2.0 Eclair (API 5)
    On October 27, 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29 and codenamed Eclair.[66] Changes include the ones listed below.[67]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    2.0 October 27, 2009[20]
    • Expanded Account sync, Full Version Archives users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of an email and contacts.
    • Microsoft Exchange email support, with a combined inbox to browse an email from multiple accounts in one page.
    • Bluetooth 2.1 support.
    • Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, Full Version Archives, SMS, or email the person.
    • Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS Full Version Archives, with the added ability to delete the oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached.
    • Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus.
    • Improved typing speed on a virtual keyboard, Full Version Archives, with a smarter dictionary that learns from word usage and includes contact names as suggestions.
    • Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and support for HTML5.
    • Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and the ability to invite new guests to events.
    • Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI.
    • Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio.
    • Improved Google Maps 3.1.2.
    • MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events.[68]
    • Pressure-sensitive touch support in API, even though no according hardware existed at that time.[69][70]
    • Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movement.

    Android 2.0.1 Eclair

    Android 2.0.1 Eclair (API 6)
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    2.0.1 December 3, 2009[71]
    • Minor API changes, bug fixes and framework behavioral changes.

    Android 2.1 Eclair

    Android 2.2 Froyo

    Android 2.2 Froyo (API 8)
    On May 20, 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Froyo, short for frozen yogurt) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.[73]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    2.2 May 20, 2010
    • Speed, memory, and performance optimizations.[74]
    • Additional application speed improvements, Full Version Archives, implemented through JIT compilation.[75]
    • Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application.
    • Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, enabling push notifications.
    • Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe.[76]
    • Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications.
    • USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality[77]
    • Option to disable Full Version Archives access over a mobile network.
    • Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features.[74]
    • Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries.
    • Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks.
    • Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords.
    • Support for file upload fields in the Browser application.[78]
    • The browser now shows all frames of animated GIFs instead of just the first frame only.
    • Support for installing applications to expandable memory.
    • Adobe Flash support.[79]
    • Support for high-PPI displays (up to 320 ppi), such as four-inch 720p screens.[80]
    • Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture.
    Android 2.2 Froyo home.png
    Android 2.2 home screen
    2.2.1 September 27, 2010[81]
    • Bug fixes, Full Version Archives, security updates and performance improvements.
    2.2.2 January 21, Full Version Archives, 2011[82]
    2.2.3 November 21, 2011[84]

    Android 2.3 Gingerbread

    Android 2.3 Gingerbread (API 9)
    On December 6, 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35.[85][86] Changes included:[85]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    2.3 December 6, Full Version Archives, 2010[86]
    • Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed.
    • Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher).[80]
    • Native support for SIPVoIP internet telephones.
    • Faster, more intuitive text input on a virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode.
    • Enhanced copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press-holding, copying, Full Version Archives, and pasting.
    • Support for Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, Full Version Archives, or advertisement.
    • New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost.
    • New Download Manager, giving users easy access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application.
    • Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available.
    • Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding.
    • Improved power management with a more active role in Full Version Archives applications that are keeping the device awake for too long.
    • Enhanced support for native code development.
    • Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices.[87][88]
    • Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers.
    • Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance.
    • Native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers).
    • First Android version to feature an Easter egg. It was an image of the Bugdroid standing REASON 5 crack serial keygen to a zombie gingerbread man, with many more zombies in the Full Version Archives rowspan="3">Android screenshot.png
      Android 2.3 home screen
    2.3.1 December 22, 2010[89]
    • Improvements and bug fixes for the Nexus S.
    2.3.2 January 21, 2011[90]
    • Improvements and bug fixes for the Nexus S.

    Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread

    Android 3.0 Honeycomb

    Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API 11)
    On February 22, Full Version Archives, 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first tablet-only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36.[103][104][105][106] The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on February 24, 2011.[107] The update's features included:[103]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    3.0 February 22, 2011[105]
    • Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface (removed again the following year with version 4.2).[108]
    • New Easter egg, an image of a Tron-themed Full Version Archives System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and Full Version Archives navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen.
    • Added the Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen.
    • Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Applications in the System Bar allows users to Full Version Archives snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one application to another.
    • Redesigned the keyboard, making Full Version Archives fast, efficient and accurate on larger Full Version Archives sizes
    • Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface.
    • Multiple browser tabs replacing browser Full Version Archives, plus form auto-fill and a new “incognito” mode allowing somewhat anonymous browsing.
    • Quick access Full Version Archives camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, Full Version Archives, front-facing camera, Full Version Archives, time-lapse, and other camera features.
    • Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos.
    • New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts.
    • New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages.
    • Hardware acceleration.
    • Support for multi-core processors.
    • Ability to encrypt all user data.
    • HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication (SNI).
    • Filesystem Full Version Archives Userspace (FUSE; kernel module).
    • Disallows applications from having to write access to secondary storage (memory cards on devices with Full Version Archives primary storage) outside of designated, application-specific directories. Full access to primary internal storage is still allowed Download Free Waves Complete Archives a separate application-level permission.[109][110]
    Android3.0.png
    Android 3.0 home screen

    Android 3.1 Honeycomb

    Android 3.1 Honeycomb (API 12)
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    3.1 May 10, 2011[111]
    • UI refinements.
    • Connectivity for USB accessories (USB On-The-Go).
    • Expanded Recent Applications list.
    • Resizable Home screen widgets.
    • Support for external keyboards and pointing devices.
    • Support for joysticks and gamepads.
    • Support for FLAC audio playback.[112][113]
    • High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when the device screen is off.
    • Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point.

    Android 3.2 Honeycomb

    Android 3.2 Honeycomb (API 13)
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    3.2 July 15, 2011[114]
    • Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets.
    • Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, e.g. for synchronization.
    • Compatibility display mode for applications that have not been optimized for Full Version Archives screen resolutions.
    • New display support functions, giving developers more control over display appearance on different Android devices.[115]
    3.2.1 September 20, 2011
    • Bug fixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements.
    • Update to Android Market with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Conditions text.
    • Update to Google Books.
    • Improved Adobe Flash support in browser.
    • Improved Chinese handwriting prediction.
    3.2.2 September 30, 2011
    • Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G.
    3.2.4 December 15, 2011
    • Pay As You Go for 3G and 4G tablets.
    3.2.6 February 15, 2012
    • Fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of Airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom.

    Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich

    Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich (API 14)
    The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1,[116] was publicly released on October 19, 2011.[117] Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time.[118] The source code for Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011.[119] Ice Cream Sandwich was the last version to officially support Adobe Systems' Flash player.[120] The update introduced numerous new features:[121][122][123]
    Version Release Microsoft Office 2017 Product Key crack serial keygen Image(s)
    4.0 October 18, 2011[121]
    • Major refinements to the "Holo" interface with the new Roboto font family.
    • Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for use on phones.
    • Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar manner to applications.
    • Easier-to-create folders, Full Version Archives, with a drag-and-drop style.
    • Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages.
    • Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the Calendar.
    • Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons).
    • Improved error correction on the keyboard.
    • Ability to access applications directly from the lock screen.
    • Improved copy-and-paste functionality.
    • Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech-to-text dictation.
    • Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software.[108]
    • Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks.
    • Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded.
    • Ability to shut down applications from the recent apps list with a swipe.[124]
    • Improved camera application with zero shutter Full Version Archives, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording.
    • Built-in photo editor.
    • New gallery layout, organized by location and person.
    • Refreshed the "People" application with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images.
    • Android Beam, a near-field communication feature allowing the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data.[108]
    • Support for the WebP image format.[112]
    • Hardware acceleration of the UI.[125]
    • Wi-Fi Direct.[126]
    • 1080p video recording for stock Android devices.
    • Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (but not TAP) kernel module. Prior to 4.0, VPN software required a rooted Android device.
    Android 4.0.png
    Android 4.0 home Full Version Archives
    October 19, 2011
    • Fixed minor bugs for the Samsung Galaxy Nexus.
    4.0.2 November 28, 2011
    • Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, the US launch of which was later delayed until December 2011.[b]

    Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich

    Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich (API 15) Full Version Archives Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    4.0.3 December 16, 2011[129]
    • Numerous bug fixes and optimizations.
    • Improvements to graphics, Full Version Archives, databases, FX PhysEquate v1.0 License Type: Regional Site Licence crack keygen and Bluetooth functionality.
    • New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts Full Version Archives provider enhancements.
    • New camera applications enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution.
    • Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers.[130]
    4.0.4 March 28, Full Version Archives, 2012
    • Stability improvements.
    • Better camera performance.
    • Smoother screen rotation.
    • Improved phone number recognition.[131]

    Android 4.1 Jelly Bean

    Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API 16)
    Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the Google I/O conference on June 27, 2012. Based on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering, extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to create a fluid and "buttery-smooth" UI.[132] Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on July 9, 2012,[133] and the Nexus 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    4.1 July 9, 2012
    • Smoother user interface:
      • Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh.
      • Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline.
      • CPU input boost.
      • Synchronizing Full Version Archives to vsync Full Version Archives accessibility.
      • Bi-directional text and other language support.
      • User-installable keyboard maps.
      • Expandable notifications.
      • TLS v1.1 and v1.2 support added.
      • Ability to turn off notifications on an application-specific basis.
      • Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens.
      • Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam.
      • Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones.[134]
      • Improved camera application.
      • Multichannel audio.[132]
      • The Fraunhofer FDK AAC codec becomes standard in Android, adding AAC 5.1 channel encoding/decoding.
      • USB audio (for external sound DACs).[132]
      • Audio chaining (also known as gapless playback).[132][135][136]
      • Ability for other launchers to add widgets from the application drawer without requiring root access.
    Android 4.1 on the Galaxy Nexus.jpeg
    Android 4.1 home screen
    4.1.1 Full Version Archives 9, 2012[137]
    • Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application.
    4.1.2 October 9, 2012[138]
    • Lock/home screen rotation support.[139]
    • One-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications.[140]
    • Bug fixes and performance enhancements.

    Android 4.2 Jelly Bean

    Android 4.2 Jelly Bean (API 17)
    Windscribe VPN Premium 2.4.0.350 Crack + License Key 2021 Free was expected to announce Jelly Bean 4.2 at an event in New York City on October 29, 2012, but the event was cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy.[141] Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with a press release, under the slogan "A new flavor of Jelly Bean". Jelly Bean 4.2 was based on Linux kernel 3.4.0, and debuted on Google's Nexus 4 and Nexus 10, which were released on November 13, 2012.[142][143]
    Version Release dateFeatures
    4.2 November 13, 2012[144]
    • Lock screen improvements, including widget support (removed again in 2014)[108] and the ability to swipe directly to the camera.[145]
    • Notification power controls ("Quick Settings").
    • "Daydream" screensavers, showing information when idle or docked (later renamed to "screen saver" following the launch of the unrelated Google Daydream VR platform in 2016).[108]
    • Multiple user accounts (tablets only).
    • Rewritten Bluetooth stack, switching from Bluez to Broadcom open source BlueDroid,[146] allowing improved support for multiple displays and wireless display (Miracast).
    • Native right-to-left, always-on VPN and application verification.[147] A new NFC stack was Full Version Archives at the same time.[146]
    • Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users.
    • New clock application with a built-in world clock, Full Version Archives, stop watch and timer.
    • All devices now use the same interface layout, Full Version Archives, previously adapted from phones on 4.1 for smaller tablets (with centered software buttons, the system bar at the top of the screen, and a home screen with a dock and centered application menu), regardless of screen size.
    • Increased KeyGenSumo.com | O Catalog of extended notifications and Actionable Notifications for more applications, allowing users to respond to certain notifications within the notification bar and without launching the application directly.
    • SELinux support.
    • Premium SMS confirmation.[148]
    • Group Messaging support.
    4.2.1 November 27, 2012[149][150]
    • Fixed a bug in the People application where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact.[151]
    • Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported HIDs (Human interface Full Version Archives
    February 11, 2013[152]
    • Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs.[153]
    • Long-pressing the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth icons in Quick Settings now toggles the on/off state.
    • New download notifications, Full Version Archives, which now show the percentage and estimated time remaining for active application downloads.
    • New sounds for wireless charging and low battery.
    • New Gallery application animation allows faster loading.
    • USB debug whitelist.
    • Bug fixes and performance enhancements.

    Android 4.3 Jelly Bean

    Android 4.3 Jelly Bean (API 18)
    Google released Jelly Bean 4.3 under the slogan "An even sweeter Jelly Bean" on July 24, 2013, during an event in San Francisco called "Breakfast with Sundar Pichai". Most Nexus devices received the update within a week, although the second-generation Nexus 7 tablet was the first device to officially ship with it.[154] A minor bug fix update was released on August 22, 2013.[155]
    Version Release dateFeatures
    4.3 July 24, 2013[156]
    4.3.1 October 3, Full Version Archives, 2013[165]

    Android 4.4 KitKat

    Android 4.4 KitKat (API 19)
    Google announced Android 4.4 KitKat on September 3, 2013. Although initially under the "Key Lime Pie" ("KLP") codename, the name was changed because "very few people actually know the taste of a key lime pie."[167] Some technology bloggers also expected the "Key Lime Pie" release to be Android 5.[168] KitKat debuted on Google's Nexus 5 on October 31, Full Version Archives, 2013, and was optimized to run on a greater range of devices than earlier Android versions, having 512 MB of RAM as Full Version Archives recommended minimum; those improvements were known as "Project Svelte" internally at Google.[169] The required minimum amount of RAM available to Android is 340 MB, and all devices with less than 512 MB of RAM must report themselves as "low RAM" devices.[170]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    4.4 October 31, 2013[171][172]
    • Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue.
    • Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin. The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers.
    • Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars.[173]
    • Ability for applications to use "immersive mode" to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction.[174]
    • Action overflow menu buttons are always visible, Full Version Archives, even on devices with a "Menu" key, which was officially deprecated by Android 4.0.[175]
    • Write access disabled for user-installed applications Full Version Archives external storage (i.e. MicroSD), except for their own directories inside .[176][177]
    • Purging of app data directories in user storage (internal user storage and MicroSD) upon uninstallation[177]
    • Optimizations for performance on devices with lower specifications, including zRAM support and "low RAM" device API.[169]
    • Wireless printing capability.[169]
    • NFC host card emulation, enabling a device to replace smart cards.[169]
    • WebViews are now based on the Chromium engine (feature parity with Chrome for Android 30).
    • Expanded functionality for notification listener services.[169]
    • Public API for developing and managing text messaging clients.[178]
    • Storage Access Framework, an API allowing apps to retrieve files in a consistent manner. As part of the framework, a new system file picker allows users to access files from various sources (including those exposed by apps, such as online storage services).[109]
    • New framework for UI transitions.
    • Sensor batching, step detector and counter APIs.[169]
    • Settings application now makes it possible to select default text messaging and the home (launcher) application.
    • Audio tunneling, audio monitoring and loudness enhancer.[179]
    • Built-in screen recording feature (primarily for developers, as usage of ADB is required).[180]
    • Native infrared blaster API.
    • Verified boot.
    • Enforcing SELinux.
    • Expanded accessibility APIs and system-level closed captioning settings.
    • Android Runtime (ART) introduced as a new experimental application runtime environment, not enabled by default, as a replacement for the Dalvik virtual machine.[181]
    • Bluetooth Message Access Profile (MAP) support.[182]
    • Disabled access to battery statistics by third-party applications.[183]
    • Settings application no longer uses a multi-pane layout on devices with larger screens.
    • Wi-Fi and mobile data activity (TX/RX) indicators are moved to quick settings.[184]
    • Disables text wrapping in the WebView browser component.[185]
    Nexus 5 (Android 4.4.2) Screenshot.jpg
    Android 4.4 home screen
    4.4.1 December 5, 2013[186][187]
    • Better application compatibility for the experimental Android Runtime (ART).
    • Camera application now loads Google+ Photos instead of Gallery when swiping away from the camera view.
    • Miscellaneous improvements and bug fixes.
    4.4.2 December 9, 2013[188]
    • Further security enhancements and bug fixes.
    • Removal of the "App Ops" application permissions control system, introduced in Android 4.3.[189]
    4.4.3 June 2, 2014[190][191]
    • Refreshed the Dialer app's interface.[192]
    • Updated the Chromium-based WebView to version 33 (screencasting to DevTools, HTML5 Canvas hardware acceleration performance improvements, vibration API, HTML5 form validation, and an HTML5 datalist).[193]
    • Miscellaneous improvements and bug fixes.
    4.4.4 June 19, 2014[194]

    Android 4.4W KitKat, with wearable extensions

    Android 5.0 Lollipop

    Android 5.0 Lollipop (API 21)
    Android 5.0 "Lollipop" was unveiled under the codename "Android L" on June 25, 2014, during Google I/O. It became available as an official over-the-air (OTA) update on November 12, 2014, Full Version Archives, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google, including Nexus and Google Play edition devices. Its source code was made available on November Full Version Archives, 2014.[200][201]

    Lollipop features a redesigned user interface built around a responsive design language referred to as "material design". Other changes include improvements to the notifications, which can be accessed from the lockscreen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners. Furthermore, Google made internal changes to the platform, with the Android Runtime (ART) officially replacing Dalvik for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage, known internally as Project Volta.[202][203][204][205]

    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    5.0[206]November 4, 2014[28]
    • Android Runtime (ART) with ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation and improved garbage collection (GC), replacing Dalvik that combines bytecode interpretation with trace-based just-in-time (JIT) compilation.[206][207]
    • Support for 64-bit CPUs.
    • OpenGL ES 3.1 and Android Extension Pack (AEP) on supported GPU configurations.
    • Recent activities screen with tasks instead of applications, up to a configured maximum of tasks per application.
    • Vector drawables, which scale without losing definition.
    • Support for print previews.
    • Material design, bringing a restyled user interface and “ripple effect” for buttons.
    • Refreshed lock screen, no longer supporting widgets.[208]
    • Refreshed notification tray and quick settings pull-down.
    • Project Volta, for battery life improvements.
    • Searches can be performed within the system settings for quicker access to particular settings.
    • Lock screen provides shortcuts to application and notification settings.[209]
    • Guest logins and multiple user accounts are available on more devices, such as phones.[210]
    • Audio input and output through USB devices.
    • Third-party applications regain the ability to read and modify data Full Version Archives anywhere on external storage, such as on SD cards. However, those must be adapted to the storage access framework of Android API level 21 or higher.[211][212]
    • Pinning of an application's screen for restricted user activity.[209]
    • Recently used applications are remembered even after restarting the device.[209]
    • WebViews receive updates independently through Google Play for security reasons, instead of relying on system-wide vendor updates.[213]
    • Addition of 15 new languages: Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Full Version Archives, Chinese (Hong Kong), Galician, Icelandic, Full Version Archives, Kannada, Kyrgyz, Full Version Archives, Macedonian, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Sinhala, Tamil and Telugu.[214]
    • Tap and Go allows users to quickly migrate to a new Android device, using NFC and Bluetooth to transfer Google Account details, configuration settings, user data and installed applications.[209]
    • A flashlight-style application is included, working on supported devices with a camera flash.[209]
    • User-customizable priorities for application notifications.[215]
    • Smart lock feature.[216]
    • SELinux in enforcing mode for all domains.
    • Updated emoji.[217]
    • Improved accessibility support (e.g. switch access support).[218]
    • Block-based over-the-air (OTA) updates for new devices.[219]
    • Task listing access disabled for third-party applications.[220]
    Android 5.0-en.png
    Android 5.0 home screen
    5.0.1 December 2, 2014[221]
    • A few bug fixes, including resolving issues with video playback and password failures handling.
    5.0.2 December 19, 2014[222]
    • Fixes a bug with TRIM support (introduced in Version 4.3), which prevented devices from Full Version Archives on-charger cleanups of file system allocations if the device was turned off at midnight, or if it was charged Full Version Archives when in use.[223]
    • Changes how alarms wake the CPU, and how alarms compete for system resources.[224]

    Android 5.1 Lollipop

    Android 6.0 Marshmallow

    Android 6.0 Marshmallow (API 23)
    Android 6.0 "Marshmallow" was unveiled under the codename "Android M" during Google I/O on May 28, 2015, for the Nexus 5 and Nexus 6 phones, Nexus 9 Full Version Archives, and Nexus Player set-top box, under the build number MPZ44Q.[230] The third developer preview (MPA44G) Full Version Archives released on August 17, 2015 for the Nexus 5, Nexus 6, Nexus 9 and Nexus Player devices,[231] and was updated to MPA44I that brought fixes related to Android for Work profiles.[232]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    6.0 October 2, 2015[31][233]
    • Precluded rudimentary file manager (package name: ), accessible from storage settings.[234]
    • Memory card mounted to rather thanFull Version Archives, with a hexadecimal volume serial number in place of the wildcard the question marks.[235]
    • Contextual search from keywords within apps.[236]
    • Introduction of Doze mode, which reduces CPU speed while the screen is off in order to save battery life.[237]
    • App Standby feature.
    • Alphabetically accessible vertical application drawer.[238]
    • Application search bar and favorites.
    • Native fingerprint reader support.
    • Direct Share feature for target-specific sharing between apps.[239]
    • Renamed "Priority" mode to "Do Not Disturb" mode.
    • App Linking for faster instinctive opening of links with corresponding applications.[240][241]
    • Larger Application folders with multiple pages.
    • Post-install/run-time permission requests.
    • USB-C support.
    • Demo Mode feature for screenshot-capture usage.[242]
    • Automatic full data backup and restore for apps.[243]
    • 4K display mode for Windows 7 Ultimate 32-Bit crack serial keygen External storage to behave like Internal Storage.[245][246]
    • MIDI support for musical instruments.[247]
    • Experimental multi-window feature.[248][249]
    • Support for actions by third-party apps in the text selection menu.[108]
    • App permissions now granted individually at run-time, not all-or-nothing at install time. Similar to App Ops.[250]
    • Miracast support dropped.[108]
    • Many new essential commands supported by Android's Linux shell(/bin/sh).
    • No screen rotation during touch.
    Android 6.0-en.png
    Android 6.0 home screen
    6.0.1 December 7, 2015[251]

    Android 7.0 Nougat

    Android 7.0 Nougat (API 24)
    Android "Nougat" (codenamed N in-development) is the seventh major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview on March Full Version Archives, 2016, Full Version Archives, with factory images for supported Nexus devices, as well as with the new Full Version Archives Beta Program" which allows supported devices to be upgraded directly to the Android Nougat beta via an over-the-air update. The final release was on August 22, Full Version Archives, 2016. The final preview build was released on July 18, 2016,[253] with the build number NPD90G.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    7.0 August 22, 2016[254]
    • Support for file-based encryption.[255]
    • Unicode 9.0emoji and skin tone modifier support (and exposes a subset of ICU4J APIs).[256]
    • Ability to display color calibration.
    • Ability to zoom in the screen.
    • Ability to switch to the last opened app by double-tapping the overview button.
    • Added an Emergency information part.
    • Added the "Clear All" button to the Overview screen.
    • Another system partition, which gets updated when not in use, allowing for seamless system updates.
    • Daydream virtual reality platform (VR interface).
    • Improved Doze functionality, Full Version Archives, which aims to prolong battery life.
    • Improvements to the file browser.
    • Ability to move files added to Storage Access Framework[257]
    • More Quick Settings options.
    • Multi-window support, which supports floating apps on a desktop layout.
    • New Data Saver mode, which can force apps to reduce bandwidth usage.
    • New JIT Compiler, making for 75 percent faster app installations and a 50 percent reduction in compiled code size.
    • Just in Time (JIT) compiler with code profiling to ART, which lets it constantly improve the performance of Android apps as they run.[258]
    • Picture-in-picture support for Full Version Archives TV.
    • Redesigned notification shade, featuring instant access to certain settings.
    • Redesigned Overview screen.
    • Replaced notification cards with notification sheets.
    • Settings app navigation drawer.
    • Vulkan 3D rendering API.
    • Multiple Device Locales[259]
    • Discontinuation of Android Camera V1 API[260]
    • Restricted file system access[261]
    Android 7.0-en.png
    Android 7.0 home screen

    Android 7.1 Nougat

    Android 7.1 Nougat (API 25)
    On October 19, 2016, Google released Android 7.1.1 as a developer preview for the Nexus Full Version Archives, Nexus 6P and the Pixel C. A second preview became available on November 22, 2016, before the final version was released to the public on December 5, 2016.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    7.1 October 4, 2016[262]
    • Rearranged notification shade.
    • "Restart" option added to power button menu[263]
    • Touch/display performance improvements.
    • Moves (Fingerprint swipe down gesture – opt-in).
    • Opt-in with new hardware required:
      • Seamless A/B system updates.
      • Daydream VR mode.
    • Developer features:
      • Shortcut manager APIs.
      • Circular app icons Full Version Archives image insertion.
      • Fingerprint sensor gesture Full Version Archives open/close notification shade.
      • Manual storage manager Intent for apps.
      • Improved VR thread scheduling.
      • Enhanced wallpaper metadata.
      • Multi-endpoint call support.
      • Support for various MNO requirements.
        • PCDMA voice privacy property.
        • Source type support for Visual Voicemail.
        • Carrier config options for managing telephone videos.
    • Manual storage manager – identifies files and apps using storage.
    Android Nougat screenshot 20170116-070000.png
    Android 7.1 home screen
    7.1.1[264]December 1, 2016[265]
    • New set of emojis adding different skin tones and haircuts to existing ones.
    • Send GIFs directly from the default keyboard.
    • App shortcuts: Launch actions on apps by long-pressing the app icon.
    • Developer Options: Show CPU Usage feature removed.
    7.1.2[266][267]April 2, 2017[268]

    Android 8.0 Oreo

    Android 8.0 Oreo (API 26)
    Android Oreo is the eighth major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview, codenamed Android O, on March 21, 2017, Full Version Archives, with factory images for supported Nexus and Pixel devices. The final developer preview was released on July 24, Full Version Archives, 2017, with the stable version released in August 2017.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    8.0[269]August 21, 2017
    • Project Treble, the biggest change to the foundations of Android to date: a modular architecture Full Version Archives makes it easier and faster for hardware makers to deliver Android updates.
    • Picture-in-picture support.
    • Support for Unicode 10.0 emoji (5.0) and replacement of all blob-shaped emojis by round ones with gradients and outlines.
    • Redesigned Quick Settings and Settings with a white background and respectively black and Accent font colors.
    • Restructured Settings by regrouping sections into similar entries.
    • Adaptive icons
    • Notification improvements.
      • Notification channels.
      • Notification dots (badges).
      • Notification snoozing.
      • Notification shade multi-colors (for music album art, messengers, etc.).
    • System-wide Autofill framework.
    • Support for AAC, Sony's LDAC and Qualcomm's aptX and aptX HD codecs.[270]
    • App-specific unknown sources.
    • Multi-display support.
    • 2 times faster boot time compared to Nougat according to Google, testing on their Pixel devices.[269]
    • Apps background execution and location limits.
    • Google Play Protect.
    • Downloadable fonts.
    • Integrated printing support.
    • Color management (deep Full Version Archives and wide color gamut).
    • Wi-Fi Assistant.
    Android 8.0 Oreo Pixel.png
    Android 8.0 home screen

    Android 8.1.0 Oreo

    Android 8.1.0 Oreo (API 27)
    Android 8.1 Oreo is the sixteenth minor release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview on October 25, 2017, with factory images for current Nexus and Pixel devices. A second developer preview was made available on November 27, 2017, for Nexus and Pixel devices, before the stable version was released on December 5, 2017.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    8.1.0[271][272]December 5, 2017[273][274]
    • Neural networks Full Version Archives memory API.
    • WallpaperColors API.
    • Bluetooth battery level for connected devices, accessible in Quick Settings.
    • Android Oreo Go Edition, a lightweight distribution of Android that runs better than normal Android on devices with Resharper Ultimate 2019.3.1 torrent Archives than 1 GB of RAM.[275]
    • Autofill framework updates.
    • Programmatic Safe Browsing actions.
    • Navigation buttons dim when not in use.
    • Visual changes to 'Power Off' and 'Restart', including a new screen and floating toolbar.
    • Toast messages are now white with the same existing transparency.
    • Automatic light and dark themes.
    • New Easter egg in the form of an official Oreo cookie Full Version Archives rowspan="1">Android Oreo 8.1 screenshot.png
      Android 8.1 home screen

    Android 9 Pie

    Android 9 Pie (API 28)
    Android Pie is the ninth Full Version Archives version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on March 7, 2018, and the first developer preview was released on the same day. The second preview, considered beta quality, was released on May 8, 2018. The final beta of Android Pie (fifth preview, also considered as a "Release Candidate") was released on July 25, 2018. The first official release was released on August 6, 2018.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    9 August 6, 2018
    • New user interface for the quick settings menu.[277]
    • The clock has Full Version Archives to the left of the notification bar.[278]
    • The "dock" now has a semi-transparent background.[278]
    • Battery Saver no longer shows an orange overlay on the notification and status bars.[277]
    • A "screenshot" button has been added to the power options.[278]
    • A new "Lockdown" mode which disables biometric authentication once activated.
    • Rounded corners across the UI.
    • New transitions for switching between apps, or activities within apps.
    • Richer messaging notifications, where a full conversation can be seen within a notification, full-scale images, and smart replies akin to Google's new app, Reply.
    • Support for display cutouts.
    • Redesigned volume slider.
    • Battery percentage now shown in Always-On Display.
    • Lock screen security changes include the possible return of an improved NFC Unlock.
    • Experimental features (which are currently hidden within a menu called Feature Flags) such as a redesigned About Phone page in settings, and automatic Bluetooth enabling while driving.
    • DNS over TLS.[279]
    • A new optional gesture-based system interface, allowing users to navigate the OS using swipes more often than the traditional UI.
    • Redesigned multitask app switcher with the Google search bar and app drawer built-in.
    • Android Dashboard, which tells the user how much time they are spending on their device and in apps, and allows the user to set time limits on apps.
    • "Shush", an enhanced version of Do Not Disturb mode activated by placing the phone face down, Full Version Archives, which mutes standard notifications.
    • "Adaptive Battery" prediction, which makes use of Doze to hibernate user apps the OS Kanto Syncro Karaoke crack serial keygen Full Version Archives user will not use.
    • Auto-Brightness feature modifies screen brightness based on user habits.
    • Wind Down option lets Android users set a specific Full Version Archives that enables Do Not Disturb and turns the entire phone's interface gray to discourage Full Version Archives use at night.
    • Vulkan 1.1 support.
    • Call recording options fully disabled[280]
    Android Pie.png
    Android 9 home screen

    Android 10

    Android 10 (API 29)
    Android 10 is the tenth major version of the Android operating system. The stable version of Android 10 was released on September 3, Full Version Archives, 2019.
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    10 September 3, 2019
    • Revamped full-screen gesture navigation with new app open/close animations.[281][282][283]
    • Scoped storage restrictions[284]
    • New permissions required to access location in background and to access photo, video and audio files.[285]
    • Background apps can no longer jump into the foreground.[285]
    • Limited access to non-resettable device identifiers.[285]
    • Background (idle) access to camera, microphone and sensors disabled for more privacy protection with the side effect of disabling antitheft software.[286][287][288]
    • Sharing shortcuts, Full Version Archives, which allow sharing content with a contact directly.[285]
    • Floating settings panel, that allows changing system settings directly from apps.[285]
    • Dynamic depth format for photos, which allow changing background blur after taking a photo.[285]
    • Support for the AV1 video codec, the HDR10+ video format and the Opus audio codec.[285]
    • Support for aptX Adaptive, LHDC, LLAC, CELT and AAC LATM codecs[289][290]
    • A native MIDI API, allowing interaction with music controllers.[285]
    • Better support for biometric authentication in apps.[285]
    • Support for the WPA3 Wi-Fi security protocol.[285]
    • Support for foldable phones.[285]
    • Support for Notification Bubbles.[291][292]
    • New system-wide dark theme/mode[293][294]
    • TLS v1.3 support added.
    • Project Mainline, allows core OS components to be updated via the Google Play Store, without requiring a complete system update[295]
    Android 10 screenshot.png
    Android 10 home screen

    Android 11

    Android 11 (API 30)
    Android 11 is the eleventh major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on February 19, 2020, and the first developer preview released on the Full Version Archives day.[296][297]

    Android 11 Beta was postponed from being launched on June 3, 2020 to June 10, 2020.[298]

    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    11 September 8, 2020
    • Chat bubbles.
    • Screen recorder.
    • Notification history.
    • New permissions controls.
    • API distinction between standalone 5G NR and non-standalone 5G.
    • One-time permission[299]
    • Permissions auto-reset.[299]
    • Wireless Android Auto on devices with 5GHz Wi-Fi.[300]
    • Increased number of updatable core OS components in Google Play from 12 to 21.[299][301]
    • Enterprise work profile privacy protections now apply on company-owned devices.[302]
    • Independent left and right edge sensitivity for gesture navigation.[303]
    Pixel 4a Android 11 Launcher.png
    Android 11 home screen

    Android 12

    Android 12 (API 31)
    Android 12 is the twelfth major version of the Android operating system. It Full Version Archives first announced by Google on February 18, 2021, Full Version Archives, and the first developer preview released on the same day.[304][305]
    Version Release dateFeatures Image(s)
    12 October 4, Full Version Archives, 2021 Android 12 homescreen 2.png
    Android 12 home screen with themed icons and widgets

    Hardware requirements

    See also: Android (operating system) § Hardware

    The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture (ARMv7 and ARMv8-A architectures; formerly also ARMv5), Full Version Archives x86[c] and MIPS[d] architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android, but MIPS support has since been deprecated and support was removed in NDK r17.[319]

    Android 1.0 through 1.5 required a 2 megapixel camera with autofocus camera. This was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera with Android 1.6.[320]

    In 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones[321] and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64.[322][323] Since Android 5.0 Lollipop, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants.

    Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 7.1 depend on screen size and density and type of CPU, ranging from 816 MB–1.8 GB for 64-bit and 512 MB–1.3 GB for 32-bit meaning in practice 1 GB for the most common type of display (while minimum for Android watch is 416 MB).[324][e] The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM,[325] while for "low RAM" devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor.[170] Android 4.4 requires a 32-bitARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor,[326] together with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit AnyTrans for iOS 8.8.2.202010610 Crack Full Version Download Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, Full Version Archives, 3.2 and since Android 7.0 Vulkan (and version 1.1 available for some devices[328]). Some applications may explicitly require Full Version Archives certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications.[327] In 2021, Android was ported to RISC-V.[329] In 2021, Qualcomm said it will support more updates.[330]

    See Full Version Archives notes

    1. ^The 2.3.6 update had the side-effect of impairing the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality of many Canadian Nexus S phones. Google acknowledged this problem and fixed it in late September.[101][102]
    2. ^For Canadian consumers, 4.0.2 reportedly created a bug on the Galaxy Nexus that crashed the application market when users attempted to view details of any Android application. It also inadvertently reduced the NFC capabilities of the Nexus phone.[127][128]
    3. ^Lowest supported x86 generation is the P6 microarchitecture, also called i686.[317]
    4. ^Supported is revision 1 of MIPS32[318] and revision 6 for 64-bit MIPS64[317]
    5. ^Disk-based memory (hard drives), solid state disk devices such as USB drives, DVD-based storage, bit rates, bus speeds, and network speeds, are specified using decimal meanings for K (10001), M (10002), G (10003), etc.

    References

    1. ^Elgin, Ben (August 17, 2005). "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved February 20, Full Version Archives, 2012.
    2. ^"Dianne Hackborn". Google+. September 1, 2012. Archived from the original on June 12, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
    3. ^"Dan Morrill". Google+. January 2, 2013. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
    4. ^"Google Launches Android, an Open Mobile Platform". Google Operating System. November 5, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011.
    5. ^"Live Google's gPhone Open handset alliance conference call"(transcript). Gizmodo. November 5, 2007. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
    6. ^"Google releases Android SDK". MacWorld. November 12, 2007. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
    7. ^"SDK Archives". Android Developers. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
    8. ^"The history of Android: Android 1.0—introducing Google Apps and actual hardware". Ars Technica. June 16, 2014, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
    9. ^ abcd"A History of Pre-Cupcake Android Codenames". Android Police. September 17, Full Version Archives, 2012. Archived from the original Full Version Archives August 25, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
    10. ^"A pop of color and more: updates to Android's brand". Google. August 22, 2019.
    11. ^Cunningham, Full Version Archives, Edward (December 19, 2017). "Improving app security and performance on Google Play for years to come". Android Developers Blog. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
    12. ^"Upload an app". Play Console Help. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
    13. ^Cunningham, Edward (February 21, 2019). "Expanding target API level requirements in 2019". Android Developers Blog. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
    14. ^Lam, Hoi (November 19, 2020). "New Android App Bundle and target API level requirements in 2021". Android Developers Blog. Google. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
    15. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrst"Codenames, Tags, and Build Numbers". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
    16. ^"Android 1.1 Version Notes". Android Developers. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
    17. ^"What is Android". Android. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
    18. ^"Android – History". Android. Archived from the original on May 14, 2017.
    19. ^"Android – History", Full Version Archives. Android. Archived from the original on May 14, 2017.
    20. ^ ab
    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Internet Archive

    For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

    For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

    "archive.org" redirects here, Full Version Archives. It is not to be confused with arXiv.org.

    American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since 1996

    Coordinates: 37°46′56″N122°28′18″W / 37.782321°N 122.47161137°W / 37.782321; -122.47161137

    The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of Full Version Archives materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of November 2021, the Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, 7.3 million movies, videos and TV shows, 785,000 software programs, 13,901,000 audio files, 4 million images, and 627 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

    The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

    History[edit]

    Full Version Archives width="220" height="165">
    Headquarters in Building 116 of the Presidio of San Francisco in 2008

    Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May 1996 around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.[4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public in 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine.

    In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, Full Version Archives, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract Full Version Archives service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

    According to its website:[notes 8]

    Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, Full Version Archives, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

    In August 2012, the Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.[12]

    An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in November 2014, and the legacy layout was removed in March 2016.[13][14]

    In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as Registeration Key Archives

    On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm Full Version Archives that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

    Beginning in 2017, Full Version Archives, OCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

    Since 2018, the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

    In 2019, Full Version Archives, its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

    The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78 rpm discs from Boston Public Library in 2017,[22] a donation of 250,000 books from Trent University in 2018,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in 2020 after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital Full Version Archives (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

    Operations[edit]

    Ambox current red Americas.svg

    This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May 2020)

    The Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also manages periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December Full Version Archives campaign had a goal of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

    The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From 1996 to 2009, its headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since 2009, its headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church, Full Version Archives. At one time, Full Version Archives, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of 2019, scanning is performed by 100 paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[28]

    The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007.[notes 13][30]

    Web archiving[edit]

    Main article: Web archiving

    Wayback Machine[edit]

    Main article: Wayback Machine

    Wayback Machine logo, used since 2001

    The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet (owned by Amazon.com) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived Full Version Archives content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, Full Version Archives, source code, Full Version Archives, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original Defraggler Professional Crack Archives code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites, Full Version Archives. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[32]

    A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
    Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Francisco

    A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL Full Version Archives entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address web.archive.org,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF Full Version Archives data compression file formats, Full Version Archives. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the http://archive.org official website.

    May 12, 1996, is the date of the oldest archived pages on the archive.org WayBack Machine, such as infoseek.com.[35]

    In October 2016, it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

    In September 2020, the Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

    Archive-It[edit]

    Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

    Created in early 2006, Archive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

    In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

    As of March 2014[update], Archive-It had more than 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than 7.4 billion URLs for more than 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, Full Version Archives, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

    Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

    In September 2020 Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

    General Index[edit]

    In 2021, the Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of 107 million academic journal articles.[45][46]

    Book collections[edit]

    Text collection[edit]

    The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of more Full Version Archives 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July 2013[update], the collection included 4.4 million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November 2008[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, Full Version Archives, the entire collection was greater than 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about 2006 and 2008, Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than 300,000 books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

    An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

    Around Full Version Archives 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November 2013[update], there were more than 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted Full Version Archives and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, Full Version Archives, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall, Full Version Archives. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by 2013.[51]

    The Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[52][53]

    Number of texts for each language[edit]

    Number of all texts
    (December 9, 2019)
    22,197,912[54]
    Language Number of texts
    (November 27, 2015)
    English6,553,945[notes 32]
    French358,721[notes 33]
    German344,810[notes 34]
    Spanish134,170[notes 35]
    Chinese84,147[notes 36]
    Arabic66,786[notes 37]
    Dutch30,237[notes 38]
    Portuguese25,938[notes 39]
    Russian22,731[notes 40]
    Urdu14,978[notes 41]
    Japanese14,795[notes 42]

    Number Full Version Archives texts for each decade[edit]

    Decade Number of texts
    (July 5, 2021)
    1800s 82,587[notes 43]
    1810s 100,048[notes 44]
    1820s 151,669[notes 45]
    1830s 203,287[notes 46]
    1840s 239,343[notes 47]
    1850s 307,302[notes 48]
    1860s 322,843[notes 49]
    1870s 336,637[notes 50]
    1880s 445,046[notes 51]
    1890s 570,017[notes 52]
    Decade Number of texts
    (July 5, 2021)
    1900s 767,201[notes 53]
    1910s 744,445[notes 54]
    1920s 473,331[notes 55]
    1930s 342,779[notes 56]
    1940s 400,490[notes 57]
    1950s 560,730[notes 58]
    1960s 711,449[notes 59]
    1970s 2,540,807[notes 60]
    1980s 1,124,927[notes 61]
    1990s 1,379,398[notes 62]

    Open Library[edit]

    Main article: Open Library

    The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully readable, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for over 647,784 books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration Full Version Archives the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

    The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June 2020 to stop the Open Library project.[61]

    [edit]

    Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, Full Version Archives, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, and many others.[63]

    In 2017, the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Full Version Archives to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, Full Version Archives, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

    The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Full Version Archives and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of DU Meter Crack 7.30 Build 4769 Patch License Key [2021] collections[edit]

    Microfilms at the Internet Archive

    In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, Full Version Archives, etc.), and into sub-collections Full Version Archives various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

    Audio[edit]

    Audio Archive[edit]

    The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, Full Version Archives, old time radio shows, and a wide Full Version Archives of other audio files. There are more than 200,000 free digital recordings in the Full Version Archives. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B, Full Version Archives. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

    Next to the stock HTML5 audio player, Winamp-resembling Webamp is available.

    Live Music Archive[edit]

    Main article: Live Music Archive

    The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than 170,000 concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976 to 2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.[72]

    The Great 78 Project[edit]

    Main article: The Great 78 Project

    The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) Full Version Archives the period between 1880 and 1960, donated Full Version Archives various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

    Netlabels[edit]

    Not to be confused with Netlabel.

    The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

    Images collection[edit]

    This collection contains more than 3.5 million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall Full Version Archives Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

    Cover Art Archive[edit]

    Logo of Cover Art Archive

    The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April 2021,[update] this collection contains more than 1,400,000 items.[notes 68]

    Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

    The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than 140,000 items.[notes 69]

    NASA Images[edit]

    The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, Full Version Archives, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012.

    Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

    This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains VueScan Pro 9.7.66 Crack With Keygen 2022 Free Download than 15,000 items.[notes 70]

    USGS Maps[edit]

    This collection contains more than 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

    Mathematical images[edit]

    This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

    Machinima Archive[edit]

    One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Full Version Archives Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and Machinima.com.[notes 73]

    Microfilm collection[edit]

    This collection contains approximately 160,000 microfilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Online Shopper v1.45 crack serial keygen, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes Full Version Archives 75]

    Moving image collection[edit]

    See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

    The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

    Subcategories of this collection include:

    • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
    • IA's Election 2004 collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States presidential election.
    • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS-1832 between the National Technical Information Service and Public.Resource.Org that features "the best Full Version Archives of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Full Version Archives and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
    • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
    • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

    Open Educational Resources[edit]

    Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at archive.org. This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, Full Version Archives, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 79]

    TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

    TV tuners at the Internet Archive

    In September 2012, the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[76] According to Kahle, the Full Version Archives was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access Full Version Archives its streaming video clips. In 2013, the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40,000 well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

    Miscellaneous collections[edit]

    Brooklyn Museum[edit]

    This collection contains approximately 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

    Michelson library[edit]

    In December 2020, the film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

    Other services and endeavors[edit]

    Physical media[edit]

    A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

    Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply Full Version Archives thrown away, and inspired by the Full Version Archives Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", Full Version Archives, he said, Full Version Archives. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.[80]

    Software[edit]

    The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, Full Version Archives, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Full Version Archives to permit them to bypass copy protection, Full Version Archives was approved in 2003 for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[81] The exemption was renewed in 2006, and in 2009 was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in Jogos de Tempo Real com Pausa de Graça para Baixar In 2013, the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600 game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23, 2014, the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In November 2020, the Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, 2020 end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

    Table Top Scribe System[edit]

    A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

    Credit Union[edit]

    From 2012 to November 2015, Full Version Archives, the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of 395 members and was worth $2.5 million.[92][93]

    Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

    See also: Wayback Machine § In legal evidence

    The main hall of the current headquarters

    Grateful Dead[edit]

    In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, Full Version Archives, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal web site:

    It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those Full Version Archives want it.[95]

    A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle Full Version Archives what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only, Full Version Archives. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

    National security letters[edit]

    On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

    On November 28, 2016, it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

    Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

    The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act Full Version Archives the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

    Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

    The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[100]

    Nintendo Power Full Version Archives February 2016, Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from 1988 to 2012, Full Version Archives. The first 140 issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, 2016. In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content, Full Version Archives. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[101]

    Government of India[edit]

    In August 2017, the Department of Telecommunications of Full Version Archives Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, Full Version Archives, in accordance with two court orders issued by Full Version Archives Madras High Court,[102] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[103] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[102]

    Turkey[edit]

    See also: Censorship in Full Version Archives October 9, 2016, the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[104][105]

    National Emergency Library[edit]

    In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, 2020 that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions Full Version Archives had in place for 1.4 million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for Full Version Archives physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after Full Version Archives lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, 2020 or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[106] At launch, Full Version Archives, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[107][108][109]

    The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[110] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[107][111]

    However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID-19 pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library § Copyright violation accusations).[112][113][114][115] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[116]

    Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

    The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in June 2020, challenging the copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][117] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16, 2020, Full Version Archives, rather than the planned June 30, Full Version Archives, 2020, due to the lawsuit.[118][119] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[120] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Full Version Archives, chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, Full Version Archives, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that Full Version Archives was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[121] In August 2020 the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November 2021.[122]

    As part of its response to the publishers' lawsuit, in late 2020 the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[123]

    In December 2020, Publishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of 2020".[124]

    In a 2021 preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, Full Version Archives separate questions related to the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal practice of digital lending, and second, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role to enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[125]

    Wayforward Machine[edit]

    Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

    In September 30, 2021. as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information. The site was intended Full Version Archives depict a potential timeline of events leading to such a future, such as the repeal of Section 230 of the United States Code.[126][127] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

    Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

    Ceramicfigures of Internet Archive employees

    The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[128]

    [edit]

    The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[129] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[130]

    2019 Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

    2018 Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

    2017 Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

    See also[edit]

    Similar projects[edit]

    Other[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, 2000, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on April 8, 2000. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
    2. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
    3. ^"Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge", Full Version Archives. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on Full Version Archives 10, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
    4. ^"Internet Archive: Projects". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
    5. ^"Brewster Kahle. In Scientific American". Internet Archive. Full Version Archives 4, 1997. Archived from the original on October 11, Full Version Archives. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
    6. ^"Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, 2000, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on June 6, 2000. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
    7. ^"Daisy Books for the Print Disabled"Archived January Full Version Archives, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, February 25, 2013. Internet Archive.
    8. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Full Version Archives Questions". archive.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
    9. ^"Welcome to Archive torrents"Archived January 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
    10. ^"Used Paired Space". archive.org. March 8, 2019. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
    11. ^"How do I make a physical donation to the Internet Archive?". Internet Archive Help Center. Retrieved December 4, 2020. See also: "Tag Archives: donations". Internet Archive Blogs, Full Version Archives. Retrieved Full Version Archives 4, 2020.
    12. ^"Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt"Archived January 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, 2002. Bibliotheca AlexandrinaArchived September 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
    13. ^"Internet Archive officially a library"Archived February 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, May 2, 2007. Internet Archive
    14. ^"Internet Archive. (2012). Frequently Asked Questions", Full Version Archives. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Full Version Archives, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
    15. ^"Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
    16. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, 2005. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    17. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    18. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    19. ^"Internet Archive", Full Version Archives. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    20. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    21. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    22. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on August 30, Full Version Archives, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    23. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, 2002. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    24. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
    25. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
    26. ^"Internet Full Version Archives. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
    27. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved Full Version Archives 9, 2018.
    28. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
    29. ^Kahle, Brewster (May 23, 2008). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"Archived September 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Forums.
    30. ^"Google Books at Internet Archive"Archived October 11, 1997, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
    31. ^"List of Google scans"Archived January 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (search). Internet Archive.
    32. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    33. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    34. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    35. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    36. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    37. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    38. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Full Version Archives, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    39. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    40. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016, Full Version Archives. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    41. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    42. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    43. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1800-01-01 TO 1809-12-31]", Full Version Archives. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    44. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1810-01-01 TO 1819-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    45. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1820-01-01 TO 1829-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    46. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1830-01-01 TO 1839-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    47. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1840-01-01 TO 1849-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    48. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1850-01-01 TO 1859-12-31]". Internet Archive, Full Version Archives. Archived from the original on March 17, Full Version Archives, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    49. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1860-01-01 TO 1869-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original Full Version Archives March 13, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    50. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1870-01-01 TO 1879-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
    51. ^
    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    "Update" redirects here. For other uses, see Update (disambiguation).

    "Patch" redirects here. For the terrain feature, see Random Full Version Archives page links to the version history lists for different development stages and editions of Minecraft.

    Java Edition[]

    • Version history
      • Pre-classic (May 10 – May 16, Full Version Archives, 2009)
      • Classic (May 16 – November 10, 2009)
      • Indev (December 23, 2009 – February 23, 2010)
      • Infdev (February 27 – June 30, 2010)
      • Alpha (June 30 – December 3, 2010)
      • Beta (December 20, 2010 – November 11, 2011)
      • Official Release, or Java Edition (November 18, 2011 – present)
    • Development versions (September 9, Full Version Archives, 2011 – present)

    Bedrock Edition[]

    New Nintendo 3DS Edition[]

    Education Edition[]

    Pi Edition[]

    Minecraft Earth[]

    Minecraft Dungeons[]

    Minecraft Launcher[]

    Legacy Console Edition[]

    • Version history
      • Xbox 360 Edition (May 9, 2012 – April 30, 2019)
      • Xbox One Edition (September 5, 2014 – December 3, 2019)
      • PlayStation 3 Edition (December 17, 2013 – April 15, 2020)
      • PlayStation 4 Edition (September 4, 2014 – September 9, 2019)
      • PlayStation Vita Edition (October 14, Full Version Archives – April 15, 2020)
      • Wii U Edition (December 17, 2015 – March 19, 2019)
      • Nintendo Switch Edition (May 11, 2017 – June 21, Full Version Archives, 2018)
    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Download Latest Version

    Full Version Archives An archive of past releases is available for customers wishing to use older versions. You can download and use any version up-to the license version that you hold.

    View download archive

    For LAN and WAN Full Version Archives, you will need to have the FlexNet Publisher® license manager running on one of your company servers. Full Version Archives

    Get the license manager

    Full Version Archives For customers with a portable license, you may need to install the USB dongle driver for the portable licensing to work. Full Version Archives UMT Dongle 7.1 Crack Setup + Key (Without Box) Download Windows 10 Pro-Home English(32-bit) crack serial keygen

    Get the dongle driver

    An archive of supporting files is maintained for each release. This includes an ISO for CD burning, the scripts Full Version Archives and the PDF manuals for that version, Full Version Archives.

    View release files

    © 2021 SIMetrix Technologies Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Notice: Undefined variable: z_bot in /sites/alloverlimo.us/desktop/full-version-archives.php on line 99

    Notice: Undefined variable: z_empty in /sites/alloverlimo.us/desktop/full-version-archives.php on line 99

    Comments

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *