25 great YA fantasy/science fiction books and series – Red Wing Public Library

Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen

Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen

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You have a new book for which the second edition has just been released. It's called The Millennial Reincarnations. Why did you choose the word Reincarnations? 

The book is about a number of things. It's about the choices - or the lack of choices - we actually make for ourselves today as a result of having the opportunity to make an increasingly abundant variety of them open to us. It's also about the nature of spiritual belief and practice, and how these concepts are becoming exponentially more bound to the concepts we discover in science, such as genetics. It's about our obsession with scale and celebrity - the mass-media market if you like. Technology has driven all these events, fundamentally. By setting the story between 1990 and the present day, I was able in to mark the upward climb of the technology during the past 25 years in narrative form, too. The term reincarnation is applicable here, not just because the characters are in a sense reincarnations, but because society is in a sense undergoing a reincarnation. Disruption is a technological reincarnation, which is a millennial reincarnation in the contemporary sense of that term.

 

What was your motivation for writing The Millennial Reincarnations? 
I am not sure there was a specific motivation other than those general desires to share ideas and points in a more abstract sense than I might, say, giving a talk. But here's one thing I will confess to: about just over halfway into writing the first draft, that was when I realised that the reincarnation theme was the real driver here over everything else, since I saw how these different characters were so completely interrelated. It was a fascinating and brilliant experience!

 

What would compel someone to pick up a copy of The Millennial Reincarnations? 
A desire to see the dark side of the wee hours in the most beautiful afternoon light you can imagine it bathed in.

 

Are you hoping to enlighten the millennials and make them aware of themselves? Would a millennial even be interested in knowing how their generation is perceived?Of course, enlightenment is an important factor for any generation or person, and enlightening someone is the role of writing really, so sure, I would like to thank there is a benefit - however ancillary - someone gets from reading the book other than just sheer self-gratification. But also I think we are a generation not just with a little self-interest, but more or less with a self-obsession about all things us. So I think it's inevitable that the book was going to be popular. It has gone to No.1 on Amazon already in Category Fiction, and it has only been out a couple days, which sort of backs up the point I guess.

 

In The Millennial Reincarnations, do you dissect the millennial mind and explain why they act the way they do? 
A lot of people have told me, 'Oh, it's so interesting how you have a different take on millennials.' That gives me a sense of the feeling in society that while there's a lot spoken of about millennials as a culture, little opinion or insight is actually expressed in that dialog.

 

Some typecast the millenial generation as "too self-reliant and flippant in attitude". Do you agree with that assessment? Why or why not? 
I definitely don't think it's a self-reliant generation. If anything it's the opposite. That is somewhat the message in the book. The generation has a pile of cash at its disposal, but to what extent is it really in control of its destiny? More so than that of the baby boomers? No way. Then again, it's not a dependent generation, emotionally-speaking. There's much less marriage and attachment among millennials than there was in previous generations, so its independent in an emotional way. A whole cluster of people who are all ultimately dependently wealthy and emotionally detached - that's the message in the book. Why that is is really because the boomers brought their kids up to be that way. Long hours at work and multiple marriages etc. brought about a type of emotional independence among the children of baby boomers, while the extra cash they had as disposable income became an emotional cruch in a way that no other generation alive today has used money. We use it as a kind of emotional form of support. That's new.

 

Why is escapism such a huge problem with this generation? 
Well, it is not so much escapism as a lack of realism. This lack of realism is the result of all ideas - any idea and every idea - being encouraged by boomer parents who always felt that their own ideas were not fostered enough and were keen to emotionally compensate, I think. Many innovations are still in the nascent phase right now, anyway: as in, it's too early to tell if we're escaping something or building something. It's probably a bit of both.It remains to be seen, for example, how social media will affect society. We will know when it's just us - the Millennials - using it. Before that point, which is to say, with Baby Boomers still very active on social media, there are lots of positive and negative trends which will probably turn out to be more artificial. The positive side is the level of engagement. I doubt Millennials will use social media to engage as much as boomers do, which is sad, but it is what it is. The negatives though we'll find get lost with the drop in boomers are far greater. They include stuff such as PR, sales campaigns, marketing and so forth. So by that measure, the effect of social media is probably more negative on balance as an influence today but eventually, that will change. If it doesn't, it kill itself, simple as that. But it will, and ultimately it will become a more positive force. Then a neutral one. That's the point its permeated all social levels.

 

Why is The Millennial Reincarnations set in China? 
Part of the book is set in China and other parts are set in New York. For one, the premise of the story is the return of the Mandate - the figurehead of the East who would return after 9 or 10 generations and restore order to China when the elite were getting out of hand. I find this a comparable example to how life is today everywhere. Think about it - in the United States alone, it's been, since the 1980s, Bush, Clinton, Bush, then Obama - who fought Clinton - and now it's Clinton fighting for the Presidency again. There is not a lot of difference between this sort of leadership cycle and the one in modern China, where the leaders are chosen by an elite circle and sold to the masses as the best possible bet. The Chinese don't get to elect their leaders, that's true, but with the kind of line up where two families are constantly in poll position in the largest democracy in the world for coming on 30 years, you have to ask yourself what sort of democratic model that is.My point is not to get into the political argument for or against any of the candidates however, but rather to illustrate that over time, China and America have grown much closer together in the way they are set up and work, like it or not. China has broadly loosened it's cabal, while the United States has broadly tightened up its cabal. These synergies make the two places fertile ground for commentary, and sure, storytelling. Especially when it's storytelling of a more spiritual nature, as these sorts of political issues, once you get to the bottom of them, are fundamentally spiritually motivated. Policy is and has always been shoved into action by the will and desire of the human spirit. That's what makes it work. That's what makes it so powerful.On a more basic level, I suppose too I wanted to set a big part of it in China as it's the obvious place today that you hear about all the time on the news - the boom-bust economy and so forth - but you don't really get a lot of exposure to much of the nitty gritty. It's a fascinating life to read about and to live. I grew up in Hong Kong and that definitely influenced my decision to base part of the book nearby in Shanghai, which has a very similar social dynamic.

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A Crack in Everything

Life used to be simple.

I was a city girl with humble dreams. Then Dylan O’Dea broke into my flat, held me against the wall and told me to stay quiet.
It was like in the movies, where the universe zeros in on a single scene. I looked into his eyes and knew he was going to change me.

For Dylan, the sky was always falling. He showed me how our world is a contradiction of beautyLife used to be simple.

I was a city girl with humble dreams. Then Dylan O’Dea broke into my flat, held me against the wall and told me to stay quiet.
It was like in the movies, where the universe zeros in on a single scene. I looked into his eyes and knew he was going to change me.

For Dylan, the sky was always falling. He showed me how our world is a contradiction of beauty and ugliness. How we choose to ignore the awful and gloss over it with the palatable. How you need just a tiny drop of something unsavoury to create every great scent.

Pretty deep for a pair of teenagers living in a block of council flats in inner city Dublin, right? Probably. But we weren’t typical. We both had our obsessions. Mine was growing things, Dylan’s was scent. He taught me how to use my nose, and I introduced him to the magic of flowers.

I had no idea that one day he’d build an empire from what we started together. But before that, there was love and happiness, tragedy and epic heartbreak…

My name is Evelyn Flynn and I’m going to tell you about the crack in everything.

A Crack in Everything is Book #1 in L.H. Cosway’s Cracks duet....more

Paperback, 1st edition, 260 pages

Published January 13th 2018 by CreateSpace

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Download PDF


,
Download Bunt w Sobiborze free book PDF

Author: Joseph Bialowitz, Philip Bialowitz 288
Pages: W Polsce temat Holokaustu oraz postawy Polakow wobec Zydow wywoluje nadal silne emocje, czego przykladem byla debata nad "Strachem" Jana T. Grossa.
"Bunt w Sobiborze" wpisuje sie w te dyskusje w szczegolny sposob. Podczas gdy "Strach" opieral sie na interpretacji zrodel historycznych, niniejsza publikacja jest relacja naocznego swiadka. Philip Bialowitz opisuje sytuacje Zydow w Polsce, poczawszy od okresu przedwojennego, przez okupacje, po okres tuz po wojnie. Autor daje nam jej przekrojowy obraz, oparty na doswiadczeniach wlasnego zycia. I nie jest to obraz czarno-bialy. Polacy w tej relacji potrafia zarowno zdobyc sie na bohaterstwo, jak i wykazac sie okrucienstwem wobec zydowskich sasiadow.
Najbardziej przerazajacym fragmentem ksiazki jest opis zycia w obozie zaglady w Sobiborze. Rowniez tutaj poznajemy inna wersje historii: dowiadujemy sie, ze Zydzi nie chcieli godzic sie na pokorna smierc.
W pazdzierniku 1943 roku Philip Bialowitz uczestniczyl w buncie wiezniow. Uzbrojeni w noze, zabili esesmanow, wczesniej zwabionych do pomieszczen gospodarczych. Blisko szesciuset wiezniow podjelo probe ucieczki. Sporo z nich zginelo od kul ukrainskich straznikow czy tez forsujac ogrodzenia i pole minowe. Ucieklo 200 Zydow, z ktorych wyzwolenia doczekalo zaledwie 47. Po powstaniu wiezniow Niemcy zdecydowali sie na likwidacje obozu. Jego teren calkowicie zniszczono.
Philip Bialowitz to bardzo silny glos sumienia ludzkosci, a jego ksiazka stanowi unikalne swiadectwo prawdy o najciemniejszym okresie historii.
Wladyslaw Bartoszewski
Historia bohatera to historia Zydow i zydowskiego ducha. Dazenie do przetrwania, do odbudowy, do tego aby pomoc choc jeszcze jednemu czlowiekowi. Ksiazka Philipa Bialowitza zainspiruje kazdego, gdyz ukazuje nie tylko jego osobista walke o przetrwanie, lecz takze co oznaczalo byc czlowiekiem w czasie, kiedy tak trudno bylo o czlowieczenstwo.
Michael Schudrich, Naczelny Rabin Polski
W 2002 r. przyjechalem do Sobiboru. Byl wieczor. Padal snieg, bialy puch przykryl las i oboz. Szescdziesiat lat wczesniej w tym przekletym miejscu krew zmieszala sie ze lzami.
Paul Celan, zydowski poeta, napisal, ze po wojnie Europa stala sie wielkim jeziorem zastyglej krwi... Sobibor byl czescia tego jeziora. Philip Bialowitz, ktory ocalal z obozu, w swojej ksiazce opowiada o powrocie z piekla. Przetrwal, przezyl, mowi do nas. Pamieta o tym, czego nie da sie zapomniec.

Szewach Weiss, profesor nauk politycznych, Uniwersytet Warszawski, byly ambasador Izraela w Polsce


Swiadectwo Philipa Bialowitza, ocalalego z obozu zaglady w Sobiborze, ma niezwykla wage ze wzgledu na wydarzenia, ktore przywoluje. Jednak tym, co czyni ksiazke tak wyjatkowa, sa osobowosc autora i jego talent narracyjny.
Dzieki opowiesci Bialowitza kolejne pokolenia beda sie mogly zmierzyc z odwiecznymi dylematami, przed jakimi staje czlowiek wobec szalenstwa, ktore tkwi w ludziach gotowych do zadawania smierci bliznim.

Jan T. Gross, profesor historii, Princetown University

O autorze:

Philip Bialowitz urodzil sie w Izbicy. Jest jednym z osmiu zyjacych sposrod ocalonych z nazistowskiego obozu zaglady w Sobiborze.
W 1987 roku byl konsultantem podczas realizacji filmu "Ucieczka z Sobiboru". Czesto wyglasza odczyty w synagogach i szkolach w Ameryce Polnocnej, m.in. w Stanford University, The University of Wisconsin - Madison oraz Madison JCC.

ISBN: 9788310115829
Format: Epub, PDF
File size: 13.97 Mb
walkzeverboba19 Free download ebook PDF, Kindle, epub, mobi, iPhone, iPad, Android 30siovirGEflucin13
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    25 Great YA Fantasy/Science Fiction Books & Series

    Picture of book cover for The Mortal InstrumentsChildren of Blood and Bone by Tomi Adeyemi
    (First in the Legacy of Orisha trilogy)
    From Booklist: *Starred Review* “Magic is gone in Zélie’s kingdom; it was violently eradicated by power-hungry King Saran, and anyone with the capacity for magic abilities the maji, who all have snow-white hair is now a second-class citizen. But Zélie holds tight to the old stories, and she’s secretly learning to fight, unwilling to take the unjust treatment of her people lying down. Meanwhile, Saran’s daughter, Amari, has escaped her cruel father’s palace with a relic containing the power to reignite magic among maji, and after a chance run-in with Zélie and her brother, Tzain, the trio traverses the kingdom, hoping to use the relic to restore magic to every maji. But Amari’s own brother, Inan, who’s convinced magic is too dangerous to permit, is hot on their trail. Adeyemi’s expansive debut plunges readers into a dense, vivid world full of intriguing politics, evocative magic, and brutal violence. Cinematic pacing, alternating viewpoints, and well-choreographed action make the pages fly toward the cliff-hanger ending, which will surely leave readers eager for the next installment. Though she often uses tried-and-true fantasy tropes, Adeyemi keeps it fresh with an all-black cast of characters, a meaningful emphasis on fighting for justice, a complex heroine saving her own people, and a brand of magic made more powerful by the strength of heritage and ancestry. Perfect for fans of the expansive fantasy worlds of Leigh Bardugo, Daniel José Older, and Sabaa Tahir.Picture of book cover for Ship BreakerShip Breaker by Paolo Bacigalupi   First in the Ship Breaker series.
    From Booklist: *starred review* “This YA debut by Bacigalupi, a rising star in adult science fiction, presents a dystopian future like so many YA sf novels. What is uncommon, though, is that although Bacigalupi’s future earth is brilliantly imagined and its genesis anchored in contemporary issues, it is secondary to the memorable characters. In a world in which society has stratified, fossil fuels have been consumed, and the seas have risen and drowned coastal cities, Nailer, 17, scavenges beached tankers for scrap metals on the Gulf Coast. Every day, he tries to make quota and avoid his violent, drug-addicted father. After he discovers a modern clipper ship washed up on the beach, Nailer thinks his fortune is made, but then he discovers a survivor trapped in the wreckage the swank daughter of a shipping-company owner. Should he slit the girl’s throat and sell her for parts or take a chance and help her? Clearly respecting his audience, Bacigalupi skillfully integrates his world building into the compelling narrative, threading the backstory into the pulsing action. The characters are layered and complex, and their almost unthinkable actions and choices seem totally credible. Vivid, brutal, and thematically rich, this captivating title is sure to win teen fans for the award-winning Bacigalupi.”Picture of book cover for Six of CrowsSix of Crows by Leigh Bardugo   First in the Six of Crows series.
    From Publishers Weekly: “When the score of a lifetime presents itself, criminal mastermind Kaz Brekker assembles a crack team of talented outcasts. Their mission: to rescue a prisoner from the most secure prison in the world, so that the secrets he holds can be exploited by the right people. As Kaz and his compatriots put together a daring plan, they contend with old grudges, mistrust, lingering secrets, and deadly rivalries. Naturally, things go wrong once they start their mission, and now they must escape the very prison they sneaked into. Bardugo expands on the world of her Grisha trilogy with this series opener, which marries heist and action conventions with magic and mystery. Her characters are damaged, complex, and relatable, and her worldbuilding is ambitiously detailed. As various characters’ backstories unfold, Bardugo reveals intriguing new depths and surprises. This has all the right elements to keep readers enthralled: a cunning leader with a plan for every occasion, nigh-impossible odds, an entertainingly combative team of skilled misfits, a twisty plot, and a nerve-wracking cliffhanger.”The Darkest Part of the ForestPicture of book cover for The Darkest Part of the Forest by Holly Black
    From Booklist Review: “Magic lives in Fairfold, but the fantastical creatures rarely bother the human residents of the town, reserving their sometimes cruel attention for the tourists who arrive every year, mostly to snap photos of the horned prince in a glass casket. Hazel and her brother have spent their childhood visiting the prince, making up stories and telling him secrets, imagining that he will wake and save Fairfold from the monster in the woods. And one day, he does. The same day, Hazel wakes up with shards of crystal in her palms and mud caked on her feet, and a sorrowful monster, whose presence sets everyone to weeping, begins stalking the town and putting unlucky Fairfoldians into a coma-like sleep. Expertly weaving fairy-tale magic into a contemporary setting, Black slowly reveals Hazel’s mysterious involvement with the fairy court and her heroic role in setting the prince free. Though there’s enough backstory that this dark fantasy occasionally feels like a sequel, Black’s stark, eerie tone; propulsive pacing; and fulsome world building will certainly delight her legion of fans.”Picture of book cover for The DivinersThe Diviners by Libba Bray
    First in the Diviners series.
    From Booklist Review: “*starred review* “Here’s your headline, boss: Small-Town Dame Lands in Big Apple, Goes Wild, Tries to Stop Resurrection of Antichrist. It’ll sell bundles! Indeed it will, as Bray continues her winning streak with this heedlessly sprawling series starter set in Prohibition-era New York. Slang-slinging flapper Evie, 17, is pos-i-tute-ly thrilled to be under the wing of her uncle, who runs the Museum of American Folklore, Superstition, and the Occult. Business is slow (i.e., plenty of time for Evie to swill gin at speakeasies!) until the grisly arrival of what the papers dub the Pentacle Killer, who might be the reincarnation of a religious zealot named Naughty John. Even Evie’s new pals hoofers, numbers runners, and activists, but all swell kids are drawn into the investigation. It’s Marjorie Morningstar meets Silence of the Lambs, and Bray dives into it with the brio of the era, alternating rat-a-rat flirting with cold-blooded killings. Seemingly each teen has a secret ability (one can read an object’s history; another can heal), and yet the narrative maintains the flavor of historical fiction rather than fantasy. The rest of the plot well, how much time do you have? The book is big and wants to be the kind of thing you can lose yourself in. Does it succeed? It’s jake, baby.”Picture of book cover for StarcrossedStarcrossed by Elizabeth Bunce
    (First in Thief Errant series)
    From Publishers Weekly: “On the lam after a failed theft, 16-year-old runaway Celyn bluffs her way out of the city with four young nobles. She finds refuge as maid to one of them, Lady Merista, in a snowbound mountain castle. When Lord Daul discovers Celyn’s thieving tendencies, he forces her to spy for him. Delving even deeper into the castle’s secrets than she reveals to Daul, Celyn’s eyes are opened to the myriad secrets and schemes of its many guests and occupants. In choosing her path, she confronts her own past, uncovers a rebellion that could lead to civil war, befriends a prince, contemplates religious persecution, and faces betrayal. She also encounters long-forgotten magic and comes to understand the mystical aptitude that ruined her life and set her on her path of crime. Couching her characters and setting in top-notch writing, Bunce (A Curse as Dark as Gold) hooks readers into an intelligent page-turner with strong themes of growth, determination, and friendship. Celyn’s journey will leave readers asking for more, especially as the first-rate story neatly sets up a sequel.”Picture of book cover for GracelingGraceling by Kristen Cashore   First in the Graceling Realm series.
    From Booklist: “*starred review* “Feared as a killer since her childhood, Lady Katsa uses her unusual Grace (superhuman gift) in the service of her uncle, King Randa. She is beginning to rebel against his orders to kill or maim his more disloyal subjects when her path crosses that of Po. A young foreign prince with a mysterious Grace as well as wisdom beyond his years, Po convinces Katsa that she can stand up to the brutal king and put her gift to better uses. When Katsa joins Po on a quest, she throws herself headlong into a rescue mission and finds romance, self-knowledge, and justice along the way. Although many fantasy writers create intriguing alternate worlds and worthy adventures, as Cashore does in this well-imagined novel, she also offers believable characters with enough depth, subtlety, and experience to satisfy older readers. Katsa is a heroine who can physically overpower most men she meets, yet her strength is not achieved by becoming manlike. She may care little for fine clothes, but from her first kill to her first experience of lovemaking, Katsa’s womanhood is integral to her character. An impressive first novel, this well-crafted and rewarding fantasy will leave readers hoping for more.”Picture of book cover for The Dark Days ClubThe Dark Days Club by Alison Goodman   First in the Lady Helen series.
    From Publisher’s Weekly: “In a delicious collision of Regency romance and dark fantasy, Goodman (Eona) tells the story of Lady Helen Wrexhall, a wealthy 18-year-old orphan on the eve of coming out at the court of King George III. If things go as planned, she will pass from the house of her choleric uncle to that of a suitably noble husband. Rumor has it that the Duke of Selburn (the catch of the season) is interested; unfortunately, so is the disreputable Earl of Carlston, though he has something other than marriage in mind. Helen is dissatisfied with a vapid life of endless parties, and she’s also aware that she has begun to develop abilities that seem inappropriate for a young noble woman, like extraordinarily acute hearing and lightning-fast reflexes. Then Carlston tells her about the Dark Days Club, its secret battle to preserve English society from a monstrous enemy, and her destined role in that battle. Lady Helen is a well-drawn heroine, and her struggle to free herself from the stilted life of an early-19th- century noblewoman and embrace her wilder, darker self is powerfully delineated.”Picture of book cover for IlluminaeIlluminae by Amie Kaufman and Jay Kristoff
    First in the Illuminae Files.
    From Booklist: *starred review* “High-school students Kady and Ezra have just broken up with each other when Kerenza IV, their mining outpost planetary home, is suddenly attacked by a rival company using both traditional and biological weapons. In the scramble to get off the planet, they are separated, ending up with a waning number of Kerenza survivors on two different space vessels that are trying to outrun one remaining BeiTech dreadnought; however, Kady and Ezra remain united in their desire to escape destruction, exact revenge, and maybe give each other a second chance. Tightly woven and suspenseful, this is one long briefing report about the mining colony attack and its aftermath that makes innovative use of mission reports, e-mails, texts, ship schematics, dialogue, and other forms of communication with profanity cunningly redacted. Kaufman and Kristoff have created a fast-paced, quasi-political sci-fi thriller that is completely unique. Hints of romance and references to Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey interweave with the text, itself an arresting visual experience that weds form with expression and content: for example, a thin pinwheel of print reflects the chaos of a newbie pilot’s first deadly space battle. The ending, two simple words, sets the stage for the next entry in the Illuminae Files, a planned trilogy.”Picture of book cover for Grave MercyGrave Mercy by Robin LaFevers
    First in the His Fair Assassin series.
    From Booklist: *starred review* “In the late fifteenth century, Mortain, the god of death, has sired Ismae to be his handmaiden. She will carry out his wishes by working through the Convent, where she has found refuge from a brutal father and husband. After learning the Convent’s wily warfare and womanly arts, and being apprenticed to Sister Serafina (poisons mistress and Convent healer), 17-year-old Ismae is sent to the high court of Brittany, ostensibly as the cousin (aka mistress) of the Breton noble Duval but, in truth, she is there as a spy. Her tacit assignment is to protect the young duchess by assassinating Duval if he proves to be a traitor, a charge made more difficult because of the couple’s attraction to each other. LaFevers has written a dark, sophisticated novel true to the fairy-tale conventions of castles, high courts, and good versus evil, and spiced with poison potions; violent (and sometimes merciful) assassinations; subtle seductions; and gentle, perfect love. With characters that will inspire the imagination, a plot that nods to history while defying accuracy, and a love story that promises more in the second book, this is sure to attract feminist readers and romantics alike.”Picture of book cover for A Court of Thorns and RosesA Court of Thorns and Roses by Sarah J. Maas
    First in the Court of Thorns and Roses series
    From Booklist: “*starred review* “Faeries and humans live apart, separated by a wall and generations-old hostility, and resourceful Feyre struggles to keep her poor family alive. She kills a wolf one winter day, and a monstrous creature arrives at her home, demanding her life as punishment. What follows is a Beauty and the Beast-style retelling as Feyre is spirited away to the grand lands of this creature, who turns out to be Tamlin, High Fae, under a mysterious curse. Feyre’s feelings for him and his world morph slowly from an angry combativeness into a strange affection, but a mysterious disease is ravaging his home, and at risk of losing everything she has begun to hold dear, Feyre begins a journey that takes her Under the Mountain, the dangerous home of the faerie queen. The ensemble is exquisitely developed, as is the sultry romance between Feyre and Tamlin. The end result is a story that, despite its hefty page count and ambitious scope, simply dazzles. Refreshingly, there are no cliff-hangers here, but enough open-endings ensure that the clamor for a sequel will be deafening.”Picture of book cover for Throne of GlassThrone of Glass by Sarah J. Maas
    First in the Throne of Glass series
    From Booklist: “Librarians looking for a Hunger Games read-alike for their Katniss fans may find their best option in this first novel that began years ago as an online serial called Queen of Glass. Celaena Sardothien is a noted assassin competing to the death against soldiers, assassins, and others to earn the role as the king’s champion and eventually her long-denied freedom. Unlike most strong female protagonists, Celaena relishes the exquisite trappings of her new environment: the fine fabrics, the intricate embroideries, and the jewel adornments. Her taste for finery, though, never impedes her success in the tests or her determination to track down the meaning of the wyrd marks and the evil force that is killing competitors ahead of schedule. Of course, there is a love triangle, but Prince Dorian and the Captain of the Guard (begrudgingly assigned to keep Celaena safe) make for interesting foils to a female assassin, one who values the lure of freedom more than male companionship. Her freedom will likely have to wait; duty calls in the next book.”Picture of book cover for Finnikin of the RockFinnikin of the Rock by Melina Marchetta   First in the Lumatere Chronicles
    From Booklist: “*starred review* “In her latest title, Marchetta, author of the 2009 Michael L. Printz Award winner, Jellicoe Road, steps deftly into the fantasy genre. Ten years before the story’s start, assassins crept into the kingdom of Lumatere and murdered the royal family, with the possible exception of Balthazar, heir to the throne. As rumors circulated that Balthazar survived, a mystic cast a curse that created a magical barrier around the kingdom and prevented thousands who had fled from returning. Marchetta focuses her tale on 19-year-old Finnikin, the son of a former royal guard, who is serving in exile as an apprentice to Sir Topher, a former advisor to the murdered king. While aiding refugees, they meet a young novice who can enter others’ dreams and claims that Balthazar has chosen Finnikin to take his people home. As Finnikin gathers forces to return to the kingdom, intrigue and double-dealing ensue. The skillful world building includes just enough detail to create a vivid sense of place, and Marchetta maintains suspense with unexpected story arcs. It is the achingly real characters, though, and the relationships that emerge through the captivating dialogue that drive the story. Filled with questions about the impact of exile and the human need to belong, this standout fantasy quickly reveals that its real magic lies in its accomplished writing.”Picture of book cover for The Weight of FeathersThe Weight of Feathers by Anna-Marie McLemore   From Publishers Weekly: “Like all Paloma girls, Lace was born with small escalas decorating her body, “a sprinkling of scales off a pale fish, a gift from the river goddess Apanchanej.” Life revolves around performing as sirenas in her itinerant family’s popular mermaid show, a tourist attraction rivaled only by that of their nemesis family, the Corbeaus, who have feathers instead of scales, and dance high in the trees. Superstition and a generations-old feud fuel hatred between the talented families, and when Cluck, a Corbeau, saves Lace during a chemical rainstorm caused by a nearby adhesive manufacturing plant, he unwittingly dooms Lace’s future with her family. McLemore’s prose is ethereal and beguiling, the third-person narration inflected with Spanish and French words and phrases that reflect the non-magical aspects of the Paloma and Corbeau heritage. The enchanting setup and the forbidden romance that blooms between these two outcasts will quickly draw readers in, along with the steady unspooling of the families’ history and mutual suspicions in this promising first novel.”Picture of book cover for CinderCinder by Marissa Meyer   (First in the Lunar Chronicles)
    From Publishers Weekly: “First in the Lunar Chronicles series, this futuristic twist on Cinderella retains just enough of the original that readers will enjoy spotting the subtle similarities. But debut author Meyer’s brilliance is in sending the story into an entirely new, utterly thrilling dimension. Cinder is a talented teenage mechanic and cyborg-part human, part robot-who has been living in New Beijing with a demanding adoptive mother and two stepsisters, ever since her late stepfather took Cinder in after a hovercraft accident. Several events abruptly turn Cinder’s world upside down: a chance meeting with the handsome Prince Kai has her heart racing; a plague pandemic threatens her beloved sister Peony; Cinder learns she is immune to the plague; and the evil Lunar Queen Levana arrives on Earth, scheming to marry Kai. Though foreshadowing early on makes it fairly clear where the story is headed, it unfolds with the magic of a fairy tale and the breakneck excitement of dystopian fiction. Meyer’s far-future Earth is richly imagined, full of prejudice and intrigue, characters easy to get invested in, and hints of what might await in future books.”Picture of book cover for Blood of the EarthA Corner of the Earth by Jaclyn Moriarty
    First in the Colors of Madeleine trilogy.
    From Booklist: “Australian writer Moriarty’s marvelously original fantasy is quirky and clever, exploring links between present-day Cambridge, England, and the Kingdom of Cello, where colors attack, seasons roam unpredictably, and the Butterfly Child can save a community. Fourteen-year-old homeschooled Madeleine lives with her mother in an attic flat in Cambridge, adjusting to near poverty after they ran from a fabulously wealthy jet-setting life with Madeleine’s emotionally distant father. Meanwhile, 15-year-old Elliot is trying to find his father, whose suspicious disappearance has sparked rumors and more in their farming community. Elliot and Madeleine meet when Elliot puts a letter into a crack in a concrete sculpture Madeleine sees the corner of white peeking out from the foot of a parking meter. Their correspondence provides rich character development in a plot with a dizzying number of developments. Moriarty captures the proud iconoclasm of many homeschoolers and does not shy away from tenderness and poignancy as both Madeleine and Elliot confront difficult family truths. Expect readers to flock to Moriarty’s name and stay for the whole (projected) Colors of Madeleine trilogy.”Picture of book cover for The Knife of Never Letting GoThe Knife of Never Letting Go by Patrick Ness
    First in the Chaos Walking series.
    From Booklist: *starred review* “Chased by a madman preacher and possibly the rest of his townsfolk as well, young Todd Hewitt flees his settlement on a planet where war with the natives has killed all the women and infected the men with a germ that broadcasts their thoughts aloud for all to hear. This cacophanous thought-cloud is known as Noise and is rendered with startling effectiveness on the page. The first of many secrets is revealed when Todd discovers an unsettling hole in the Noise, and quickly realizes that he lives in a much different world than the one he thought he did. Some of the central conceits of the drama can be hard to swallow, but the pure inventiveness and excitement of the telling more than make up for it. Narrated in a sort of pidgin English with crack dramatic and comic timing by Todd and featuring one of the finest talking-dog characters anywhere, this troubling, unforgettable opener to the Chaos Walking trilogy is a penetrating look at the ways in which we reveal ourselves to one another, and what it takes to be a man in a society gone horribly wrong. The cliffhanger ending is as effective as a shot to the gut.”Picture of book cover for The Kiss of DeceptionThe Kiss of Deception by Mary Pearson
    First in the Remnant Chronicles.
    From Booklist: *starred review* She is a princess, and it is her duty to marry into an alliance. But 17-year-old Lia has her own opinion about that obligation, one that she puts into action when she escapes her wedding with her lady-in-waiting, Pauline. Determined, confident Lia thinks that she knows how to cover her tracks, and soon she and Pauline are working as barmaids in Pauline’s hometown. Now two new voices enter to help tell the story. One belongs to the prince whom Lia was supposed to marry. He is curious about his fled fiancee and angry that she thought of a way to get out of the marriage first. The other voice belongs to an assassin who is sent by the Komizar of Venda to make sure that Lia doesn’t change her mind and return to initiate an alliance that will harm their country. Pearson offers readers a wonderfully full-bodied story: harrowing, romantic, and full of myth and memory, fate and hope. She never compromises her characters especially the multifaceted Lia for plot; each element motivates the other. There is also a richness to the descriptions that makes readers feel that they can see and even smell the changing landscapes. This has the sweep of an epic tale, told with some twists; it’s a book that almost doesn’t need a sequel, but readers will be thrilled that it continues on.”Picture of book cover for For Darkness Shows the StarsFor Darkness Shows the Stars by Diana Peterfreund
    (First in the Across the Star Swept Sea duology)
    From Publisher’s Weekly: “Dystopian, ideological, rebellious-Peterfreund’s fantasy homage to Austen’s Persuasion departs from the original in many respects, and with great success. Elliot North is a strong and creative woman, holding together the estate her father neglects and conducting secret agricultural experiments that defy “the protocols,” which were established after genetic tinkering nearly destroyed humanity. Antitechnology “Luddites” took sanctuary underground, emerging as overlords of the mentally diminished above-ground survivors. Those survivors, the “Reduced,” are now having normal children, and the Luddites’ status is no longer unquestioned. Four years earlier, Elliot refused to elope with Kai, a mechanical prodigy and descendant of the Reduced. Now he’s back as Capt. Malakai Wentforth, flirting with Elliot’s pretty neighbor and being savage to Elliott. Resemblance to Austen’s story lies largely in the superficialities of the plot-Peterfreund (Rampant) invokes less of Austen’s subtlety or social critique, and she really doesn’t need to. The story stands on its own, a richly envisioned portrait of a society in flux, a steely yet vulnerable heroine, and a young man who does some growing up.”Picture of book cover for The Winner's CurseThe Winner’s Curse by Marie Rutkoski
    First in the Winner’s Trilogy.
    From Publisher’s Weekly: “Fans of Rutkoski’s Kronos Chronicles will devour this spellbinding first book in a trilogy about a pair of star-crossed lovers in a society marred by class warfare. When 17-year-old Kestrel, daughter of an esteemed Valorian general, pays too steep a price for a Herrani slave at auction, the audacious maneuver reveals more than just a lapse in judgment. What Kestrel doesn’t know is that Arin is really a spy for Herrani rebels plotting to overthrow the Valorian empire. On equally deceptive footing, Arin manipulates Kestrel’s trust to mine her for military secrets while Kestrel uses Arin to deflect attention from unwanted suitors. As their relationship unwittingly evolves from master and servant into one of guarded mutual respect (and blush-worthy sexual tension), the two are torn between loyalty to their peoples and traditions and a love that can never be realized. Like any epic page-turner worth its salt, Rutkoski’s richly imagined world is full of dynamic repartee, gruesome battle scenes, and shifting alliances. A high-stakes cliffhanger will leave readers eagerly awaiting the next book..”Picture of book cover for The Raven BoysThe Raven Boys by Maggie Stiefvater   (First in the Raven Cycle series)
    From Booklist Review: *starred review* “The latest from Stiefvater, author of the Printz Honor Book The Scorpio Races (2011), defies easy synopsis. Consider that it is the story of 16-year-old Blue, from a family of psychics though she herself is not one. However, she does have the gift of amplifying others’ psychic experiences. Oh, and she has been told that if she kisses her true love, he will die. Then there are wealthy, handsome Gansey and his three friends, Adam, Ronan, and Noah, all of whom are Raven Boys, students at the prestigious Aglionby Academy. Gansey is obsessed with finding the body of the legendary sleeping king of Wales, Owen Glendower, using ley lines, invisible lines of energy that connect spiritual places. That a sinister someone else is also searching for the sleeping king adds chill-inducing danger to the complex and artful plot. Indeed, reading this novel is like walking through a tangled thicket and coming across one unexpected and wonderful surprise after another. In that respect, the book is marvelous, for not only is it filled with marvels but it is also a marvel of imagination and, more prosaically, structure. Rich, too, in characterization, this fantasy-mystery rises to the level of serious literature, leaving readers hungering for more. And more there will be, for this is the first volume of a planned quartet. Waiting for the next book in the Raven Cycle will indeed be a test of readers’ patience.”Picture of book cover for The Scorpio RacesThe Scorpio Races by Maggie Stiefvater   From Booklist Review: *starred review* “The island of Thisby, somewhere near Britain and replete with cars and electricity, is nevertheless fantastical, the home base of a fierce breed of water horses, the capaill uisce, man-eaters who rise from the autumn seas to terrorize the islanders. They can be captured and somewhat tamed, however, and once a year the island hosts a tourist draw, the Scorpio Races, a beachside contest often fatal to the riders. Sean Kendrick is one of the racers, a four-time champion on his trusty stead. Kat. Puc. Connolly is new to the races and the first woman rider. Due to a loophole in the rules, Kate’s riding a regular horse, her beloved Dove, which she trusts to run true against the more frightening contestants. Both riders have deeper personal motives for wanting to win. Filling it with loving descriptions of wet, wind-tossed Thisby as well as exciting equine action, Stiefvater has created a thrilling backdrop for the love story that blooms between Sean and Puck. And in the water horses, based on mostly Celtic legends, she’s created scary yet compelling forces of nature. A book appealing to lovers of fantasy, horse stories, romance, and action-adventure alike, this seems to have a shot at being a YA blockbuster.”Picture of book cover for Theft of SwordsDaughter of Smoke & Bone by Laini Taylor   First in the Daughter of Smoke & Bone trilogy.
    From Publishers Weekly: “National Book Award finalist Taylor again weaves a masterful mix of reality and fantasy with cross-genre appeal. Exquisitely written and beautifully paced, the tale is set in ghostly, romantic Prague, where 17-year-old Karou is an art student-except when she is called “home” to do errands for the family of loving, albeit inhuman, creatures who raised her. Mysterious as Karou seems to her friends, her life is equally mysterious to her: How did she come to live with chimaera? Why does paternal Brimstone eternally require teeth-especially human ones? And why is she “plagued by the notion that she wasn’t whole…. a sensation akin to having forgotten something?” Taylor interlaces cleverly droll depictions of contemporary teenage life with equally believable portrayals of terrifying otherworldly beings. When black handprints begin appearing on doorways throughout the world, Karou is swept into the ancient deadly rivalry between devils and angels and gradually, painfully, acquires her longed-for self-knowledge. The book’s final pages seemingly establish the triumph of true love-until a horrifying revelation sets the stage for a second book.”Picture of book cover for Strange the DreamerStrange the Dreamer by Laini Taylor   (First in the Strange the Dreamer duology)
    From Booklist: “*Starred Review* “By now, fans of Laini Taylor know what to expect: beautiful prose, strange and whimsical fantasy worlds, sympathetic monsters, and wrenching, star-crossed romance. Her latest, first in a two-book set, certainly delivers on that, and there’s something quietly magical at play here. Lazlo Strange, an orphaned infant who grew up to be a librarian, has had a quiet first two decades of life. But Lazlo, reader of fairy tales, longs to learn more about a distant, nearly mythical city, called Weep after its true name was stolen. When a group of warriors from that very place come seeking help, Lazlo, never before a man of action, may actually see his dream fulfilled. Weep, though, is a city still reeling from the aftermath of a brutal war, and hidden there is a girl named Sarai and her four companions, all of whom have singular talents and devastating secrets. What follows is the careful unfolding of a plot crafted with origamilike precision. This has distinct echoes of Taylor’s Daughter of Smoke and Bone (2011), though ultimately it’s a cut above even that: characters are carefully, exquisitely crafted; the writing is achingly lovely; and the world is utterly real. While a cliff-hanger ending will certainly have readers itching for book two, make no mistake this is a thing to be savored.”Picture of book cover for The 5th WaveThe 5th Wave by Rick Yancey
    (First in 5th Wave series)
    From Booklist: *starred review* “The Monstrumologist series set a bar for YA horror nearly impossible to match. Can Yancey do the same for sci-fi? He makes a hell of an effort with this ambitious series starter set in the aftermath of a crushing alien invasion in which the aliens themselves never appeared. Seven billion humans have died in the months following the appearance of a giant mother ship. Wave 1: an electromagnetic pulse rendering all machines useless. Wave 2: tsunamis wiping out coastal cities. Wave 3: the Red Death, a deadly plague carried by birds. Wave 4: Silencers, humans who were implanted with alien intelligence as fetuses. We don’t even want to know about Wave 5 do we? Monstrumologist fans will be surprised to discover that Yancey grounds his multiperspective survivalist thriller in two fairly conventional YA voices: Cassie, 16, whose grim solitary existence changes when she is rescued by hunky but mysterious Evan; and Zombie, 17, ex-sports star thrown into a brutal boot camp to train as an alien killer. Yancey’s heartfelt, violent, paranoid epic, filled with big heroics and bigger surprises, is part War of the Worlds, part Starship Troopers, part Invasion of the Body Snatchers, and part The Stand, but just close enough to dystopic trends to make this a sure thing for reviewers and readers alike.”
    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    The Evolution of White Etching Cracks (WECs) in Rolling Contact Fatigue-Tested 100Cr6 Steel

    Abstract

    The formation of white etching cracks (WECs) in steel rolling element bearings can lead to the premature rolling contact fatigue (RCF) failure mode called white structure flaking. Driving mechanisms are still debated but are proposed to be combinations of mechanical, tribochemical and electrical effects. A number of studies have been conducted to record and map WECs in RCF-tested samples and bearings failed from the field. For the first time, this study uses serial sectioning metallography techniques on non-hydrogen charged test samples over a range of test durations to capture the evolution of WEC formation from their initiation to final flaking. Clear evidence for subsurface initiation at non-metallic inclusions was observed at the early stages of WEC formation, and with increasing test duration the propagation of these cracks from the subsurface region to the contact surface eventually causing flaking. In addition, an increase in the amount of associated microstructural changes adjacent to the cracks is observed, this being indicative of the crack being a prerequisite of the microstructural alteration.

    Introduction

    Rolling element bearings used in wind turbine gearboxes suffer from a premature failure mode called white structure flaking (WSF). This typically occurs in 1–20% of the bearing’s L10 life, where the wind turbine lifetime is reduced from the predicted 20 years to < 2 years [1, 2]. WSF is due to the formation of white etching cracks (WECs) typically ~ 1 mm below the contact surface. WECs are networks of microcracks with an associated microstructural alteration called white etching area (WEA) which borders or is intermixed with the WEC. The appearance of WEA is revealed when etched in nital solution (2% nitric acid in ethanol). WEA is a nanocrystalline ferrite structure of grain sizes ~ 5–300 nm, ~ 10–50% harder than the surrounding matrix and comprised of wholly or partially dissolved spherical carbides found to be part of the WEA formation process [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. Amorphous-like phases have also been shown to be present in WEA, forming first before WEA is generated [8, 14, 15]. WEA has been proposed to exist in two ways: deformed WEA consisting predominantly of nanocrystallites and transformed WEA consisting of co-existence between nanocrystallites and amorphous phase [16].

    The formation drivers as well as the initiation and propagation mechanisms for WSF and WEC in rolling bearings are still highly debated but are thought be driven by combinations of mechanical, tribochemical and electrical effects including: (1) transient operating conditions such as wind gusts, load reversals, grid engagement, braking, generating high impact loads, vibrations and slip; (2) electrothermal and electrical effects; (3) tensile hoop stresses; and (4) hydrogen release and diffusion into the bearing steel (sourced from the lubricating oil and additives or water contamination). The proposed initiation and propagation mechanisms for WSF/WECs are: (1) surface initiation through two opposing mechanisms, (1) shear stress-induced fatigue microcracks [17] and (2) localised high circumferential tensile stress spontaneously induced cleavage-like axial cracks that initiate independently [5, 17, 18], at defects such as inclusions [17,18,19,20,21] or due to corrosion, machining defects or electrical erosion pits [21]; (2) subsurface initiation by non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) [5,6,7, 22,23,24,25,26], perhaps in some cases due to tensile stresses [27]; (3) adiabatic shear banding independent or including defects through impact events, cracks forming after microstructural changes occur [2, 28]; (4) self-charging of lubricants triggering localised transient current flow causing local electromagnetic induction that crosses the contact surface leading to electrothermal mechanisms triggering subsequent WEA microstructural change [29, 30]; (5) a multistage initiation of WECs as a result of migration of carbon under shear stress and high localised energy [31].

    Subsurface-initiated cracks are difficult to identify and quantify. When a ‘young’ crack is found, the mechanism of formation is easier to understand and is frequently believed to be revolved around NMIs. One technique used for recording WECs is the application of serial sectioning to map entire WECs in 3D. This technique has been perfected by the authors [6, 7, 24, 25] where it is confirmed that at least one mechanism of WEC formation is initiation and propagation in the subsurface, with strong evidence for subsurface initiation being at NMIs. Supporting evidence for subsurface initiation has been provided from 3D-mapping of entire WECs by X-ray microtomography conducted on high-speed wind turbine gearbox bearings (WTGBs) returned from the field [26, 32, 33] and an inner ring section of a large spherical roller bearing used in an industrial application [26]. X-ray tomography of this spherical roller bearing revealed large (> 26 μm in axial and circumferential length) multiphase inclusion combinations of Al, Mn and S elongated in the direction of over-rolling to have initiated subsurface WECs. Through metallographic analysis of field-returned WTGBs, it has also been found that small/short sized 8–24 μm MnS inclusions were mainly associated with butterfly/small-WEC crack initiation [22]. Analysis of failed low-speed shaft WTGBs, however, has found that oxide and dual phase inclusions are more detrimental than MnS inclusions [34]. Subsurface WECs and inclusion interactions have also been found through testing and metallographic analysis of WTGBs with induced tensile stresses from bearing seat deviation [27]. This supports evidence from previous studies conducted on WTGBs by authors of this manuscript [7] where predominantly small/short sized (3–20 μm) sulphides, globular oxides and globular MnS-oxide inclusions were recorded and judged likely initiators of WECs. It is proposed that small NMI-initiated WECs coalesce to form larger networks that eventually branch to the contact surface causing WSF or axial cracking [1, 4,5,6,7,8, 23,24,25].

    There is also debate on whether the crack or WEA microstructural change occurs first, whether WEAs form cooperatively with the crack and whether WEA forms gradually or suddenly, where proposed formation mechanisms include amorphisation [8, 14,15,16, 35], adiabatic shear, severe localised plastic deformation, low-temperature recrystallisation, carbide break-up and dissolution and electrothermal effects, these being extensively reviewed in [1]. One popular hypothesis is due to crack face rubbing causing a localised mechanical deformation during RCF (this being enhanced in the presence of diffusible hydrogen [36], higher concentrations could exist at these sites [37]), an associated material transfer from one side of the crack to the other occurs, and recrystallisation results [13, 37, 38]. A more recent hypothesis developed through modelling is energy dissipation at rubbing crack faces [35]. The developed crack model quantifies the amount of energy dissipated as a result of friction at crack faces; part of this energy is converted to heat and microstructural decay, WEA formation being a result of amorphisation due to high density dislocation accumulation. The energy generated during crack rubbing leading to amorphisation is also proposed to be sufficient to dissolve large amounts of carbides in the WEA [16]. A counter argument to crack rubbing comes through subsurface inspection using Barkhausen noise measurements, where subsurface changes are investigated without the presence of cracks [39]. A local transformation in the microstructure is observed as ‘crack-free’ irregular dark etching regions and is suggested to lead to the formation of WEAs. Similarities have been shown between microstructural alterations in WECs, and those alterations found in dark etch regions [40]. An experimental approach by artificially inducing microcracks into the steel prior to RCF has also shown that hard WEAs formed in close proximity to the microcracks, providing an experimental validation that cracks can be a precursor to WEA formations [12]. In an investigation to study the effect of brittleness on the generation of WEA, modified AISI 8620 steel was intentionally heat treated to produce intergranular embrittlement [41]. During RCF, cracks formed preferentially along the grain boundaries due to lowered toughness where WEA was found to form along these intergranular cracks. It is suggested that the movement of the crack faces under subsurface shear promoted the formation of WEAs along the crack faces. Finally subsurface crack rubbing has been shown to produce wear debris with an identical composition to the steel matrix, the wear debris being a result of the disintegration of lamellar structure formed during crack rubbing [16].

    This study uses extensive metallographic analysis including standard and serial sectioning techniques to record and map individual WECs in 3D and associated damage features in RCF-tested 100Cr6 steel cylindrical roller thrust bearings (CRTBs) on an FAG-FE8 test rig, this being a continuation of the works conducted previously by the authors [42, 43]. Many previous studies have applied different techniques to record and map WECs in failed bearings from the field and RCF-tested samples; however, little attempt has been made to record the evolution of WECs from their initiation to final flaking. This study aims to provide evidence for the stages of subsurface inclusion initiated WEC evolution for the first time to give valuable insight into this bearing degradation mechanism.

    There is an accompanying piece of work [44] to this investigation that explores the role of hydrogen diffusion in the RCF tests conducted in this study.

    Materials, Techniques and Experimental Methods

    Rolling Contact Fatigue Testing

    Testing was conducted on a standard FAG-FE8 rig (see Fig. 1). Two 100Cr6 steel CRTBs are tested simultaneously, usually used in the standardised test (DIN 51819-3). Two plate springs apply load. Each bearing has 15 individual rollers mounted in a brass cage sandwiched between two washer raceways (see Fig. 1c). The raceways are pre-roughened before testing to Rq values of 0.25 and 0.5 µm for the two bearings, respectively, the 0.5 µm bearing being focused upon. On the raceway at the centre of the bearing, contact zone exists a pure rolling condition with rising slip to the edges of up to ± 12.5% SRR along the contact major axis (see Fig. 1c, [45]). On the rollers, the slip zones experience both − ve and + ve directional slip, due to the roller being sandwiched between two raceways. Eight tests were conducted from 0 to 18 h, two of the tests (at 16.5 and 18 h) were shut down due to a vibration threshold limit being reached; other tests were shut down manually at pre-determined running durations (0 h control, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 6 h repeat and 12 h). The calculated maximum Hertzian contact pressure Pmax is in the range of ~ 1.5–1.9 GPa, this being in accordance with the contact length used for a range of lengths between 7 and 9 mm (this dependence taking into account the profile of the rolling element geometry and where roller/raceway contact is assumed to start based upon bearing drawings and software). The test conditions are shown in Table 1.

    a FAG-FE8 test rig, b schematic of test chamber (side on view), and c CRTB used in the RCF testing and slippage condition experienced. Adapted from [24]

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    Initial minimum oil film thickness (hmin) between rollers and washer raceways is calculated using the Hamrock and Dowson visco-elastic equation [46, 47]; see Eq. (1). Lambda ratio (λ) has been calculated based upon hmin and the roughness (Rq) values given in Table 1, the bearing running in boundary lubrication throughout RCF testing; see Eq. (2). Fully formulated semi-synthetic gear oil was used as the lubricant for all tests (detailed in Table 1). The oil temperature in the contact is controlled at 100 °C during operation.

    It should be noted that no method to artificially induce WECs was used, such as pressure transients, hydrogen charging or applying electrical currents. The pressure, speed and temperature are in steady state. The lubricant used is known to readily induce WSF.

    Metallographic Analysis and Contact Surface Inspection

    Metallographic analysis including fine and coarse serial sectioning techniques was conducted on the RCF-tested bearing rollers and raceway washers to record and fully map individual WECs in 3D and associated damage features. Optical macroscopy was used to inspect the contact surface of the bearing parts before metallographic analysis.

    Before sectioning, the raceway washers were cut into ~ 20 × 20 mm sections, the rollers kept whole. Rollers and raceway sections were subsequently hot mounted in Bakelite. Rollers were mounted in groups of three for each test duration (excluding the 16.5-h test) to make sure analyses were statistically representative of each test duration. Raceway sections for the 18-h test only were mounted singularly, four individual sections being analysed covering ~ 1/3rd of the washer to inspect a representative area of steel. Notches were cut into the rollers to act as a marker for identifying individual WECs at each sectioning slice interval around the circumference, individual WECs, when recorded, being numbered in regard to the numbers around a clock face, the notch representing 12 o’clock. Rollers were mounted such that they were sectioned in the axial direction from the outer roller edge through to the inner. Raceway washers were mounted such that the contact surface was sectioned, material removal being performed in the radial z-direction. See Fig. 2 for sample preparation.

    Stages of sample preparation for rollers and raceway sections

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    Sectioning was performed on automatic grinding/polishing machines (Struers TegraPol-15 with a TegraForce-1 and a Struers LaboPol-21 with a LaboForce-3) using 800, 1200 and 4000 SiC papers followed by 9 and 3 µm diamond suspension lubricants for the final polishing stages. The polished sample cross sections were then chemically etched in nital (2%) before imaging. Images were taken by optical microscopy (Olympus BX41 M-LED and BX51) at 50–200× magnification to map and record WECs, with 500× and 1000× magnifications accompanied with SEM/EDX (JEOL JSM-6500F SEM and Oxford Inca 300) to image and analyse inclusion–WEC interactions. Open source image processing software (ImageJ) was used to measure the dimensions of WECs and damage features. To create a controlled sectioning process, macro-Vickers indents were used to track the grinding/polishing removal rate as well as being used to track individual WECs.

    Contact Surface Inspection

    Optical macroscopy was conducted on the same rollers and raceway sections that were subsequently sectioned. Images were taken at 60° intervals around the circumference of the rollers. The four individual raceway sections were imaged to give an overview of the contact surface.

    Sectioning Analysis

    Fine serial sectioning was conducted on the 2-, 6- and 18-h RCF tests with removal intervals of ~ 3.4–3.9 µm per slice.

    Coarse serial sectioning was conducted on the 4- and 12-h tests, and after fine serial sectioning on the same 6- and 18-h test rollers to continue recording WECs across the length of the rollers. Coarse serial sectioning was not conducted on the 2-h test due to no WECs being found through fine serial sectioning. Removal intervals were conducted at ~ 15, 30 or 50 µm per slice. Coarse serial sectioning was conducted from the outer roller edge through to the inner on the 6-, 12- and 18-h tests, the 4-h test being cut short due to lack of WECs recorded. Coarse serial sectioning was conducted up to ~ 9.6–10.41 mm across the 6-, 12- and 18-h tests, this being due to time considerations and that through initial macrosectioning WECs were first found at ~ 1.7–2.6 mm from the outer edge. Inclusions were recorded during coarse serial sectioning; only inclusions recorded in the outer roller half being displayed. Coarse serial sectioning was conducted on the 18-h raceway sections at intervals of ~ 50 µm, starting at the contact surface (0.00 mm) up to a total depth of ~ 500 µm. The individual fine and coarse serial sectioning interval ranges for rollers and raceway sections are listed in Table 2.

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    WEC Tomography and 3D Crack Modelling

    One of the individual WECs recorded in the 6-h test (WEC-10 R2) had each fine serial sectioning slice interval image at 200× magnification aligned using layering tools using Photoshop CS3 and subsequently stacked. The image stacks are then used to make a video using Fiji software showing an orthoslice sweep through the volume of steel showing the WECs morphology in 3D from start to finish.

    The total WEC damage recorded in one individual roller (Roller 1) from the 18-h test was modelled in 3D. Optical microscope images at 200× of every individually recorded WEC in the roller were segmented at 0.25 mm intervals across the roller from outer to inner edge (0–11 mm). These images were then aligned and stacked before being imported into Fiji software where interpolation between individually segmented WECs was conducted. 3D models were subsequently constructed using Aviso and VGStudio MAX software. Animations of the 3D model were constructed using VGStudio MAX and Fiji.

    WEA Volume Analysis

    ImageJ has been used to quantitatively analyse the average total volume (μm3) and area (μm2) of white etching microstructural alteration associated with individual WECs across the RCF test durations. Five individual slices taken from start to finish across four individual WECs from the 4–18-h tests were analysed (see Fig. 3). At each slice (1–5), the WEA associated with the WEC is segmented in 2D to give the total WEA (μm2) for that particular slice. Multiplication of the individual total WEAs at the 2nd, 3rd (middle) and 4th slices with the axial length between slices plus the total WEA at the 1st and 5th slices gives the total WEA volume (μm3) for that particular WEC, i.e. 1st WEA + 2nd WEA (axial distance between 1st and 2nd) + 3rd WEA (axial distance between 2nd and 3rd) + 3rd WEA (axial distance between 3rd and 4th) + 4th WEA (axial distance between 4th and 5th) + 5th WEA. The average WEA volume for each RCF test duration is then calculated for comparison based upon the 4 WECs analysed. It is important to note that this approximates the WEA volume found associated with the crack, and therefore measurements can be over-/underestimated and not fully representative of the actual amount of WEA present.

    Schematic illustrating the methodology of WEA volume measurements

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    Surface analysis of a typical indent found on the 18-h rollers. a Optical macroimage of roller indicating location of indent on the contact surface. b Magnified optical image of the indent. c Depth profile analysis of the indent

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    Optical macroscope images of a single roller from each RCF test duration (2–18 h) and 18-h raceway sections chosen for subsequent sectioning. Images ae show one of the 60° interval zones around the circumference of the roller. f Overview image of raceway sections (S1–S4). Images gj are optical macroimages of the corresponding sections (S1–S4) shown in f. S denotes sample number

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    Optical images of 18-h surface connections and near-surface interactions. a WEC-9 R1 surface connection, surface connection length in axial sectioning direction < 30 μm. b WEC-9 R2 surface connection, surface connection length ~ 500 μm. c WEC-11 R2 near-surface interaction. df ×500 optical images of the surface connections and near-surface interactions shown in (ac). Over-rolling direction (OD) left to right

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    Optical images of typical 18-h near-surface WEA/WEC features (af). Over-rolling direction (OD) left to right

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    Optical images of mapped WECs and inclusion–WEC interactions at 4, 6 and 18 h. ad represent the individual slices from start (slice 1) to finish (slice 4) of mapped 4-h WEC-9 R1. SEM image, e shows inclusion–WEC interaction from (a) slice 1 with corresponding EDX chemical maps. fm) Mapped 6-h WEC-3 R2, images (fm) represent the individual slice images from start (slice 1) to near finish (slice 8). Images gi show the location of the inclusion–WEC interaction. n is an SEM image of the inclusion–WEC interaction from h (slice 3) with corresponding EDX chemical maps. o SEM image of inclusion–WEC interaction recorded in 18-h WEC-1 R1 with corresponding location of the inclusion–WEC interaction shown in optical image p. A key above the images details how to interpret the inclusion–WEC interaction information in each case

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    Images of typical inclusion–WEC interactions recorded at 6 and 18 h. Images ad show the location of the inclusion–WEC interactions from SEM images eh, respectively, at 6 h. Images ip are optical images of typical inclusion–WEC interactions recorded at 18 h. k and l show an example of a butterfly WEC with corresponding inclusion linking to another inclusion in the WEC network, l showing a magnified image of the highlighted region. Arrows highlight the inclusion in each case. See Fig. 8 and ‘Appendix B’ for more information on the inclusion ranking system

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    a Spatial distribution and depth of inclusion–WEC interactions w.r.t the depth of maximum subsurface sheer stresses judged to have a high likelihood of crack initiation (rank 1 or 2). See Fig. 8 and ‘Appendix B’ for more information on the inclusion ranking system

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    3D model of total WEC damage recorded across 18-h R1. a Optical cross-sectional image of a WEC. b 2D segmentation of WEC from optical image in (a). c Placement of 2D segmented WEC into its relative position across the roller. df 3D model with all WECs highlighted in red across the roller from outer to inner edge. See Video 2

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    a Distribution of individual WECs recorded in 4–18-h rollers across the entire axial length (x-axis) of rollers from outer to inner edge and corresponding mid-range depth below the contact surface (0.00 mm) (y-axis). Pressure P, absolute sliding velocity V and slip energy PV are also represented (adapted from [49]). b 3D plot of all independently recorded WECs across 4–18 h. X-axis represents the entire axial length of the roller from outer to inner edge. Y-axis represents the mid-range depth below the contact surface (0.00 mm). Z-axis represents the maximum span (see ‘Appendix C’ for details). The dots on the YZ-projection represent the position of each independent WEC in the Y-axis and Z-axis. The distances between spheres for each WEC represent the total length in the X-axis

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    a Average WEC dimensions in the rollers across 2–18-h tests, see ‘Appendix C’ for details on measurement of relevant crack dimensions. b WEC severity index in the rollers for the 2–18-h tests

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    WEA volume and area analysis. a Representative average WEA across 2–18 h. b Total WEA volume versus axial length of WEC. c Total WEA measured vs the respective angle of the WEC for 5 different randomly chosen WECs at 18 h

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    Hypothesised mechanisms of near-surface (< 25 μm) WEA/WECs formation. H+ denotes molecular hydrogen, H denoting monoatomic hydrogen diffused into the bearing steel. e denotes free electrons at the fresh nascent surface. ‘P’ and ‘σ’ denote pressure and yield stress, respectively

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    Optical images of WECs recorded at 4–18 h. af) show examples of typical WECs recorded between 4 and 18 h. e Super-imposed image of the 12-h WEC shown in (d), the inclusion highlighted in red. g Proposed stages of WEC evolution; (1) initiation via inclusion in the subsurface, (2) propagation into ‘star-like’ WEC (see b), (3) further propagation in radial and over-rolling direction, (4a) continued propagation, (4b) coalescing of independent WECs to form larger WEC networks and (5) final propagation to the surface resulting in flaking. Over-rolling direction (OR) is from left to right (Color figure online)

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    In addition, ImageJ has also been used to quantify the area (μm2) vs. WEC angle w.r.t the axis of compression (θ) (see Fig. 17d) for 5 individual WECs from the 18-h test. For each WEC, one plane from the sectioning analysis has been taken (approximately the middle slice, see Fig. 3). Individual WEAs have then been segmented out in the same way as described above and in Fig. 3. However, in addition the angle of the WEC w.r.t the axis of compression associated with the segmented WEA region is recorded. Cracks are recorded between 0° (a crack that is perpendicular to the compression) and ± 90° (a vertical crack in the same direction as the compression).

    Optical image of a WEC demonstrating the influence of crack angle w.r.t the axis of compression and depth of maximum subsurface shear stresses (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm) on the formation of WEAs. a Areas 1 and 2 show two different orientations of crack propagation, Area 1 shows cracks at an angle θ to the axis of compression along with a vertical crack parallel to the compression axis, and the zones of maximum subsurface shear stresses are also shown. Area 2 shows a vertical crack parallel to the compression axis. b, c show magnified ×500 images of the two areas, respectively. d is a schematic demonstrating the influence of crack orientation angle w.r.t the direction of compression and the associated action of crack rubbing/beating

    Full size image

    Materials Characterisation

    Steel Cleanliness

    Steel cleanliness analysis was performed under ISO 4967-B standard [48] to measure the density of NMIs in the rollers and raceway washers. Analysis was conducted at the Dr. Sommer Werkstofftechnik GmbH laboratory. An Olympus BX51M optical microscope and software (analysis auto version 5.2 + Inclusion Inspector) was used for automatic detection of the inclusion size, type and count. A global severity index (Ci) was given to the inclusions recorded during the analysis. Under the thresholds set by the ISO 4967-B standard, the global cleanliness index Ci was found to be 0.2 and 1.5 for the raceway and roller, respectively. Analysis of the raw cleanliness data (these data including the addition of NMIs recorded outside of the thresholds set by the ISO 4967-B standard) gave global cleanliness index Ci of 35.6 and 344.1 for the raceway and roller, respectively.

    Results

    Contact Surface Inspection

    Wear across the rollers for increasing RCF test durations has been observed on both sides of the central pure rolling region corresponding to the outer and inner zones (see Fig. 5). RCF test durations of 2–12 h showed very little surface damage. The 18-h test showed visible signs of damage on the outer half in the form of dents/impressions, but conversely little surface damage on the inner (see Figs. 4a, 5). Surface analysis of a typical indent using SEM (JEOL JSM-6500F) and optical profilometry (Alicona InfiniteFocusSL) revealed the indent to have a width of ~ 800 μm and maximum depth of ~ 2 μm (see Fig. 4). No signs of spalling were found on the rollers that were subsequently sectioned; however, spalling was observed on other rollers from the same bearing. Figure 5 shows the wear and damage across the 2–18-h rollers. Inspection of the raceway washer sections at 18 h revealed little surface damage. Again wear zones can be seen on either side of the central pure rolling region, see Fig. 5.

    Metallographic Analysis

    Fine Serial Sectioning

    The results from the fine serial sectioning analysis are described below and are detailed in Table 3.

    Full size table

    2h

    No WECs or butterflies were recorded.

    6h

    Ten individual WECs were recorded. Eight of these were mapped from start to finish (imaging at every slice), no surface connections being recorded. Through WEC tomography, the 3D morphology of one of the fully mapped WECs (WEC-10 R2) can be seen in Video 1. Five out of eight WECs had their respective images at 500× magnification aligned in strips from start to finish, an example is shown in Fig. 8. Twenty-four butterflies were recorded. Twelve inclusion interactions were recorded (see Figs. 8, 9 for examples), 9 inclusions interacting with the 8 fully mapped WECs, with multiple inclusion–WEC interactions being recorded for single WECs. Every WEC had at least 1 inclusion–WEC interaction. Small sized (~ 2–15 μm) globular sulphide-oxides (DDup) and globular oxide (D) were the most common inclusions found. All 12 inclusions were evaluated as having either a rank of 1 or 2 (see details about the ranking system in ‘Appendix B’ and Fig. 8). Spatial distributions and depth of inclusion–WEC interactions are shown in Fig. 10.

    18h

    Seventy-eight individual WECs were recorded; no WECs were mapped (see [24] for 3D mapping and orthoslice sweep videos of 18.5-h WECs in their entirety). Sixteen out of seventy-eight WECs made a surface connection or near-surface interaction (< 1 μm below the contact surface); the near-surface interactions show no apparent connection with the contact surface when viewed under optical microscope at 1000× magnification (Fig. 6c). Most surface connections at 18 h have small surface connection/interaction crack volumes (< 1 μm) with short connection lengths with respect to sectioning in the axial direction (a few slice intervals) (see Fig. 6a). This being opposed to some surface connections that span over multiple slices and hundreds of microns (see Fig. 6b). A significant number of small individual WEA/WECs were also found in the near-surface zone (< 25 μm), 8700 of these features being recorded (see Fig. 7 for examples) where evidence for the propagation or coalescence of these features was not seen. Fifty inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded, multiple inclusion interactions being found for single WECs. Small sized (~ 2–15 μm) globular sulphide-oxides (DDup) and globular oxides (D) were the most frequent inclusions found to interact, thirty out of fifty inclusions being ranked as either 1 or 2 regarding initiation of WECs; examples are shown in Fig. 9. Spatial distributions and depth of inclusion interactions are presented in Fig. 10. Further inclusion–WEC interaction examples from an 18.5-h RCF test can been found in [24]. Sixteen butterflies were recorded.

    Coarse Serial Sectioning

    The results from the coarse serial sectioning analysis are described below and are detailed in Table 3.

    4h

    Through analysis of 3 × rollers only, one WEC (WEC-9 R1) was found, this WEC being comparable (but smaller in size) to the smallest WECs recorded at 6 h. It should also be noted that this WEC could be judged as a butterfly; however, due to the forking nature of the crack tip it is of the authors opinion that this is an extended butterfly or WEC. WEC-9 R1 was subsequently mapped (serial sectioned). No connection to the surface was made. After mapping, standard sectioning resumed. Individual slice images of WEC-9 R1 were aligned in a strip and are shown in Fig. 8. One inclusion–WEC interaction was recorded (see Fig. 8), a small (~ 6 μm) globular Al2O3 (DDup) rank 1 inclusion. Spatial distribution and depth of this inclusion interaction can be seen in Fig. 10. Eleven butterflies were recorded.

    6h

    Coarse serial sectioning was conducted on the same rolling elements after serial sectioning; WECs had not finished during fine serial sectioning, cracks continuing to be recorded. The total number of WECs equals the sum of WECs not finished during fine serial sectioning plus the coarse serial sectioning. Fourteen individual WECs were recorded. No surface connections were recorded. One inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded; this is likely due to the larger sectioning intervals where inclusions may have been missed or removed during sectioning due to their typical small size (~ 2–15 μm). Six butterflies were recorded.

    12h

    Twenty-seven individual WECs were recorded with no surface connections. Eleven inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded, and 12 butterflies, inclusion–WEC interaction spatial distributions are shown in Fig. 10.

    18h

    Coarse serial sectioning was conducted after serial sectioning on the same rolling elements, WECs being recorded as in the case of the 6-h test described above. One hundred and forty-five individual WECs were recorded. Nineteen surface connections were found. Nine inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded; their respective spatial distributions are shown in Fig. 10. Likewise, inclusion–WEC interactions may have been lost due to larger sectioning intervals. Two butterflies were recorded. Also note that the number of near-surface WEA/WECs features recorded through fine serial sectioning significantly decreased in number when going from the outer to the inner roller halves.

    No signs of ‘conventional’ WEC/WEAs were recorded in the raceway washers. However, some fine ‘WEC-like lines’ have been observed in 18.5-h raceway segments [24], but no extensive WECs were found.

    Summary of Sectioning Analysis

    Table 3 and Figs. 12, 13 summarise the combined fine and coarse serial sectioning results. Figure 13 provides the average WEC dimensions for the 2–18-h tests.

    A WEC severity index has been calculated based upon the WEC length in the axial sectioning direction, the radial length of the WEC (maximum depth minus minimum depth) and the maximum WEC span, see Fig. 13. The average severity of WEC formations across 2–18 h (averaged across 3× rolling elements) has been calculated as well as the average severity in individual rollers and the outer and inner halves at 18 h.

    The total WEC damage recorded across roller 1 from the 18-h test has been modelled in 3D. This is to visualise the extent, density and distribution of damage seen typically at the late stages of RCF before failure, see Fig. 11 (see Video 2 for a 2D segmentation, 3D orthoslice sweep through the entire volume of the roller representing each individual WEC recorded across the roller from outer to inner edge). Figure 11a shows an example of an axial slice cross-sectional image of one of the WECs recorded in 18-h R1 that was subsequently segmented in 2D and placed in its relative position in the roller (see Fig. 11b, c). Figure 11d, e, f shows three views of the 3D model.

    WEA Volume Analysis

    Results show the average amount of WEA volume increases with test duration (see Fig. 14a). The total ‘white etching area’ (μm2) when quantifying the WEA at five individual positions within the WEC (see Fig. 3) shows that the 3rd slice (middle zone) of the WEC network has on average the greatest amount of WEA associated (see Fig. 14a). Total WEA volume versus respective WEC axial length for the WECs analysed shows that for an axial crack length over 500 μm a significant increase in total WEA volume exists (see Fig. 14b). Analysis of 5 individual WECs has shown that a greater amount of WEA is associated with a crack that propagates nearer to 0° (perpendicular w.r.t to the axis of compression). Vertically propagating cracks nearer to 90° (parallel to the axis of compression) showing far less WEA (see Fig. 14c).

    Discussion

    RCF Testing

    This study has used contact pressure Pmax at 1.56 GPa to recreate WECs in CRTBs on a FAG-FE8 test rig lubricated with a ‘special’ oil known to promote WSF. It must be taken into account that the FAG-FE8 test rig has differing dynamics to those experienced by WTGBs during service, e.g. the relatively high slip experienced in the CRTBs. However, large slippage can occur during rapid acceleration/deceleration of the shaft in wind turbine gearboxes [50] and transient events causing ~ 20–110% SRR in WTGBs [51]. Simulations have revealed that moderate sliding occurs (3–10% SRR) continuously for spherical roller bearings in intermediate shaft locations of the gearbox at roller–raceway interface in the unloaded zone [51].

    Features of WECs

    Near-Surface WEAs/WECs

    Serial sectioning analysis of 18-h rollers revealed a large number of small near-surface (< 25 µm zone) WEC/WEAs (see Fig. 7). These were rarely seen with connection to the contact surface, limited interaction with inclusions, and it was also found in cases that there was no apparent presence of a crack; thus, evidence shows that a crack is unnecessary for WEAs to form in this case. These near-surface features were predominantly found in the outer half of the rollers with a decrease in their respective numbers being found across the inner half. The occurrence of these near-surface features has been documented previously by the authors in FAG-FE8 tests [24], hydrogen charged TE-74 two-roller specimens during RCF testing [6] and actual WTGBs from service [1], where rare connection to the contact surface has been found with limited cases of inclusion interaction [6].

    It is hypothesised that the occurrence of these features is a result of either, or a combination of; (1) an increase in traction between contacts at later stages of RCF operation, resulting in a rise of the maximum subsurface shear stress zone towards the surface. This would be significantly increased in the case of insufficient lubrication and higher surface roughness; (2) microindentations at the contact surface causing local regions of mixed/boundary lubrication regimes increasing the traction coefficient; (3) areas of localised increase in contact pressure, and (4) increase in the concentration of mobile diffusible hydrogen over longer RCF operation [44], where locally at the near-surface, higher localised penetration and concentrations may exist and aid in the acceleration of these features. Figure 15 illustrates the hypothesised mechanisms for the formation of these features.

    WEC Initiation and Evolution

    Analysis has shown that the propensity and average size (see Fig. 13) of WECs recorded in the rollers increase with RCF test duration (see Table 3, and Fig. 12, 13) no WECs being found in the raceway. Two factors to explain this could be: (1) steel cleanliness has shown that the raceway is ‘cleaner’ than the roller (see Sect. 2.3.1); (2) a lack of hydrogen being available to accelerate WEC formations [44]; and (3) the raceway is ~ 23% softer (590 HV) than the rollers (765 HV); therefore, the raceway is less prone to cracking due to an increased toughness. The importance of high toughness steel has been highlighted in the reduction in intergranular subsurface cracking and the subsequent movement of crack faces in generating WEA [41]. It is well recognised that hydrogen affects high strength steels, where hydrogen in its atomic mobile form is able to retain its mobility [52]. Hydrogen has, however, been shown to have little influence on toughness and no effect on the hardness of 100Cr6 bearings steel [53]. To confirm the non-existence of WECs in the raceway washer, at a later date 9 randomly selected individual sliver sections of raceway were mounted such that the sections were examined in the opposite axial direction (side on instead of top down contact surface direction). Two sections at 100-um intervals were taken and examined through optical microscopy. No evidence of WECs was found.

    No WECs were recorded at 2 h; this could be thought logical due to the short RCF test time. Results show that the number, size and severity of WECs do not increase linearly (see Fig. 12, 13), a ramped increase seen at the later stages of RCF operation (12–18 h). This could be due to WECs coalescing to form larger crack networks resulting in a ‘weakening’ of the surrounding steel accelerating WEC growth, this being heightened in the event of a sufficient threshold concentration of diffusible hydrogen being reached [44]. Variance in severity is also observed between rollers. This highlights the importance of analysing a representative volume of steel. Differences in the severity between outer and inner roller halves at 18 h are also shown, the outer half having a greater severity than the inner.

    Condition monitoring on FAG-FE8 tests [29] has suggested a rapid release of subsurface WECs occurring at ~ 20% outstanding RCF test time before WSF failure. This is proposed to be due to the steel experiencing a failure-free period (no WECs detected), in which energy is absorbed (explained by Barkhausen noise (BN) measurements [54]), a limit being reached with a sudden release of WECs. This failure-free period could be local subsurface transformations that have been observed as ‘crack-free’ dark etching regions suggested to lead to the formation of WEA and subsequently WEC [39]. This investigation shows that WECs do exist during this period before a sudden rupture occurs, ~ 20% outstanding RCF time corresponding to 14.4 h, WECs being recorded between 4 and 12 h.

    When comparing the inclusion–WEC interactions recorded at 4–18 h, the inclusions are: (1) consistent in type and size, typically small/short ~ 2–15 μm DDup or D-type inclusions, (2) the inclusion–WEC interaction depths are within/close to the zones of maximum subsurface shear stress (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm), specifically at the early stages of RCF (4 and 6 h) where initiation is suggested to occur (see Fig. 8), and (3) when visually comparing the inclusion–WEC interactions recorded across 4–18 h, a number of similarities in regard to crack shape/angle and continuity, inclusion type and size, direction of crack propagation and location of inclusion within the WEC network can be observed (see Figs. 9, 10, 16). It is therefore proposed that the WECs recorded in this study were formed as a result of WECs that initiated at NMIs in the subsurface, individual WECs propagating and coalescing at later stages of RCF (12–18 h) to form larger WEC networks. It can also be said that the 19 WECs that did make a connection to the contact surface at 18 h are likely formed as a result of subsurface initiation at inclusions. A number of these surface connections/interactions had very small contact crack volumes and connection to the surface over short axial lengths (see Fig. 6a–c); it is proposed that these connections are not sufficient to drive such extensive WEC networks in the subsurface. Note that a number of these surface connections were in fact very near (< 1 μm) surface ‘interactions’ (see Fig. 6c, f), where under optical microscopy no apparent connection to the contact surface was observed. Further evidence for subsurface initiation comes from the fact that for the 9 fully mapped subsurface WECs at 4 and 6 h, each WEC had at least one or multiple inclusion–WEC interactions. Additional evidence to support subsurface initiation of WECs by NMIs is shown through the visual comparison of typical recorded WECs across the 4–18-h tests (see Fig. 16). As it can be seen the initial shape and propagation route of WECs at 4 and 6 h follow a close link to those WECs recorded at 12 and 18 h, this is in conjunction with the fact that the inclusion–WEC interactions are also closely linked by the similarities discussed above. At 4 and 6 h, WECs are found to initially resemble butterfly cracks, which propagate into ‘star-like’ cracks with forking of the butterfly crack tips. This ‘star-like’ crack shape can be seen to fit a number of the WECs found at 12 and 18 h as shown in Fig. 16. It is thus proposed that the WECs recorded at 4 and 6 h are the early initiation stages of WECs that subsequently propagate and evolve into the large WEC networks recorded at 18 h. The proposed evolutionary stages of WEC initiation are shown in Fig. 16g.

    The outer and inner roller halves have shown to significantly influence the propensity and size of WEC formations, the outer half being dominant over the inner (see Table 3, Figs. 11, 12, 13 and Video 2). Slip has been shown to influence the formation of WECs in both FAG-FE8 and three ring roller micropitting rig (MPR) tests using the same ‘special’ oil known used in this study [29, 55, 56], where evidence for the influence of negative slip being more dominant in WSF over positive slip is provided [56]. More recently the influence of slip on WEC formations has also been shown in a two-disc test rig set-up, where again negative slip showed dominance in WEC production in contrast to positive [57]. This dominance has been attributed to higher material stressing, lowered fracture mechanic properties under alternating load and preferential surface crack propagation due to the traction force and surface motion vectors pointing in the same direction in negative slip as opposed to positive [57]. It is proposed that negative slip results in the compressive closure of cracks enhancing the crack rubbing mechanism for WEA formation [56]. The localisation of the WECs recorded across 4–18 h is more densely populated in the 2–3 mm (outer) and 8–9 mm (inner) zones across the roller (see Fig. 12, Video 2). These zones correspond to areas of high slip energy (PVmax, the product of contact pressure P and slip velocity V, MPa ms−1, see Fig. 12), slip energy taking into account asperity contact (PcV value which takes into account the asperity contact pressure Pc) and asperity friction accumulation ea,c max which relates the regeneration time span between consecutive contact load cycles on tested WEC lives and the specific frictional energy input into the a surface during the contact load cycle [58]. Slip energy criteria have been linked to WSF, WSF occurring at areas of greatest PVmax. These areas have also been found to coincide with zones of highest concentrations of hydrogen [50, 59, 60]. Supporting evidence for the slip energy criterion has been shown on FAG-FE8 tests where WECs appeared firstly at areas of high frictional energy, this also being demonstrated in tests using angular contact ball bearings [29, 58]. A number of inclusion–WEC interactions were also recorded during fine serial sectioning corresponding to the 2–3-mm zone of high slip energy dissipation and asperity accumulation (see Fig. 10). Further progression of the slip energy criteria concept has been developed based upon information from different test rigs, using normal contact load and representing the slip energy criteria per film thickness sheared (N V/λ, N ms−1) to determine a threshold for WEC formation in most roller bearing configurations [21, 61]. It is postulated that this threshold could exist due to the fact that sliding energy generates local flash temperatures influencing the tribochemical reactions taking place at nascent surfaces [62]. Limitations, however, do exist as this criterion does not take into account the lubricant formulation. Evidence for the degree of boundary lubrication (the range of λ) controlling the propensity for WEC formation is also suggested, more WECs forming for more severe boundary regimes (λ in the range of 0.06–0.7) [56]. No WECs were found in the raceway washers, with no evidence of WEC formations being observed in the zones corresponding to high slip energy dissipation or asperity friction accumulation. It is noted that the asperity friction energy accumulation is greater in the washers than the rollers, where energy dissipation is greater in the inner raceway than the outer (see Fig. 6, [58]). This is contradictory to the result seen in this study, this discrepancy not being understood.

    WEA Volume

    Metallographic analysis has shown that the volume of WEA associated with cracks increases for longer RCF test operation. Through quantitative WEA analysis, the average WEA volume (μm3) and area (μm2) associated with cracks increased between 4 and 18 h, a ramped increase found between 12 and 18 h (see Fig. 14a). Analysis also reveals that for greater axial WEC lengths a significant increase in the associated WEA volume is found (Fig. 14b). It is proposed that the evidence found in this study supports the theory of crack rubbing/beating in the formation of WEAs [36]. As WECs grow and propagate during RCF operation, further crack rubbing/beating occurs at the newly formed crack faces, larger cracks having a greater amount of ‘free’ crack faces available for extended crack rubbing/beating to occur. This can also be exhibited in Fig. 16 where it can be seen that the amount of WEA associated with the cracks increases across 4–18 h, an increase being observed between 12 and 18 h. Further to this, by visually observing the mapped WECs at 4 and 6 h (see Fig. 8) a decrease in WEA volume is seen at the start and ends of the WEC, i.e. the extreme tips when visualised as a 3D network. Taking for example the 6-h WEC in Fig. 8, where it is proposed that the inclusion is the site of initiation; it can be seen that the volume of WEA is greater around the inclusion site (see Fig. 8g) than at the end ‘tips’ where branching/forking has occurred (final stages of propagation) where it is proposed that less time has been available for crack rubbing/beating. This is also exhibited in two videos through serial sectioning of an 18.5-h FAG-FE8 test previously conducted by the authors [24]. This point is strengthened through WEA analysis where it has shown that the average amount of WEA (μm2) is less at the tips (1st (start) and 5th (end) measurements) than at the centre (3rd (middle) measurement) (see Fig. 14a). As discussed, a large number of near-surface WEA/WECs were recorded at 18 h (see Table 3, Fig. 7). A number of these features were found not associated with a crack, leading to the conclusion that near-surface WEAs do not seem to require a crack to form WEA. However, note that in this study only optical microscopy has been used in the classification of WEAs associated with cracks, further analysis using SEM to confirm the non-existence of small cracks that may be present inside the WEA regions should be conducted.

    Through metallographic analysis, it is indicated that the angle of crack propagation, crack width and zone of maximum subsurface shear stresses can influence the degree of WEA generated. WEA analysis has shown that the amount of WEA associated with a crack increases the nearer to 0° or perpendicular to the axis of compression a crack propagates (see Fig. 14c). A vertical crack ± 90° parallel to the axis of compression is found to have very little WEA associated (see Fig. 14c). This is also exhibited clearly in the 18-h crack shown in Fig. 17. As suggested by others [36], it is proposed that a vertically branching crack will be subjected to a much lesser amount of crack rubbing. The localisation of strain has been found to be strongly reliant on crack orientation in relation to stress [63]. High strain rate compressive tests have shown regions of WEA [64], this being in comparison with equivalent tensile tests; as a result it is proposed that crack rubbing/beating under RCF shear stresses or compressive loading results in WEA formations and thus adiabatic shearing is an unlikely cause [65]. The crack width also appears to influence WEA formations. For example, in Fig. 18 it is seen that very little or no WEAs are associated with sections (Area 1) of the WEC that have large crack width when compared to crack faces that are close together (Area 2). It is proposed that for adjacent crack faces that are further apart, less action is available for crack rubbing/beating. This is not to say, however, that these particular areas of the WEC network would have not been associated with WEAs at some point during operation. The proposed mechanism (see Fig. 18) to explain this is as follows: (1) inclusion initiation of butterfly and ‘star-like’ WECs with subsequent generation of WEAs due to crack rubbing/beating. (2) WECs propagate and WEAs continue to develop. (3) Short crack growth from inclusions/butterflies by Mode I loading [66] stops and further growth is governed by Mode II/III shear loading if the Mode II/III stress intensity factor threshold is surpassed [66], WECs may propagate and coalesce to form larger networks. Until a critical length is reached, crack growth rate may be slow, where once exceeded rapid propagation results under applied stress. (4) Due to the rapid growth of the crack and crack volume, the time and action available for WEA development is alleviated and thus a reduction or non-existent presence of WEA is seen. In the event of hydrogen diffusion, hydrogen acts to decrease the Mode I/II stress limits for crack growth and propagation [66, 67], it may be reasoned that this step increase in WEC formations is due to a threshold concentration of hydrogen being reached for a decrease in Mode II crack growth [44].

    Optical image of a WEC demonstrating the influence of crack width on the generation of WEAs. Area 1 shows a large crack width, and Area 2 shows a small crack width, with respective magnified optical images. The proposed mechanism for the development of WEA w.r.t crack width is shown. Over-rolling (OR) direction left to right

    Full size image

    Analysis also indicates that the zone of maximum subsurface shear stresses influences WEA generation. This is most clearly exhibited in WECs recorded at 18 h. For example, WEC-2 R1 in Fig. 17 shows that a greater amount of WEA exists within and in the regions around the zone of maximum subsurface shear stresses (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm).

    Inclusion–WEC Interactions and Steel Cleanliness

    Eighty-two NMIs were recorded during the metallographic analysis; 62 were ranked with a high likelihood of WEC initiation (rank 1 or 2). Most inclusions were found to be small sized (~ 2–15 μm (diameter) and ~ 4–21 μm in axial length) globular duplex inclusions (globular manganese and/or calcium sulphide surrounding aluminate) (DDup) and globular oxide inclusions (D). At the early infant stages of WEC formation (4 and 6 h), DDup and D-type inclusions were found to interact with the WECs, EDX analysis of inclusions at these stages being either Al2O3 or MnS surrounding Al2O3. Inclusion types found to interact with the large WEC networks found at the later stages of RCF duration (18 h) are consistent with those found at the early infant stages. This agrees with the findings found from the 18.5-h RCF test in [24] that found 49 NMIs and 41 rank 1 or 2 NMIs in 5 fully mapped WECs, these predominantly being small sized (~ 2–15 μm) DDup,DDupTi(C,N) and D-type inclusions. The oxide encapsulations are responsible for hardness discrepancy with the martensite matrix, induced tensile residual stresses due to differing coefficients of thermal expansion and weak coherence/de-bonding of the oxide and matrix [9, 68, 69]. The majority of the inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded at a depth of ~ 50–200 μm, this being consistent with the depth of high subsurface shear stresses (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm) (see Fig. 10).

    Steel cleanliness analysis indicates that the raceway is ‘cleaner’ than the rollers (Ci = 1.5 (standard) and Ci = 344.1 (non-standard) for the rollers and (Ci = 0.2 (standard) and Ci = 35.6 (non-standard) for the raceway). The ‘cleaner’ raceway would therefore have fewer inclusions available to initiate cracks, which could explain why no WECs were recorded. The lower cleanliness and therefore greater density of inclusions in the rollers would also lead to an increased propensity for WECs to initiate and coalesce to form more extensive networks, this being elevated if inclusions lie in critical locations. It is important to note the significant increase in Ci when only counting inclusions recorded under the thresholds set by the ISO 4967-B standard [48] and when counting inclusions recorded outside of these domains; however, the ratio difference in cleanliness between the roller and raceway remains similar. Small/short inclusions have been found to be dominant in initiating and interacting with WECs. Thresholds set by the standard do not factor in these small/short inclusions, comparisons of the Ci highlighting the potential limitations of the standard when considering steels used in WTGBs. These limitations are currently being investigated and will be presented in a future study by the authors.

    Conclusions

    1. 1.

      Metallographic analysis has been used to map white etching crack (WEC) damage in RCF-tested bearings in standard 100Cr6 steel. For the first time, this study has captured the evolution of WEC formation, using serial sectioning methods to investigate the formation mechanisms of WECs in FAG-FE8-tested bearings under non-hydrogen charged conditions.

    2. 2.

      From the characteristics, location and apparent evolution of WECs over the increasing test durations, macro- and serial sectioning has enabled further verification of the author’s original revelations that (1) WECs can initiate and propagate entirely within the subsurface and (2) the frequent interaction with small/short inclusions strongly indicates that WECs can often be initiated by non-metallic inclusions. The inclusion interactions are ~ 2–15 μm in the circumferential direction, and ~ 4–21 μm in axial length, being globular sulphides (Dsulf), globular duplex inclusions (globular manganese and/or calcium sulphide surrounding aluminate) (DDup) and globular oxide inclusions (D). DDup and D-type inclusions are found to interact with the WECs at the early infant stages of WEC formation, inclusions being either Al2O3 or MnS surrounding Al2O3. Inclusion types found to interact with large WEC networks found at the later stages of RCF duration are consistent with those found at the early infant stages. The cleanliness of the roller and raceway were found to be significantly different, the rollers having a much lower cleanliness than the raceway, which may help explain why no WECs were found in the raceway sections. 

    3. 3.

      Detailed analysis of WEC characteristics across the test durations, such as quantification of the amount of WEA microstructural change associated with the WECs over the test durations, and also within certain planes of the WEC, has provided supporting evidence for the crack being a prerequisite to WEA, where a possible mechanism for this is crack face rubbing. Conversely to this mechanism, in the samples exposed to most test duration, numerous small very near-surface WEAs were also found without any visible crack; thus, evidently the formation of the microstructural change to WEA does not require the presence of a crack. Further analysis including SEM should be carried out, however, to also confirm the non-existence of small cracks associated with WEA as only light optical microscopy has been used in this study.

    4. 4.

      An interesting finding is a heterogeneous distribution of WEC formation occurred in the bearing rollers, most WECs forming in a relatively limited zone corresponding to where the largest energy dissipation occurs, agreeing with recent literature observations.

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    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
    Class 10 Economics NCERT chapter 2 explanation in hindi
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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
Class 10 Economics NCERT chapter 2 explanation in hindi
  • R How many Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen and females kids are on board?
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  • Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    The Evolution of White Etching Cracks (WECs) in Rolling Contact Fatigue-Tested 100Cr6 Steel

    Abstract

    The formation of white etching cracks (WECs) in steel rolling element bearings can lead to the premature rolling contact fatigue (RCF) failure mode called white structure flaking. Driving mechanisms are still debated but are proposed to be combinations of mechanical, tribochemical and electrical effects. A number of studies have been conducted to record and map WECs in RCF-tested samples and bearings failed from the field. For the first time, this study uses serial sectioning metallography techniques on Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen charged test samples over a range of test durations to capture the evolution of WEC formation from their initiation to final flaking. Clear evidence for subsurface initiation at non-metallic inclusions was observed at the early stages of WEC formation, and with increasing test duration the propagation of these cracks from the subsurface region to the contact surface eventually causing flaking. In addition, an increase in the amount of associated microstructural changes adjacent to the cracks is observed, this being indicative of the crack being a prerequisite of the microstructural alteration.

    Introduction

    Rolling element bearings used in wind turbine gearboxes suffer from a premature failure mode called white structure flaking (WSF). This typically occurs in 1–20% of the bearing’s L10 life, where the wind turbine lifetime is reduced from the predicted 20 years to < 2 years [1, 2]. WSF is due to the formation of white etching cracks (WECs) typically ~ 1 mm below the contact surface. WECs are networks of microcracks with an associated microstructural alteration called white etching area (WEA) which borders or is intermixed with the WEC. The appearance of WEA is revealed when etched in nital solution (2% nitric acid in ethanol). WEA is a nanocrystalline ferrite structure of grain sizes ~ 5–300 nm, ~ 10–50% harder than the surrounding matrix and comprised of wholly or partially dissolved spherical carbides found to be part of the WEA formation process [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. Amorphous-like phases have also been shown to be present in WEA, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, forming first before WEA is generated [8, 14, 15]. WEA has been proposed to exist in two ways: deformed WEA consisting predominantly of nanocrystallites and transformed WEA consisting of co-existence between nanocrystallites and amorphous phase [16].

    The formation drivers as well as the initiation and propagation mechanisms for WSF and WEC in rolling bearings are still highly debated but are thought be driven by combinations of mechanical, tribochemical and electrical effects including: (1) transient operating conditions such as wind gusts, load reversals, grid engagement, braking, generating high impact loads, vibrations and slip; (2) electrothermal and electrical effects; (3) tensile hoop stresses; and (4) hydrogen release and diffusion into the bearing steel (sourced from the lubricating oil and additives or water contamination). The proposed initiation and propagation mechanisms for WSF/WECs are: (1) surface initiation through two opposing mechanisms, (1) shear stress-induced fatigue microcracks [17] and (2) localised high circumferential tensile stress spontaneously induced cleavage-like axial cracks that initiate independently [5, 17, 18], at defects such as inclusions [17,18,19,20,21] or due to corrosion, machining defects or electrical erosion pits [21]; (2) subsurface initiation by non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) [5,6,7, 22,23,24,25,26], perhaps in some cases due to tensile stresses [27]; (3) adiabatic shear banding independent or including defects through impact events, cracks forming after microstructural changes occur [2, 28]; (4) self-charging of lubricants triggering localised transient current flow causing local electromagnetic induction that crosses the contact surface leading to electrothermal mechanisms triggering subsequent WEA microstructural change [29, 30]; (5) a multistage initiation of WECs as a result of migration of carbon under shear stress and high localised energy [31].

    Subsurface-initiated cracks are difficult to identify and quantify, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. When a ‘young’ crack is found, the mechanism of formation is easier to understand and is frequently believed to be revolved around NMIs. One technique used for recording WECs is the application of serial sectioning to map entire WECs in 3D. This technique has been perfected by the authors [6, 7, 24, 25] where it is confirmed that at least one mechanism of WEC formation is initiation and propagation in the subsurface, with strong evidence for subsurface initiation being at NMIs. Supporting evidence for subsurface initiation has been provided from 3D-mapping of entire WECs by X-ray microtomography conducted on high-speed wind turbine gearbox bearings (WTGBs) returned from the field [26, 32, 33] and an inner ring section of a large spherical roller bearing used in an industrial application [26]. X-ray tomography of this spherical roller bearing revealed large (> 26 μm in axial and circumferential length) multiphase inclusion combinations of Al, Mn and S elongated in the direction of over-rolling to have initiated subsurface WECs. Through metallographic analysis of field-returned WTGBs, it has also been found that small/short sized 8–24 μm MnS inclusions were mainly associated with butterfly/small-WEC crack initiation [22]. Analysis of failed low-speed shaft WTGBs, however, has found that oxide and dual phase inclusions are more detrimental than MnS inclusions [34]. Subsurface WECs and inclusion interactions have also been found through testing and metallographic analysis of WTGBs with induced tensile stresses from bearing seat deviation [27]. This supports evidence from previous studies conducted on WTGBs by authors of this manuscript [7] where predominantly small/short sized (3–20 μm) sulphides, globular oxides and globular MnS-oxide inclusions were recorded and judged likely initiators of WECs. It is proposed that small NMI-initiated WECs coalesce to form larger networks that eventually branch Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen the contact surface causing WSF or axial cracking [1, 4,5,6,7,8, 23,24,25].

    There is also debate on whether the crack or WEA microstructural change occurs first, whether WEAs form cooperatively with the crack and whether WEA forms gradually or suddenly, where proposed formation mechanisms include amorphisation [8, 14,15,16, 35], adiabatic shear, severe localised plastic deformation, low-temperature recrystallisation, carbide break-up and dissolution and electrothermal effects, these being extensively reviewed in [1]. One popular hypothesis is due to crack face rubbing causing a localised mechanical deformation during RCF (this being enhanced in the presence of diffusible hydrogen [36], higher concentrations could exist at these sites [37]), an associated material transfer from one side of the crack to the other occurs, and recrystallisation results [13, 37, 38]. A more recent hypothesis developed through modelling is energy dissipation at rubbing crack faces [35]. The developed crack model quantifies the amount of energy dissipated as a result of friction at crack faces; part of this energy is converted to heat and microstructural decay, WEA formation being a result of amorphisation due to high density dislocation accumulation. The energy generated during crack rubbing leading to amorphisation is also proposed to be sufficient to dissolve large amounts of carbides in the WEA [16]. A counter argument to crack rubbing comes through subsurface inspection using Barkhausen noise measurements, where subsurface changes are investigated without the presence of cracks [39]. A local transformation in the microstructure is observed as ‘crack-free’ irregular dark etching regions and is suggested to lead to the formation of WEAs. Similarities have been shown between microstructural alterations in WECs, and those alterations found in dark etch regions [40]. An experimental approach by artificially inducing microcracks into the steel prior to RCF has also shown that hard WEAs formed in close proximity to the microcracks, providing an experimental validation that cracks can be a precursor to WEA formations [12]. In an investigation to study the effect of brittleness on the generation of WEA, modified AISI 8620 steel was intentionally heat treated to produce intergranular embrittlement [41]. During RCF, cracks formed preferentially along the grain boundaries due to lowered toughness where WEA was found to form along these intergranular cracks. It is suggested that the movement of the crack faces under subsurface shear promoted the formation of WEAs along the crack faces. Finally subsurface crack rubbing has been shown to produce wear debris with an identical composition to the steel matrix, the wear debris being a result of the disintegration of lamellar structure formed during crack rubbing [16].

    This study uses extensive metallographic analysis including standard and serial sectioning techniques to record and map individual WECs in 3D and associated damage features in RCF-tested 100Cr6 steel cylindrical roller thrust bearings (CRTBs) on an FAG-FE8 test rig, this being a continuation of the works conducted previously by the authors [42, 43]. Many previous studies have applied different techniques to record and map WECs in failed bearings from the field and RCF-tested samples; however, little attempt has been made to record the evolution of WECs from their initiation to final flaking. This study aims to provide evidence for the stages of subsurface inclusion initiated WEC evolution for the first time to give valuable insight into this bearing degradation mechanism.

    There is an accompanying piece of work [44] to this investigation that explores the role of hydrogen diffusion in the RCF tests conducted in this study.

    Materials, Techniques and Experimental Methods

    Rolling Contact Fatigue Testing

    Testing was conducted on a standard FAG-FE8 rig (see Fig. 1). Two 100Cr6 steel CRTBs are tested simultaneously, usually used in the standardised test (DIN 51819-3). Two plate springs apply load. Each bearing has 15 individual rollers mounted in a brass cage sandwiched between two washer raceways (see Fig. 1c). The raceways are pre-roughened before testing to Rq values of 0.25 and 0.5 µm for the two bearings, respectively, the 0.5 µm bearing being focused upon. On the raceway at the centre of the bearing, contact zone exists a pure rolling condition with rising slip to the edges of up to ± 12.5% SRR along the contact major axis (see Fig. 1c, [45]). On the rollers, the slip zones experience both − ve and + ve directional slip, due to the roller being sandwiched between two raceways. Eight tests were conducted from 0 to 18 h, two of the tests (at 16.5 and 18 h) were shut down due to a vibration threshold limit being reached; other tests were shut down manually at pre-determined running durations (0 h control, 2 h, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, 4 h, 6 h, 6 h repeat and 12 h). The calculated maximum Hertzian contact pressure Pmax is in the range of ~ 1.5–1.9 GPa, this being in accordance with the contact length used for a range of lengths between 7 and 9 mm (this dependence taking into account the profile of the rolling element geometry and where roller/raceway contact is assumed to start based upon bearing drawings and software). The test conditions are shown in Table 1.

    a FAG-FE8 test rig, b schematic of test chamber (side on view), and c CRTB used in the RCF testing and slippage condition experienced. Adapted from [24]

    Full size image

    Full size table

    Initial minimum oil film thickness (hmin) between rollers and washer raceways is calculated using the Hamrock and Dowson visco-elastic equation [46, 47]; see Eq. (1). Lambda ratio (λ) has been calculated based upon hmin and the roughness (Rq) values given in Table 1, the bearing running in boundary lubrication throughout RCF testing; see Eq. (2). Fully formulated semi-synthetic gear oil was used as the lubricant for all tests (detailed in Table 1). The oil temperature in the contact is controlled at 100 °C during operation.

    It should be noted that no method to artificially induce WECs was used, such as pressure transients, hydrogen charging or applying electrical currents. The pressure, speed and temperature are in steady state. The lubricant used is known to readily induce WSF.

    Metallographic Analysis and Contact Surface Inspection

    Metallographic analysis including fine and coarse serial sectioning techniques was conducted on the RCF-tested bearing rollers and raceway washers to record and fully map individual WECs in 3D and associated damage features. Optical macroscopy was used to inspect the contact surface of the bearing parts before metallographic analysis.

    Before sectioning, the raceway washers were cut into ~ 20 × 20 mm sections, the rollers kept whole. Rollers and raceway sections were subsequently hot mounted in Bakelite. Rollers were mounted in groups of three for each test duration (excluding the 16.5-h test) to make sure analyses were statistically representative of each test duration. Raceway sections for the 18-h test only were mounted singularly, four individual sections being analysed covering ~ 1/3rd of the washer to inspect a representative area of steel. Notches were cut into the rollers to act as a marker for identifying individual WECs at each sectioning slice interval around the circumference, individual WECs, when recorded, being numbered in regard to the numbers around a clock face, the notch representing 12 o’clock. Rollers were mounted such that they were sectioned in the axial direction from the outer roller edge Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen to the inner. Raceway washers were mounted such that the contact surface was sectioned, material removal being performed in the radial z-direction. See Fig. 2 for sample preparation.

    Stages of sample preparation for rollers and raceway sections

    Full size image

    Sectioning was performed on automatic grinding/polishing machines (Struers TegraPol-15 with a TegraForce-1 and a Struers LaboPol-21 with a LaboForce-3) using 800, 1200 and 4000 SiC papers followed by 9 and 3 µm diamond suspension lubricants for the final polishing stages. The polished sample cross sections were then chemically etched in nital (2%) before imaging. Images were taken by optical microscopy (Olympus BX41 M-LED and BX51) at 50–200× magnification to map and record WECs, with 500× and 1000× magnifications accompanied with SEM/EDX (JEOL JSM-6500F SEM and Oxford Inca 300) to image and analyse inclusion–WEC interactions. Open source image processing software (ImageJ) was used to measure the dimensions of WECs and damage features. To create a controlled sectioning process, macro-Vickers indents were used to track the grinding/polishing removal rate as well as being used to track individual WECs.

    Contact Surface Inspection

    Optical macroscopy was conducted on the same rollers and raceway sections that were subsequently sectioned. Images were taken at 60° intervals around the circumference of the rollers, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. The four individual raceway sections were imaged to give an overview of the contact surface.

    Sectioning Analysis

    Fine serial sectioning was conducted on the 2- 6- and 18-h RCF tests with removal intervals of ~ 3.4–3.9 µm per slice.

    Coarse serial sectioning was conducted on the 4- and 12-h tests, and after fine serial sectioning on the same 6- and 18-h test rollers to continue recording WECs across the length of the rollers. Coarse serial sectioning was not conducted on the 2-h test due to no WECs being found through fine serial sectioning. Removal intervals were conducted at ~ 15, 30 or 50 µm per slice. Coarse serial sectioning was conducted from the outer roller edge through to the inner on the 6- 12- and 18-h tests, the 4-h test being cut short due to lack of WECs recorded. Coarse serial sectioning was conducted up to ~ 9.6–10.41 mm across the 6- 12- and 18-h tests, this being due to time considerations and that through initial macrosectioning WECs were first found at ~ 1.7–2.6 mm from the outer edge. Inclusions were recorded during coarse serial sectioning; only inclusions recorded in the outer roller half being displayed, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. Coarse serial sectioning was conducted on the 18-h raceway sections at intervals of ~ 50 µm, starting at the contact surface (0.00 mm) up to a total depth of ~ 500 µm. The individual fine and QuickBooks Premium 2010 crack serial keygen serial sectioning interval ranges for rollers and raceway sections are listed in Table 2.

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    WEC Tomography and 3D Crack Modelling

    One of the individual WECs recorded in the 6-h test (WEC-10 R2) had each fine serial sectioning slice interval image at 200× magnification aligned using layering tools using Photoshop CS3 and subsequently stacked. The image stacks are then used to make a video using Fiji software showing an orthoslice sweep through the volume of steel showing the WECs morphology in 3D from start to finish.

    The total WEC damage recorded in one individual roller (Roller 1) from the 18-h test was modelled in 3D. Optical microscope images at 200× of every individually recorded WEC in the roller were segmented at 0.25 mm intervals across the roller from outer to inner edge (0–11 mm). These images were then aligned and stacked before being imported into Fiji software where interpolation between individually segmented WECs was conducted. 3D models were subsequently constructed using Aviso and VGStudio MAX software. Animations of the 3D model were constructed using VGStudio MAX and Fiji.

    WEA Volume Analysis

    ImageJ has been used to quantitatively analyse the average total volume (μm3) and area (μm2) of white etching microstructural alteration associated with individual WECs across the RCF test durations. Five individual slices taken from start to finish across four individual WECs from the 4–18-h tests were analysed (see Fig. 3). At each slice (1–5), the WEA associated with the WEC is segmented in 2D to Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen the total WEA (μm2) for that particular slice. Multiplication of the individual total WEAs at the 2nd, 3rd (middle) and 4th slices with the axial length between slices plus the total WEA at the 1st and 5th slices gives the total WEA volume (μm3) for that particular WEC, i.e. 1st WEA + 2nd WEA (axial distance between 1st and 2nd) + 3rd WEA (axial distance between 2nd and 3rd) + 3rd WEA (axial distance between 3rd and 4th) + 4th WEA (axial distance between 4th and 5th) + 5th WEA. The average WEA volume for each RCF test duration is then calculated for comparison based upon the 4 WECs analysed. It is important to note that this approximates the WEA volume found associated with the crack, and therefore measurements can be over-/underestimated and not fully representative of the actual amount of WEA present.

    Schematic illustrating the methodology of WEA volume measurements

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    Surface analysis of a typical indent found on the 18-h rollers. a Optical macroimage of roller indicating location of indent on the contact surface. b Magnified optical image of the indent. c Depth profile analysis of the indent

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    Optical macroscope images of a single roller from each RCF test duration (2–18 h) and 18-h raceway sections chosen for subsequent sectioning, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. Images ae show one of the 60° interval zones around the circumference of the roller. f Overview image of raceway sections (S1–S4). Images gj are optical macroimages of the corresponding sections (S1–S4) shown in f. S denotes sample number

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    Optical images of 18-h surface connections and near-surface interactions. a WEC-9 R1 surface connection, surface connection length in axial sectioning direction < 30 μm. b WEC-9 R2 surface connection, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, surface connection length ~ 500 μm. c WEC-11 R2 near-surface interaction. df ×500 optical images of the surface connections and near-surface interactions shown in (ac). Over-rolling direction (OD) left to right

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    Optical images of typical 18-h near-surface WEA/WEC features (af). Over-rolling direction (OD) left to right

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    Optical images of mapped WECs and inclusion–WEC interactions at 4, 6 and 18 h. ad represent the individual slices from start (slice 1) to finish (slice 4) of mapped 4-h WEC-9 R1. SEM image, e shows inclusion–WEC interaction from (a) slice 1 with corresponding EDX chemical maps. fm) Mapped 6-h WEC-3 R2, images (fm) represent the individual slice images from start (slice 1) to near finish (slice 8). Images gi show the location of the inclusion–WEC interaction. n is an SEM image of the inclusion–WEC interaction from h (slice 3) with corresponding EDX chemical maps. o SEM image of inclusion–WEC interaction recorded in 18-h WEC-1 R1 with corresponding location of the inclusion–WEC interaction shown in optical image p. A key above the images details how to interpret the inclusion–WEC interaction information in each case

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    Images of typical inclusion–WEC interactions recorded at 6 and 18 h. Images ad show the location of the inclusion–WEC interactions from SEM images eh, respectively, at 6 h. Images ip are optical images of typical inclusion–WEC interactions recorded at 18 h. k and l show an example of a butterfly WEC with corresponding inclusion linking to another inclusion in the WEC network, l showing a magnified image of the highlighted region. Arrows highlight the inclusion in each case. See Fig. 8 and ‘Appendix B’ for more information on the inclusion ranking system

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    a Spatial distribution and depth of inclusion–WEC interactions w.r.t the depth of maximum subsurface sheer stresses judged to have a high likelihood of crack initiation (rank 1 or 2). See Fig. 8 and ‘Appendix B’ for more information on the inclusion ranking system

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    3D model of total WEC damage recorded across 18-h R1. a Optical cross-sectional image of a WEC. b 2D segmentation of WEC from optical image in (a). c Placement of 2D segmented WEC into its relative position across the roller. df 3D model with all WECs highlighted in red across the roller from outer to inner edge. See Video 2

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    a Distribution of individual WECs recorded in 4–18-h rollers across the entire axial length (x-axis) of rollers from outer to inner edge and corresponding mid-range depth below the contact surface (0.00 mm) (y-axis). Pressure P, absolute sliding velocity V and slip energy PV are Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen represented (adapted from [49]). b 3D plot of all independently recorded WECs across 4–18 h. X-axis represents the entire axial length of the roller from outer to inner edge. Y-axis represents the mid-range depth below the contact surface (0.00 mm). Z-axis represents the maximum span (see ‘Appendix C’ for details). The dots on the YZ-projection represent the position of each independent WEC in the Y-axis and Z-axis. The distances between spheres for each WEC represent the total length in the X-axis

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    a Average WEC dimensions in the rollers across 2–18-h tests, see ‘Appendix C’ for details on measurement of relevant crack dimensions. b WEC severity index in the rollers for the 2–18-h tests

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    WEA volume and area analysis, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. a Representative average WEA across 2–18 h. b Total WEA volume versus axial length of WEC. c Total WEA measured Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen the respective angle of the WEC for 5 different randomly chosen WECs at 18 h

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    Hypothesised mechanisms of near-surface (< 25 μm) WEA/WECs formation. H+ denotes molecular hydrogen, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, H denoting monoatomic hydrogen diffused into the bearing steel. e denotes free electrons at the fresh nascent surface. ‘P’ and ‘σ’ denote pressure and yield stress, respectively

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    Optical images of WECs recorded at 4–18 h. af) show examples of typical WECs recorded between 4 and 18 h. e Super-imposed image of the 12-h WEC shown in (d), the inclusion highlighted in red, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. g Proposed stages of WEC evolution; (1) initiation via inclusion in the subsurface, (2) propagation into ‘star-like’ WEC (see b), (3) further propagation in radial and over-rolling direction, (4a) continued propagation, (4b) coalescing of independent WECs to form larger WEC networks and (5) final propagation to the surface resulting in flaking. Over-rolling direction (OR) is from left to right (Color figure online)

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    In addition, ImageJ has also been used to quantify the area (μm2) vs. WEC angle w.r.t the axis of compression (θ) (see Fig. 17d) for 5 individual WECs from the 18-h test. For each WEC, one plane from the sectioning analysis has been taken (approximately the middle slice, see Fig. 3). Individual WEAs have then been segmented out in the same way as described above and in Fig. 3. However, in addition the angle of the WEC w.r.t the axis of compression associated with the segmented WEA region is recorded. Cracks are recorded between 0° (a crack that is perpendicular to the compression) and ± 90° (a vertical crack in the same direction as the compression).

    Optical image of a WEC demonstrating the influence of crack angle w.r.t the axis of compression and depth of maximum subsurface shear stresses (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm) on the formation of WEAs. a Areas 1 and 2 show two different orientations of crack propagation, Area 1 shows cracks at an angle θ to the axis of compression along with a vertical crack parallel to the compression axis, and the zones of maximum subsurface shear stresses are also shown. Area 2 shows a vertical crack parallel to the compression axis. b, c show magnified ×500 images of the two areas, respectively. d is a schematic demonstrating the influence of crack orientation angle w.r.t the direction of compression and the associated action of crack rubbing/beating

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    Materials Characterisation

    Steel Cleanliness

    Steel cleanliness analysis was performed under ISO 4967-B standard [48] to measure the density of NMIs in the rollers and raceway washers. Analysis was conducted at the Dr. Sommer Werkstofftechnik GmbH laboratory. An Olympus BX51M optical microscope and software (analysis auto version 5.2 + Inclusion Inspector) was Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen for automatic detection of the inclusion size, type and count. A global severity index (Ci) was given to the inclusions recorded during the analysis. Under the thresholds set by the ISO 4967-B standard, the global cleanliness index Ci was found to be 0.2 and 1.5 for the raceway and roller, respectively. Analysis of the raw cleanliness data (these data including the addition of NMIs recorded outside of the thresholds set by the ISO 4967-B standard) gave global cleanliness index Ci of 35.6 and 344.1 for the raceway and roller, respectively.

    Results

    Contact Surface Inspection

    Wear across the rollers for increasing RCF test durations has been observed on both sides of the central pure rolling region corresponding to the outer and inner zones (see Fig. 5). RCF test durations of 2–12 h showed very little surface damage. The 18-h test showed visible signs of damage on the outer half in the form of dents/impressions, but conversely little surface damage on the inner (see Figs. 4a, 5). Surface analysis of a typical indent using SEM (JEOL JSM-6500F) and optical profilometry (Alicona InfiniteFocusSL) revealed the indent to have a width of ~ 800 μm and maximum depth of ~ 2 μm (see Fig. 4). No signs of spalling were found on the rollers that were subsequently sectioned; however, spalling was observed on other rollers from the same bearing. Figure 5 shows the wear and damage across the 2–18-h rollers. Inspection of the raceway washer sections at 18 h revealed little surface damage. Again wear zones can be seen on either side of the central pure rolling region, see Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen Analysis

    Fine Serial Sectioning

    The results from the fine serial sectioning analysis are described below and are detailed in Table 3.

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    2h

    No WECs or butterflies were recorded.

    6h

    Ten individual WECs were recorded. Eight of these were mapped from start to finish (imaging at every slice), no surface connections being recorded. Through WEC tomography, the 3D morphology of one of the fully mapped WECs (WEC-10 R2) can be seen in Video 1. Five out of eight WECs had their respective images at 500× magnification aligned in strips from start to finish, an example is shown in Fig. 8. Twenty-four butterflies were recorded. Twelve inclusion interactions were recorded (see Figs. 8, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, 9 for examples), 9 inclusions interacting with the 8 fully mapped WECs, with multiple inclusion–WEC interactions being recorded for single WECs, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. Every WEC had at least 1 inclusion–WEC interaction. Small sized (~ 2–15 μm) globular sulphide-oxides (DDup) and globular oxide (D) were the most common inclusions found. All 12 inclusions were evaluated as having either a rank of 1 or 2 (see details about the ranking system in ‘Appendix B’ and Fig. 8). Spatial distributions and depth of inclusion–WEC interactions are shown in Fig. 10.

    18h

    Seventy-eight individual WECs were recorded; no WECs were mapped (see [24] for 3D mapping and orthoslice sweep videos of 18.5-h WECs in their entirety). Sixteen out of seventy-eight WECs made a surface connection or near-surface interaction (< 1 μm below the contact surface); the near-surface interactions show no apparent connection with the contact surface when viewed under optical microscope at 1000× magnification (Fig. 6c). Most surface connections at 18 h have small surface connection/interaction crack volumes (< 1 μm) with short connection lengths with respect to sectioning in the axial direction (a few slice intervals) (see Fig. 6a). This being opposed to some surface connections that span over multiple slices and Multimedia Tools Archives - Page 6 of 8 - MASTERkreatif of microns (see Fig. 6b). A significant number of small individual WEA/WECs were also found in the near-surface zone (< 25 μm), 8700 of these features being recorded (see Fig. 7 for examples) where evidence for the propagation or coalescence of these features was not seen. Fifty inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded, multiple inclusion interactions being found for single WECs. Small sized (~ 2–15 μm) globular sulphide-oxides (DDup) and globular oxides (D) were the most frequent inclusions found to interact, thirty out of fifty inclusions being ranked as either 1 or 2 regarding initiation of WECs; examples are shown in Fig. 9. Spatial distributions and depth of inclusion interactions are presented in Fig. 10, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. Further inclusion–WEC interaction examples from an 18.5-h RCF test can been found in [24]. Sixteen butterflies were recorded.

    Coarse Serial Sectioning

    The results from the coarse serial sectioning analysis are described below and are detailed in Table 3.

    4h

    Through analysis of 3 × rollers only, one WEC (WEC-9 R1) was found, this WEC being comparable (but smaller in size) to the smallest WECs recorded at 6 h. It should also be noted that this WEC could be judged as a butterfly; however, due to the forking nature of the crack tip it is of the authors opinion that this is an extended butterfly or WEC. WEC-9 R1 was subsequently mapped (serial sectioned). No connection to the surface was made. After mapping, standard sectioning resumed. Individual slice images of WEC-9 R1 were aligned in a strip and are shown in Fig. 8. One inclusion–WEC interaction was recorded (see Fig. 8), a small (~ 6 μm) globular Al2O3 (DDup) rank 1 inclusion. Spatial distribution and depth of this inclusion interaction can be seen in Fig. 10. Eleven butterflies were recorded.

    6h

    Coarse serial sectioning was conducted on the same rolling Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen after serial sectioning; WECs had not Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen during fine serial sectioning, cracks continuing to be recorded, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. The total number of WECs equals the sum of WECs not finished during fine serial sectioning plus the coarse serial sectioning. Fourteen individual WECs were recorded, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. No surface connections were recorded. One inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded; this is likely due to the larger sectioning intervals where inclusions may have been missed or removed during sectioning due to their typical small size (~ 2–15 μm). Six butterflies were recorded.

    12h

    Twenty-seven individual WECs were recorded with no surface connections. Eleven inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded, and 12 butterflies, inclusion–WEC interaction spatial distributions are shown in Fig. 10.

    18h

    Coarse serial sectioning was conducted after serial sectioning on the same rolling elements, WECs being recorded as in the case of the 6-h test described above. One hundred and forty-five individual WECs were recorded. Nineteen surface connections were found. Nine inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded; their respective spatial distributions are shown in Fig. 10. Likewise, inclusion–WEC interactions may have been lost due to larger sectioning intervals. Two butterflies were recorded. Also note that the number of near-surface WEA/WECs features recorded through fine serial sectioning significantly decreased in number when going from the outer to the inner roller halves.

    No signs of ‘conventional’ WEC/WEAs were recorded in the raceway washers. However, some fine ‘WEC-like lines’ have been observed in 18.5-h raceway segments [24], but no extensive WECs were found.

    Summary of Sectioning Analysis

    Table 3 and Figs. 12, 13 summarise the combined fine and coarse serial sectioning results. Figure 13 provides the average WEC dimensions for the 2–18-h tests.

    A WEC severity index has been calculated based upon the WEC length in the axial sectioning direction, the radial length of the WEC (maximum depth minus minimum depth) and the maximum WEC span, see Fig. 13. The average severity of WEC formations across 2–18 h (averaged across 3× rolling Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen has been calculated as well as the average severity in individual rollers and the outer and inner halves at 18 h.

    The total WEC damage recorded across roller 1 from the 18-h test has been modelled in 3D. This is to visualise the extent, density and distribution of damage seen typically at the late stages of RCF before failure, see Fig. 11 (see Video 2 for a 2D segmentation, 3D orthoslice sweep through the entire volume of the roller representing each individual WEC recorded across the roller from outer to inner edge). Figure 11a shows an example of an axial slice cross-sectional image of one of the WECs recorded in 18-h R1 that was subsequently segmented in 2D and placed in its relative position in the roller (see Fig. 11b, c). Figure 11d, e, f shows three views of the 3D model.

    WEA Volume Analysis

    Results show the average amount of WEA volume increases with test duration (see Fig. 14a), Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. The total ‘white etching area’ (μm2) when quantifying the WEA at five individual positions within the WEC (see Fig. 3) shows that the 3rd slice (middle zone) of the WEC network has on average the greatest amount of WEA associated (see Fig. 14a). Total WEA volume versus respective WEC axial length for the WECs analysed shows that for an axial crack length over 500 μm a significant increase in total WEA volume exists (see Fig. 14b). Analysis of 5 individual WECs has shown that a greater amount of WEA is associated with a crack that propagates nearer to 0° (perpendicular w.r.t to the axis of compression). Vertically propagating cracks nearer to 90° (parallel to the axis of compression) showing far less WEA (see Fig. 14c).

    Discussion

    RCF Testing

    This study has used contact pressure Pmax at 1.56 GPa to recreate WECs in CRTBs on a FAG-FE8 test rig lubricated with a ‘special’ oil known to promote WSF. It must be taken into account that the FAG-FE8 test rig has differing dynamics to those experienced by WTGBs during service, e.g. the relatively high slip experienced in the CRTBs. However, large slippage can occur during rapid acceleration/deceleration of the shaft in Total Mail Converter Crack v6.1 Method: turbine gearboxes [50] and transient events causing ~ 20–110% SRR in WTGBs [51]. Simulations have revealed that moderate sliding occurs (3–10% SRR) continuously for Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen roller bearings in intermediate shaft locations of the gearbox at roller–raceway interface in the unloaded zone [51].

    Features of WECs

    Near-Surface WEAs/WECs

    Serial sectioning analysis of 18-h rollers revealed a large number of small near-surface (< 25 µm zone) WEC/WEAs (see Fig. 7). These were rarely seen with connection to the contact surface, limited interaction with inclusions, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, and it was also found in cases that there was no apparent presence of a crack; thus, evidence shows that a crack is unnecessary for WEAs to form in this case. These near-surface features were predominantly found in the outer half of the rollers with a decrease in their respective numbers being found across the inner half. The occurrence of these near-surface features has been documented previously by the authors in FAG-FE8 tests [24], hydrogen charged TE-74 two-roller specimens during RCF testing [6] and actual WTGBs from service [1], where rare connection to the contact surface has been found with limited cases of inclusion interaction [6].

    It is hypothesised that the occurrence of these features is a result of either, or a combination of; (1) an increase in traction between contacts at later stages of RCF operation, resulting in a rise of the maximum subsurface shear stress zone towards the surface. This would be significantly increased in the case of insufficient lubrication and Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen surface roughness; (2) microindentations at the contact surface causing local regions of mixed/boundary lubrication regimes increasing the traction coefficient; (3) areas of localised increase in contact pressure, and (4) increase in the concentration of mobile diffusible hydrogen over longer RCF operation [44], where locally at the near-surface, higher localised penetration and concentrations may exist and aid in the acceleration of these features. Figure 15 illustrates the hypothesised mechanisms for the formation of these features.

    WEC Initiation and Evolution

    Analysis has shown that the propensity and average size (see Fig. 13) of WECs recorded in the rollers increase with RCF test duration (see Table 3, and Fig. 12, 13) no WECs being found in the raceway. Two factors to explain this could be: (1) steel cleanliness has shown that Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen raceway is ‘cleaner’ than the roller (see Sect. 2.3.1); (2) a lack of hydrogen being available to accelerate WEC formations [44]; and (3) the raceway is ~ 23% softer (590 HV) than the rollers (765 HV); therefore, the raceway is less prone to cracking due to an increased toughness. The importance of high toughness steel has been highlighted in the reduction in intergranular subsurface cracking and the subsequent movement of crack faces in generating WEA [41]. It is well recognised that hydrogen affects high strength steels, where hydrogen in its atomic mobile form is able to retain its mobility [52]. Hydrogen has, however, been shown to have little influence on toughness and no effect on the hardness of 100Cr6 bearings steel [53]. To confirm the non-existence of WECs in Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen raceway washer, at a later date 9 randomly selected individual sliver sections of raceway were mounted such that the sections were examined in the opposite axial direction (side on instead of top down contact surface direction). Two sections at 100-um intervals were taken and examined through optical microscopy. No evidence of WECs was found.

    No WECs were recorded at 2 h; this could be thought logical due to the short RCF test time. Results show that the number, size and severity of WECs do not increase linearly (see Fig. 12, 13), a ramped increase seen at the later stages of RCF operation (12–18 h). This could be due to WECs coalescing to form larger crack networks resulting in a ‘weakening’ of the surrounding steel accelerating WEC growth, this being heightened in the event of a sufficient threshold concentration of diffusible hydrogen being reached [44]. Variance in severity is also observed between rollers. This highlights the importance of analysing a representative volume of steel. Differences in the severity between outer and inner roller halves at 18 h are also shown, the outer half having a greater severity than the inner.

    Condition monitoring on FAG-FE8 tests [29] has suggested a rapid release of subsurface WECs occurring at ~ 20% outstanding RCF test time before WSF failure. This is proposed to be due to the steel experiencing a failure-free period (no WECs detected), in which energy is absorbed (explained by Barkhausen noise (BN) measurements [54]), a limit being reached with a sudden release of WECs. This failure-free period could be local subsurface transformations that have been observed as ‘crack-free’ dark etching regions suggested to lead to the formation of WEA and subsequently WEC [39]. This investigation shows that WECs do exist during this period before a sudden rupture occurs, ~ 20% outstanding RCF time corresponding to 14.4 h, WECs being recorded between 4 and 12 h.

    When comparing the inclusion–WEC interactions recorded at 4–18 h, the inclusions are: (1) consistent in type and size, typically small/short ~ 2–15 μm DDup or D-type inclusions, (2) the inclusion–WEC interaction depths are within/close to the zones of maximum subsurface shear stress (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm), specifically at the early stages of RCF (4 and 6 h) where initiation is suggested to occur (see Fig. 8), Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, and (3) when visually comparing the inclusion–WEC interactions recorded across 4–18 h, a number of similarities in regard to crack shape/angle and continuity, inclusion type and size, direction of crack propagation and location of inclusion within the WEC network can be observed (see Figs. 9, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, 10, 16), Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. It is therefore proposed that the WECs recorded in this study were formed as a result of WECs that initiated at NMIs in the subsurface, individual WECs propagating and coalescing at later stages of RCF (12–18 h) to form larger WEC networks. It can also be said that the 19 WECs that did make a connection to the contact surface at 18 h are likely formed as a result of subsurface initiation at inclusions. A number of these surface connections/interactions had very small contact crack volumes and connection to the surface over short axial lengths (see Fig. 6a–c); it is proposed that these connections are not sufficient to drive such extensive WEC networks in the subsurface. Note that a number of these surface connections were in fact very near (< 1 μm) surface ‘interactions’ (see Fig. 6c, f), where under optical microscopy no apparent connection to the contact surface was observed. Further evidence for subsurface initiation comes from the fact that for the 9 fully mapped subsurface WECs at 4 and 6 h, each WEC had at least one or multiple inclusion–WEC interactions. Additional evidence to support subsurface initiation of WECs by NMIs is shown through the visual comparison of typical recorded WECs across the 4–18-h tests (see Fig. 16). As it can be seen the initial shape and propagation route of WECs at 4 and 6 h follow a close link to those WECs recorded at 12 and 18 h, this is in conjunction with the fact that the inclusion–WEC interactions are also closely linked by the similarities discussed above. At 4 and 6 h, WECs are found to initially resemble butterfly cracks, which propagate into ‘star-like’ cracks with forking of the butterfly crack tips. This ‘star-like’ crack shape can be seen to fit a number of the WECs found at 12 and 18 h as shown in Fig. 16. It is thus proposed that the WECs recorded at 4 and 6 h are the early initiation stages of WECs that subsequently propagate and evolve into the large WEC networks recorded at 18 h. The proposed evolutionary stages of WEC initiation are shown in Fig. 16g.

    The outer and inner roller halves have shown to significantly influence the propensity and size of WEC formations, the outer half being dominant over the inner (see Table 3, Figs. 11, 12, 13 and Video 2). Slip has been shown to influence the formation of WECs in both FAG-FE8 and three ring roller micropitting rig (MPR) tests using the same ‘special’ oil known used in this study [29, 55, 56], where evidence for the influence of negative slip being more dominant in WSF over positive slip is provided [56]. More recently the influence of slip on WEC formations has also been shown in a two-disc test rig set-up, where again negative slip showed dominance in WEC production in contrast to positive [57]. This dominance has been attributed to higher material stressing, lowered fracture mechanic properties under alternating load and preferential surface crack propagation due to the traction force and surface motion vectors pointing in the same direction in negative slip as opposed to positive [57]. It is proposed that negative slip results in the compressive closure of cracks enhancing the crack rubbing mechanism for WEA formation [56], Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. The localisation of the WECs recorded across 4–18 h is more densely populated in the 2–3 mm (outer) and 8–9 mm (inner) zones across the roller (see Fig. 12, Video 2). These zones correspond to areas of high slip energy (PVmax, the product of contact pressure P and slip velocity V, MPa ms−1, see Fig. 12), slip energy taking into account asperity contact (PcV value which takes into account the asperity contact pressure Pc) and asperity friction accumulation ea,c max which relates the regeneration time span between consecutive contact load cycles on tested WEC lives and the specific frictional energy input into the a surface during the contact load cycle [58]. Slip energy criteria have been linked to WSF, WSF occurring at areas of greatest PVmax. These areas have also been found to coincide with zones of highest concentrations of hydrogen [50, 59, 60]. Supporting evidence for the slip energy criterion has been shown on FAG-FE8 tests where WECs appeared firstly at areas of high frictional energy, this also being demonstrated in tests using angular contact ball bearings [29, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, 58]. A number of inclusion–WEC interactions were also recorded during fine serial sectioning Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen to the 2–3-mm zone of high slip energy dissipation and asperity accumulation (see Fig. 10). Further progression of the slip energy criteria concept has been developed based upon information from different test rigs, using normal contact load and representing the slip energy criteria per film thickness sheared (N V/λ, N ms−1) to determine a threshold for WEC formation in most roller bearing configurations [21, 61]. It is postulated that this threshold could exist due to the fact that sliding energy generates local flash temperatures influencing the tribochemical reactions taking place at nascent surfaces [62]. Limitations, however, do exist as this criterion does not take into account the lubricant formulation. Evidence for the degree of boundary lubrication (the range of λ) controlling the propensity for WEC formation is also suggested, more WECs forming for more severe boundary regimes (λ in the range of 0.06–0.7) [56]. No WECs were found in the raceway washers, with no evidence of WEC formations being observed in the zones corresponding to high slip energy dissipation or asperity friction accumulation, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. It is noted that the asperity friction energy accumulation is greater in the washers than the rollers, where energy dissipation is greater in the inner raceway than the outer (see Fig. 6, [58]). This is contradictory to the result seen in this study, this discrepancy not being understood.

    WEA Volume

    Metallographic analysis has shown that the volume of WEA associated with cracks increases for longer RCF test operation. Through quantitative WEA analysis, the average WEA volume (μm3) and area (μm2) associated with cracks increased between 4 and 18 h, a ramped increase found between 12 and 18 h (see Fig. 14a). Analysis also reveals that for greater axial WEC lengths a significant increase in the associated WEA volume is found (Fig. 14b). It is proposed that the evidence found in this study supports the theory of crack rubbing/beating in the formation of WEAs [36]. As WECs grow and propagate during RCF operation, further crack rubbing/beating occurs at the newly formed crack faces, larger cracks having a greater amount of ‘free’ crack faces available for extended crack rubbing/beating to occur. This can also be exhibited in Fig. 16 where it can be seen that the amount of WEA associated with Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen cracks increases across 4–18 h, an increase being observed between 12 and 18 h. Further to this, by visually observing the mapped WECs at 4 and 6 h (see Fig. 8) a decrease in WEA volume is seen at the start and ends of the WEC, i.e. the extreme tips when visualised as a 3D network. Taking for example the 6-h WEC in Fig. 8, where it is proposed that the inclusion is the site of initiation; it can be seen that the volume of WEA is greater around the inclusion site (see Fig. 8g) than at the end ‘tips’ where branching/forking has occurred (final stages of propagation) where it is proposed that less time has been available for crack rubbing/beating. This is also exhibited in two videos through serial sectioning of an 18.5-h FAG-FE8 test previously conducted by the authors [24]. This point is strengthened through WEA analysis where it has shown that the average amount of WEA (μm2) is less at the tips (1st (start) and 5th (end) measurements) than at the centre (3rd (middle) measurement) (see Fig. 14a). As discussed, a large number of near-surface WEA/WECs were recorded at 18 h (see Table 3, Fig. 7). A number of these features were found not associated with a crack, leading to the conclusion that near-surface WEAs do not seem to require a crack to form WEA. However, note that in this study only optical microscopy has been used in the classification of WEAs associated with cracks, further analysis using SEM to confirm the non-existence of small cracks that may be present inside the WEA regions should be conducted.

    Through metallographic analysis, it is indicated that the angle of crack propagation, crack width and zone of maximum subsurface shear stresses can influence the degree of WEA generated. WEA analysis has shown that the amount of WEA associated with a crack increases the nearer to 0° or perpendicular to the axis of compression a crack propagates (see Fig. 14c). A vertical crack ± 90° parallel to the axis of compression is found to have very little WEA associated (see Fig. 14c). This is also exhibited clearly in the 18-h crack shown in Fig. 17. As suggested Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen others [36], it is proposed that a vertically Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen crack will be subjected to a much lesser amount of crack rubbing. The localisation of strain has been found to be strongly reliant on crack orientation in relation to stress [63]. High strain rate compressive tests have shown regions of WEA [64], this being in comparison with equivalent tensile tests; as a result it is proposed that crack rubbing/beating under RCF shear stresses or compressive loading results in WEA formations and thus adiabatic shearing is an unlikely cause [65]. The crack width also appears to influence WEA formations. For example, in Fig. 18 it is seen that very little or no WEAs are associated with sections (Area 1) of the WEC that have large crack width when compared to crack faces that are close together (Area 2). It is proposed that for adjacent crack faces that are further apart, less action is available for crack rubbing/beating. This is not to say, however, that these particular areas of the WEC network would have not been associated with WEAs at some point during operation. The proposed mechanism (see Fig. 18) to explain this is as follows: (1) inclusion initiation of butterfly and ‘star-like’ WECs with subsequent generation of WEAs due to crack rubbing/beating. (2) WECs propagate and WEAs continue to develop. (3) Short crack growth from inclusions/butterflies by Mode I loading [66] stops and further growth is governed by Mode II/III shear loading if the Mode II/III stress intensity factor threshold is surpassed [66], WECs may propagate and coalesce to form larger networks. Until a critical length is 4U WMA MP3.Converter v6.2.6 crack serial keygen, crack growth rate may be slow, where once exceeded rapid propagation results under applied stress. (4) Due to the rapid growth of the crack and crack volume, the time and action available for WEA development is alleviated and thus a reduction or non-existent presence of WEA is seen, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. In the event of hydrogen diffusion, hydrogen acts to decrease the Mode I/II stress limits for crack growth and propagation [66, 67], it may be reasoned that this step increase in WEC formations is due to a threshold concentration of hydrogen being reached for a decrease in Mode II crack growth [44].

    Optical image of a WEC demonstrating the influence of crack width on the generation of WEAs. Area 1 shows a large crack width, and Area 2 shows a small crack width, with respective magnified optical images. The proposed mechanism for the development of WEA w.r.t crack width is shown. Over-rolling (OR) direction left to right

    Full size image

    Analysis also indicates that the zone of maximum subsurface shear stresses influences WEA generation. This is most clearly exhibited in WECs recorded at 18 h. For example, WEC-2 R1 in Fig. 17 shows that a greater amount of WEA exists within and in the regions around the zone of maximum subsurface shear stresses (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm).

    Inclusion–WEC Interactions and Steel Cleanliness

    Eighty-two NMIs were recorded during the metallographic analysis; 62 were ranked with a high likelihood of WEC initiation (rank 1 or 2). Most inclusions were found to be small sized (~ 2–15 μm (diameter) and ~ 4–21 μm in axial length) globular duplex inclusions (globular manganese and/or calcium sulphide surrounding aluminate) (DDup) and globular oxide inclusions (D). At the early infant stages of WEC formation (4 and 6 h), DDup and D-type inclusions were found to interact with the WECs, EDX analysis of inclusions at these stages being either Al2O3 or MnS surrounding Al2O3. Inclusion types found to interact with the large WEC networks found at the later stages of RCF duration (18 h) are consistent with those found at the early infant stages. This agrees with the findings found from the 18.5-h RCF test in [24] that found 49 NMIs and 41 rank 1 or 2 NMIs in 5 fully mapped WECs, these predominantly being small sized (~ 2–15 μm) DDup,DDupTi(C,N) and D-type inclusions. The oxide encapsulations are responsible for hardness discrepancy with the martensite matrix, induced tensile residual stresses due to differing coefficients of thermal expansion and weak coherence/de-bonding of the oxide and matrix [9, 68, 69]. The majority of the inclusion–WEC interactions were recorded at a depth of ~ 50–200 μm, this being consistent with the depth of high subsurface shear stresses (τ0, max = 92 μm, τuni, max = 145 μm) (see Fig. 10).

    Steel cleanliness analysis indicates that the raceway is ‘cleaner’ than the rollers (Ci = 1.5 (standard) and Ci = 344.1 (non-standard) for the rollers and (Ci = 0.2 (standard) and Ci = 35.6 (non-standard) for the raceway). The ‘cleaner’ raceway would therefore have fewer inclusions available to initiate cracks, which could explain why no WECs were recorded. The lower cleanliness and therefore greater density of inclusions in the rollers would also lead to an increased propensity for WECs to initiate and coalesce to form more extensive networks, this being elevated if inclusions lie in critical locations. It is important to note the significant increase in Ci when only counting inclusions recorded under the thresholds set by the ISO 4967-B standard [48] and when counting inclusions recorded outside of these domains; however, the ratio difference in cleanliness between the roller and raceway remains similar. Small/short inclusions have been found to be dominant in initiating and interacting with WECs. Thresholds set by the standard do not factor in these small/short inclusions, comparisons of the Ci highlighting the potential limitations of the standard when considering steels used in WTGBs. These limitations are currently being investigated and will be presented in a future study by the authors.

    Conclusions

    1. 1.

      Metallographic analysis has been used to map white etching crack (WEC) damage in RCF-tested bearings in standard 100Cr6 steel. For the first time, this study has captured the evolution of WEC formation, using serial sectioning methods to investigate the formation mechanisms of WECs in FAG-FE8-tested bearings under non-hydrogen charged conditions.

    2. 2.

      From the characteristics, location and apparent evolution of WECs over the increasing test durations, macro- and serial sectioning has enabled further verification of the author’s original revelations that (1) WECs can initiate and propagate entirely within the subsurface and (2) the frequent interaction with small/short inclusions Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen indicates that WECs can often be initiated by non-metallic inclusions. The inclusion interactions are ~ 2–15 μm in the circumferential direction, and ~ 4–21 μm in axial length, being globular sulphides (Dsulf), globular duplex inclusions (globular manganese and/or calcium sulphide surrounding aluminate) (DDup) and globular oxide inclusions (D). DDup and D-type inclusions are found to interact with the WECs at the early infant stages of WEC formation, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, inclusions being either Al2O3 or MnS surrounding Al2O3. Inclusion types found to interact with large WEC networks found at the later stages of RCF duration are consistent with those found at the early infant stages. The cleanliness of the roller and raceway were found to be significantly different, the rollers having a much lower cleanliness than the raceway, which may help explain why no WECs were found in the raceway sections. 

    3. 3.

      Detailed analysis of WEC characteristics across the test durations, such as quantification of the amount of WEA microstructural change associated with the WECs over the test durations, and also within certain planes of the WEC, has provided supporting evidence for the crack being a prerequisite to WEA, where a possible mechanism for this is crack face rubbing. Conversely to this mechanism, in the samples exposed to most test duration, numerous small very near-surface WEAs were also found without any visible crack; thus, evidently the formation of the microstructural change to WEA does not require the presence of a crack, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. Further analysis including SEM should be carried out, however, to also confirm the non-existence of small cracks associated with WEA as only light optical microscopy has been used in this study.

    4. 4.

      An interesting finding is a heterogeneous distribution of WEC formation occurred in the bearing rollers, most WECs forming in a relatively limited zone corresponding to where the largest energy dissipation occurs, agreeing with recent literature observations.

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    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    A Crack in Everything

    Life used to be simple.

    I was a city girl with humble dreams. Then Dylan O’Dea broke into my flat, held me against the wall and told me to stay quiet.
    It was like in the movies, where the universe zeros in on a single scene. I looked into his eyes and knew he was going to change me.

    For Dylan, the sky was always falling. He showed me how our world is a contradiction of beautyLife used to be simple.

    I was a city girl with humble dreams. Then Dylan O’Dea broke into my flat, held me against the wall and told me to stay quiet.
    It was like in the movies, where the universe zeros in on a single scene. I looked into his eyes and knew he was going to change me.

    For Dylan, the sky was always falling. He showed me how our world is a contradiction of beauty and ugliness. How we choose to ignore the awful and gloss over it with the palatable. How you need just a tiny drop of something unsavoury to create every great scent.

    Pretty deep for a pair of teenagers living in a block of council flats in inner city Dublin, right? Probably. But we weren’t typical. We both had our obsessions. Mine was growing things, Dylan’s was scent. He taught me how to use my nose, and I introduced him to the magic of flowers.

    I had no idea that one day he’d build an empire from what we started together. But before that, there was love and happiness, tragedy and epic heartbreak…

    My name is Evelyn Flynn and I’m going to tell you about the crack in everything.

    A Crack in Everything is Book #1 in L.H. Cosway’s Cracks duet.more

    Paperback, 1st edition, 260 pages

    Published January 13th 2018 Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen by CreateSpace

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Download PDF



    Download Bunt w Sobiborze free book PDF

    Author: Joseph Bialowitz, Philip Bialowitz 288
    Pages: W Polsce temat Holokaustu oraz postawy Polakow wobec Zydow wywoluje nadal silne emocje, czego przykladem byla debata nad "Strachem" Jana T. Grossa.
    "Bunt w Sobiborze" wpisuje sie w te dyskusje w szczegolny sposob. Podczas gdy "Strach" opieral sie na interpretacji zrodel historycznych, niniejsza publikacja jest relacja naocznego swiadka. Philip Bialowitz opisuje sytuacje Zydow w Polsce, poczawszy od okresu przedwojennego, przez okupacje, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, po okres tuz po wojnie. Autor daje nam jej przekrojowy obraz, oparty na doswiadczeniach wlasnego zycia. I nie jest to obraz czarno-bialy. Polacy w tej relacji potrafia zarowno zdobyc sie na bohaterstwo, jak i wykazac sie okrucienstwem wobec zydowskich sasiadow.
    Najbardziej przerazajacym fragmentem ksiazki jest opis zycia w obozie zaglady w Sobiborze. Rowniez tutaj poznajemy inna wersje historii: dowiadujemy sie, ze Zydzi nie chcieli godzic sie na pokorna smierc.
    W pazdzierniku 1943 roku Philip Bialowitz uczestniczyl w buncie wiezniow. Uzbrojeni w noze, zabili esesmanow, wczesniej zwabionych do pomieszczen gospodarczych, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen. Blisko szesciuset wiezniow podjelo probe ucieczki. Sporo z nich zginelo od kul ukrainskich straznikow czy tez forsujac ogrodzenia i pole minowe. Ucieklo 200 Zydow, Butterflies of the World Volume 2 crack serial keygen, z ktorych wyzwolenia doczekalo zaledwie 47. Po powstaniu wiezniow Niemcy zdecydowali sie na likwidacje obozu. Jego teren calkowicie zniszczono.
    Philip Bialowitz to bardzo silny glos sumienia ludzkosci, a jego ksiazka stanowi unikalne swiadectwo prawdy o najciemniejszym okresie historii.
    Wladyslaw Bartoszewski
    Historia bohatera to historia Zydow i zydowskiego ducha. Dazenie do przetrwania, do odbudowy, do tego aby pomoc choc jeszcze jednemu czlowiekowi. Ksiazka Philipa Bialowitza zainspiruje kazdego, gdyz ukazuje nie tylko jego osobista walke o przetrwanie, lecz takze co oznaczalo byc czlowiekiem w czasie, kiedy tak trudno bylo o czlowieczenstwo.
    Michael Schudrich, Naczelny Rabin Polski
    W 2002 r. przyjechalem do Sobiboru. Byl wieczor. Padal snieg, bialy puch przykryl las i oboz. Szescdziesiat lat wczesniej w tym przekletym miejscu krew zmieszala sie ze lzami.
    Paul Celan, zydowski poeta, napisal, ze po wojnie Europa stala sie wielkim jeziorem zastyglej krwi. Sobibor byl czescia tego jeziora. Philip Bialowitz, ktory ocalal z obozu, w swojej ksiazce opowiada o powrocie z piekla. Przetrwal, przezyl, mowi do nas. Pamieta o tym, czego nie da sie zapomniec.

    Szewach Weiss, profesor nauk politycznych, Uniwersytet Warszawski, byly ambasador Izraela w Polsce


    Swiadectwo Philipa Bialowitza, ocalalego z obozu zaglady w Sobiborze, ma niezwykla wage ze wzgledu na wydarzenia, ktore przywoluje. Jednak tym, co czyni ksiazke tak wyjatkowa, sa osobowosc autora i jego talent narracyjny.
    Dzieki opowiesci Bialowitza kolejne pokolenia beda sie mogly zmierzyc z odwiecznymi dylematami, przed jakimi staje czlowiek wobec szalenstwa, ktore tkwi w ludziach gotowych do zadawania smierci bliznim.

    Jan T. Gross, profesor historii, Princetown University

    O autorze:

    Philip Bialowitz urodzil sie w Izbicy. Jest jednym z osmiu zyjacych sposrod ocalonych z nazistowskiego obozu zaglady w Sobiborze.
    W 1987 roku byl konsultantem podczas realizacji filmu "Ucieczka z Sobiboru". Czesto wyglasza odczyty w synagogach i szkolach w Ameryce Polnocnej, m.in. w Stanford University, The University of Wisconsin - Madison oraz Madison JCC.

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